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Subcategories:History/traditions: Public Health

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  1. The Pandemic Dilemma: When Philosophy Conflicts with Public Health.Dien ho - 2022 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 31 (1):1-3.
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  2. Institutional Responsibility is Prior to Personal Responsibility in a Pandemic.Ben Davies & Julian Savulescu - forthcoming - Journal of Value Inquiry:1-20.
    On 26 January 2021, while announcing that the country had reached the mark of 100,000 deaths within 28 days of COVID-19, UK Prime Minister Boris Johnson said that he took “full responsibility for everything that the Government has done” as part of British efforts to tackle the pandemic. The force of this statement was undermined, however, by what followed: -/- What I can tell you is that we truly did everything we could, and continue to do everything that we can, (...)
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  3. The Ethics of Killing in a Pandemic: Unintentional Virus Transmission, Reciprocal Risk Imposition, and Standards of Blame.Jeremy Davis - forthcoming - Journal of Applied Philosophy.
    The COVID-19 global pandemic has shone a light on several important ethical questions, ranging from fairness in resource allocation to the ethical justification of government mandates. In addition to these institutional issues, there are also several ethical questions that arise at the interpersonal level. This essay focuses on several of these issues. In particular, I argue that, despite the insistence in public health messaging that avoiding infecting others constitutes ‘saving lives’, virus transmission that results in death constitutes an act of (...)
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  4. How to Engage in Practices of Critique? From a Universal Conception of the Good Life to the Contestation of Universals.Annemarije Hagen - 2019 - Krisis 39 (1):2-14.
    Critical social theories examine social arrangements from the point of view of the obstacles that these structures pose to human flourishing, with the purpose of bringing about social change for the better. In this article, I contest the idea that these changes have to be guided by an idea of the good society. I argue that actual struggles are not guided by abstract ethical representations of the good life, but more negatively, by contestation of the limits of articulated universals by (...)
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  5. Pandemic Preparedness and Cooperative Justice.Cristian Timmermann - 2021 - Developing World Bioethics 21 (4):201-210.
    By examining the global public good nature of pandemic preparedness we can identify key social justice issues that need to be confronted to increase citizens’ voluntary compliance with prevention and mitigation measures. As people tend to cooperate on a voluntary basis only with systems they consider fair, it becomes difficult to ensure compliance with public health measures in a context of extreme inequality. Among the major inequalities that need to be addressed we can find major differences in the extensiveness and (...)
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  6. Priority, Ethical Principle, and Allocation of Scarce Medical Resources. Di Wu - 2021 - Studies in Dialectics of Nature 11 (37):62-68.
    Aiming at the allocation of scarce medical resources, Immanuel and other scholars have put forward a set of influential ethical values and guiding principles. It assigns the priority of resource allocation to those whose lives can be saved and maximized, those who can bring the greatest instrumental value, and those who are the worse off. For other members of society, random selection under the same conditions is adopted. Following the Rawlsian "lexical order, lexicographical" rule, this priority arrangement requires that the (...)
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  7. An Ethical Analysis of Vaccinating Children Against COVID-19: Benefits, Risks, and Issues of Global Health Equity [Version 2; Peer Review: 1 Approved, 1 Approved with Reservations].Rachel Gur-Arie, Steven R. Kraaijeveld & Euzebiusz Jamrozik - forthcoming - Wellcome Open Research.
    COVID-19 vaccination of children has begun in various high-income countries with regulatory approval and general public support, but largely without careful ethical consideration. This trend is expected to extend to other COVID-19 vaccines and lower ages as clinical trials progress. This paper provides an ethical analysis of COVID-19 vaccination of healthy children. Specifically, we argue that it is currently unclear whether routine COVID-19 vaccination of healthy children is ethically justified in most contexts, given the minimal direct benefit that COVID-19 vaccination (...)
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  8. When is Lockdown Justified?Lucie White, Philippe van Basshuysen & Mathias Frisch - manuscript
    How could the initial, drastic decisions to implement “lockdowns” to control the spread of COVID-19 infections be justifiable, when they were made on the basis of such uncertain evidence? We defend the imposition of lockdowns in some countries by first, and focusing on the UK, looking at the evidence that undergirded the decision, second, arguing that this provided us with sufficient grounds to restrict liberty given the circumstances, and third, defending the use of poorly-empirically-constrained epidemiological models as tools that can (...)
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  9. Medicine’s Metaphysical Morass: How Confusion About Dualism Threatens Public Health.Diane O’Leary - 2020 - Synthese 2020 (December):1977-2005.
    What position on dualism does medicine require? Our understanding of that ques- tion has been dictated by holism, as defined by the biopsychosocial model, since the late twentieth century. Unfortunately, holism was characterized at the start with con- fused definitions of ‘dualism’ and ‘reductionism’, and that problem has led to a deep, unrecognized conceptual split in the medical professions. Some insist that holism is a nonreductionist approach that aligns with some form of dualism, while others insist it’s a reductionist view (...)
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  10. Principlist Pandemics: On Fraud Ethical Guidelines and the Importance of Transparency.Jonathan Lewis & Udo Schuklenk - forthcoming - In Michael Boylan (ed.), Ethical Public Health Policy Within Pandemics. Cham: Springer.
    The COVID-19 pandemic has coincided with the proliferation of ethical guidance documents to assist public health authorities, health care providers, practitioners and staff with responding to ethical challenges posed by the pandemic. Like ethical guidelines relating to infectious disease that have preceded them, what unites many COVID-19 guidance documents is their dependency on an under-developed approach to bioethical principlism, a normative framework that attempts to guide actions based on a list of prima facie, unranked ethical principles. By situating them in (...)
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  11. Responsible Nudging for Social Good: New Healthcare Skills for AI-Driven Digital Personal Assistants.Marianna Capasso & Steven Umbrello - forthcoming - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy:1-12.
    Traditional medical practices and relationships are changing given the widespread adoption of AI-driven technologies across the various domains of health and healthcare. In many cases, these new technologies are not specific to the field of healthcare. Still, they are existent, ubiquitous, and commercially available systems upskilled to integrate these novel care practices. Given the widespread adoption, coupled with the dramatic changes in practices, new ethical and social issues emerge due to how these systems nudge users into making decisions and changing (...)
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  12. Can One Both Contribute to and Benefit From Herd Immunity?Lucie White - 2021 - Erasmus Journal for Philosophy and Economics 14 (2).
    In a recent article, Ethan Bradley and Mark Navin (2021) argue that vaccine refusal is not akin to free riding. Here, I defend one connection between vaccine refusal and free riding and suggest that, when viewed in conjunction with their other arguments, this might constitute a reason to mandate Covid-19 vaccination.
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  13. Ethics, Homelessness and The Artes Liberales/Artes Serviles Distinction.Rashad Rehman - 2020 - In John Abbarno (ed.), The Ethics of Homelessness ed. John Abbarno. Leiden, NV: Brill, 2020. Leiden, Netherlands: pp. 429-447.
    It is a relatively uncontroversial proposition that without “ethics,” an “ethics of homelessness” is impossible. What is less uncontroversial, though, is that philosophy—or at least philosophical analysis—is a necessary condition of ethical discourse. The distrust—or skepticism regarding the utility of— philosophical analysis is predicated on rendering philosophy as useless. This, though, should create a sense of cognitive dissonance, since we universally acknowledge that ethics informs how we interact with ourselves and others, while we also accept, and rightly so, the uselessness (...)
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  14. Tobacco Control Politics in Bangladesh.Md Mahmudul Hoque - 2016 - Dissertation,
    Despite having a set of well-intended tobacco control policies since 2003, the production and consumption of tobacco in Bangladesh have increased. This paper explains why the tobacco control policies in Bangladesh failed to deliver their intended outcomes. Using a combined framework of political economy and policy implementation analysis, this study examines the information collected from primary and secondary sources. Based on the findings, the paper argues that the game of interests among the stakeholders have made the state institutions inactive and (...)
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  15. A New Era of Queer Politics? PrEP, Foucauldian Sexual Liberation, and the Overcoming of Homonormativity.Schubert Karsten - forthcoming - Body Politics.
    Gay men have been severely affected by the AIDS crisis, and gay subjectivity, sexual ethics, and politics continue to be deeply influenced by HIV to this day. PrEP (Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis) is a new, drug-based HIV prevention technique, that allows disentangling gay sex from its widespread, 40 yearlong association with illness and death. This article explores PrEP’s fundamental impact on gay subjectivity, sexual ethics, and politics. It traces the genealogy of gay politics regarding homophobia and HIV stigma, suggesting a new biopolitical (...)
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  16. Flesh Without Blood: The Public Health Argument for Synthetic Meat.Jonathan Anomaly, Diana Fleischman, Heather Browning & Walter Veit - manuscript
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  17. Detached From Humanity: Artificial Gestation and the Christian Dilemma.Daniel Rodger & Bruce P. Blackshaw - forthcoming - Christian Bioethics.
    The development of artificial womb technology is proceeding rapidly and will present important ethical and theological challenges for Christians. While there has been extensive secular discourse on artificial wombs in recent years, there has been little Christian engagement with this topic. There are broadly two primary uses of artificial womb technology—ectogestation as a form of enhanced neonatal care, where some of the gestation period takes place in an artificial womb, and ectogenesis, where the entire gestation period is within an artificial (...)
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  18. Health Care Ethics Programs in U.S. Hospitals: Results From a National Survey.Christopher C. Duke, Anita Tarzian, Ellen Fox & Marion Danis - 2021 - BMC Medical Ethics 22 (1):1-14.
    BackgroundAs hospitals have grown more complex, the ethical concerns they confront have grown correspondingly complicated. Many hospitals have consequently developed health care ethics programs that include far more than ethics consultation services alone. Yet systematic research on these programs is lacking.MethodsBased on a national, cross-sectional survey of a stratified sample of 600 US hospitals, we report on the prevalence, scope, activities, staffing, workload, financial compensation, and greatest challenges facing HCEPs.ResultsAmong 372 hospitals whose informants responded to an online survey, 97% of (...)
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  19. Withholding Information to Protect a Loved One.Todd J. Kilbaugh, Daniel Groll, Nabina Liebow, Wynne Morrison & John D. Lantos - 2016 - Pediatrics 6 (136).
    Parents respond to the death of a child in very different ways. Some parents may be violent or angry, some sad and tearful, some quiet and withdrawn, and some frankly delusional. We present a case in which a father’s reaction to his daughter’s death is a desire to protect his wife from the stressful information. The wife is in the second trimester of a high-risk pregnancy and so is particularly fragile. We asked pediatricians and bioethicists to discuss the ways in (...)
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  20. Comprehension of Informed Consent for Research: Issues and Directions for Future Study.Harvey A. Taub - 1986 - IRB: Ethics & Human Research 8 (6):7.
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  21. L’allocazione delle risorse sanitarie durante la pandemia da Covid-19: un’analisi comparativa dei documenti della SIAARTI e del CNB.Davide Battisti, Luca Marelli, Mario Picozzi, Massimo Reichlin & Virginia Sanchini - 2021 - Notizie di Politeia 141:25-45.
    In Italy, during the first wave of the Covid-19 pandemic, the Italian Society of Resuscitators and Pain Therapists (SIAARTI) and the Italian National Bioethics Committee (CNB) published ethical guidance on the allocation of scarce intensive care resources. In this paper, we outline and compare these documents in detail, highlighting differences and similarities. In particular, we argue that major differences exist with respect to the principles and values underpinning the documents and the normative allocation criteria proposed. Conversely, similarities can be traced (...)
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  22. Jan Peter Verhave. A Constant State of Emergency: Paul de Kruif: Microbe Hunter and Health Activist. (Historical Series of the Reformed Church in America, 98.) Xxii + 656 Pp., Figs., Bibl., Index. Holland, Mich.: Van Raalte Press, 2020. $35 (Paper); ISBN 9781950572069. [REVIEW]Daniel J. Wilson - 2021 - Isis 112 (1):200-201.
  23. Against Personal Ventilator Reallocation.Joel Michael Reynolds, Laura Guidry-Grimes & Katie Savin - 2020 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 30 (2):272-284.
    The COVID-19 pandemic has led to intense conversations about ventilator allocation and reallocation during a crisis standard of care. Multiple voices in the media and multiple state guidelines mention reallocation as a possibility. Drawing upon a range of neuroscientific, phenomenological, ethical, and sociopolitical considerations, the authors argue that taking away someone’s personal ventilator is a direct assault on their bodily and social integrity. They conclude that personal ventilators should not be part of reallocation pools and that triage protocols should be (...)
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  24. If Fetuses Are Persons, Abortion is a Public Health Crisis.Bruce Blackshaw & Daniel Rodger - 2021 - Bioethics 35 (5):465-472.
    Pro-life advocates commonly argue that fetuses have the moral status of persons, and an accompanying right to life, a view most pro-choice advocates deny. A difficulty for this pro-life position has been Judith Jarvis Thomson’s violinist analogy, in which she argues that even if the fetus is a person, abortion is often permissible because a pregnant woman is not obliged to continue to offer her body as life support. Here, we outline the moral theories underlying public health ethics, and examine (...)
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  25. Field Notes.Nancy Berlinger - 2011 - Hastings Center Report 41 (5):i-i.
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  26. Privacy Versus Public Health? A Reassessment of Centralised and Decentralised Digital Contact Tracing.Lucie White & Philippe van Basshuysen - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (2):1-13.
    At the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, high hopes were placed on digital contact tracing. Digital contact tracing apps can now be downloaded in many countries, but as further waves of COVID-19 tear through much of the northern hemisphere, these apps are playing a less important role in interrupting chains of infection than anticipated. We argue that one of the reasons for this is that most countries have opted for decentralised apps, which cannot provide a means of rapidly informing users (...)
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  27. So Who Cares? Taking Livingston Out of Africa.Christopher Hamlin - 2020 - Isis 111 (4):805-808.
  28. Emerging From Lockdown - What Went Wrong?Philippe van Basshuysen & Lucie White - manuscript
    As many Western countries emerged from initial periods of lockdown in spring 2020, they had brought COVID-19 infection rates down significantly. This was followed, however, with more drastic second and third waves of viral spread, which many of these same countries are struggling to bring under control, even with the implementation of further periods of lockdown. Could this have been prevented by policymakers? We revisit two strategies that were focus of much discussion during the early stages of the pandemic, and (...)
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  29. Science and Policy in Extremis: The UK’s Initial Response to COVID-19.Jonathan Birch - 2021 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 11 (3):90.
    Drawing on the SAGE minutes and other documents, I consider the wider lessons for norms of scientific advising that can be learned from the UK’s initial response to coronavirus in the period January-March 2020, when an initial strategy that planned to avoid total suppression of transmission was abruptly replaced by an aggressive suppression strategy. I introduce a distinction between “normatively light advice”, in which no specific policy option is recommended, and “normatively heavy advice” that does make an explicit recommendation. I (...)
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  30. Clinical Reasoning: Knowledge, Uncertainty, and Values in Health Care.Daniele Chiffi - 2020 - Cham: Springer.
    This book offers a philosophically-based, yet clinically-oriented perspective on current medical reasoning aiming at 1) identifying important forms of uncertainty permeating current clinical reasoning and practice 2) promoting the application of an abductive methodology in the health context in order to deal with those clinical uncertainties 3) bridging the gap between biomedical knowledge, clinical practice, and research and values in both clinical and philosophical literature. With a clear philosophical emphasis, the book investigates themes lying at the border between several disciplines, (...)
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  31. Why Should HCWs Receive Priority Access to Vaccines in a Pandemic?Xavier Symons, Steve Matthews & Bernadette Tobin - 2021 - BMC Medical Ethics 22 (1):1-9.
    BackgroundViral pandemics present a range of ethical challenges for policy makers, not the least among which are difficult decisions about how to allocate scarce healthcare resources. One important question is whether healthcare workers should receive priority access to a vaccine in the event that an effective vaccine becomes available. This question is especially relevant in the coronavirus pandemic with governments and health authorities currently facing questions of distribution of COVID-19 vaccines.Main textIn this article, we critically evaluate the most common ethical (...)
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  32. Implementing U.S. Covid-19 Testing: Regulatory and Infrastructural Challenges.Yongtian Tina Tan & Aaron S. Kesselheim - 2020 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 48 (3):608-612.
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  33. Legal “Tug-of-Wars” During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Public Health V. Economic Prosperity.James G. Hodge, Sarah Wetter, Emily Carey, Elyse Pendergrass, Claudia M. Reeves & Hanna Reinke - 2020 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 48 (3):603-607.
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  34. Designing Policy Solutions to Build a Healthier Rural America.Sameer Vohra, Carolyn Pointer, Amanda Fogleman, Thomas Albers, Anish Patel & Elizabeth Weeks - 2020 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 48 (3):491-505.
    Disparities exist in the health, livelihood, and opportunities for the 46-60 million people living in America’s rural communities. Rural communities across the United States need a new energy and focus concentrated around health and health care that allows for the designing capturing, and spreading of existing and new innovations. This paper aims to provide a framework for policy solutions to build a healthier rural America describing both the current state of rural health policy and the policies and practices in states (...)
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  35. Decision-Making Capacity.Jennifer Hawkins & Louis C. Charland - 2020 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Decision-Making Capacity First published Tue Jan 15, 2008; substantive revision Fri Aug 14, 2020 In many Western jurisdictions the law presumes that adult persons, and sometimes children that meet certain criteria, are capable of making their own medical decisions; for example, consenting to a particular medical treatment, or consenting to participate in a research trial. But what exactly does it mean to say that a subject has or lacks the requisite capacity to decide? This question has to do with what (...)
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  36. Your Health Vs. My Liberty: Philosophical Beliefs Dominated Reflection and Identifiable Victim Effects When Predicting Public Health Recommendation Compliance During the COVID-19 Pandemic.Nick Byrd & Michał Białek - 2021 - Cognition 104649.
    In response to crises, people sometimes prioritize fewer specific identifiable victims over many unspecified statistical victims. How other factors can explain this bias remains unclear. So two experiments investigated how complying with public health recommendations during the COVID19 pandemic depended on victim portrayal, reflection, and philosophical beliefs (Total N = 998). Only one experiment found that messaging about individual victims increased compliance compared to messaging about statistical victims—i.e., "flatten the curve" graphs—an effect that was undetected after controlling for other factors. (...)
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  37. An Argument for Compulsory Vaccination: The Taxation Analogy.Alberto Giubilini - 2020 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 37 (3):446-466.
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  38. The Public Health Value of Opioid Litigation.Rebecca L. Haffajee - 2020 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 48 (2):279-292.
    Opioid litigation continues a growing public health litigation trend in which governments seek to hold companies responsible for population harms related to their products. The litigation can serve to address gaps in regulatory and legislative policymaking and in market self-regulation pervasive in the prescription opioid domain. Moreover, prior opioid settlements have satisfied civil tort litigation objectives of obtaining compensation for injured parties, deterring harmful behavior, and holding certain opioid manufacturers, distributors and pharmacies accountable for their actions. In this way, opioid (...)
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  39. The Coronavirus Pandemic: Public Health and American Values.Mark A. Rothstein - 2020 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 48 (2):354-359.
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  40. Legal Crises in Public Health.James G. Hodge, Sarah A. Wetter & Erica N. White - 2019 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 47 (4):778-782.
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  41. Saving the Babies or the Elderly in a Time of Crisis?Joona Räsänen - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics 20 (7):180-182.
    Volume 20, Issue 7, July 2020, Page 180-182.
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  42. Mental Competence and Value: The Problem of Normativity in the Assessment of Decision-Making Capacity.Louis C. Charland - 2004 - In Françoise Baylis, Jocelyn Downie, Barry Hoffmaster & Susan Sherwin (eds.), Health Care Ethics in Canada. Toronto, ON, Canada: pp. 267-278.
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  43. How Philosophy Bears on Covid-19.Thaddeus Metz - 2020 - South African Journal of Science 116 (7/8):1.
    A short reflection on respects in which philosophers are particularly, if not uniquely, well positioned to address certain ethical and epistemological controversies pertaining to the coronavirus.
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  44. The Ethics of COVID-19 Immunity-Based Licenses (“Immunity Passports”).Govind Persad & Ezekiel J. Emanuel - 2020 - Journal of the American Medical Association:doi:10.1001/jama.2020.8102.
    Certifications of immunity are sometimes called “immunity passports” but are better conceptualized as immunity-based licenses. Such policies raise important questions about fairness, stigma, and counterproductive incentives but could also further individual freedom and improve public health. Immunity licenses should not be evaluated against a baseline of normalcy, ie, uninfected free movement. Rather, they should be compared to the alternatives of enforcing strict public health restrictions for many months or permitting activities that could spread infection, both of which exacerbate inequalities and (...)
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  45. AI Methods in Bioethics.Joshua August Skorburg, Walter Sinnott-Armstrong & Vincent Conitzer - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics: Empirical Bioethics 1 (11):37-39.
    Commentary about the role of AI in bioethics for the 10th anniversary issue of AJOB: Empirical Bioethics.
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  46. A Smack on the Chin or a Nibble? Content Analysis of the Impact of the Oakwood Trilogy.Tyler Gibb - 2010 - Michigan State University Journal of Medicine and Law 14:93-128.
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  47. Ethical and Professional Considerations in Integrated Behavioral Health.Tyler Gibb - forthcoming - Pediatric Clinics of North America.
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  48. Are You Ready to Meet Your Baby? Phenomenology, Pregnancy, and the Ultrasound.Casey Rentmeester - 2020 - Journal of Applied Hermeneutics 2 (2020):1-13.
    Iris Marion Young’s classic paper on the phenomenology of pregnancy chronicles the alienating tendencies of technology-ridden maternal care, as the mother’s subjective knowledge of the pregnancy gets overridden by the objective knowledge provided by medical personnel and technological apparatuses. Following Fredrik Svenaeus, the authors argue that maternal care is not necessarily alienating by looking specifically at the proper attention paid by sonographers in maternal care when performing ultrasound examinations. Using Martin Heidegger’s philosophy as a theoretical lens, the authors argue that (...)
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  49. The understanding of pain in bioethics thought.Carlos Alberto Rosas Jimenez - 2013 - Persona. Revista Iberoamericana de Personalismo Comunitario 1 (22):83-86.
    We can say that it is necessary for every human being to walk towards the comprehension of the contingent and limited reality of the human person, starting with those whose work involves dealing with patients, as well as those who dedicate themselves to bioethical reflection, and even the patients themselves. In this way, at the time when these people face a situation of pain and suffering, they will be able to assume it with integrity and strength, always choosing to protect (...)
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  50. Ethical Considerations for Health Care in Social Work in Jordan: What Could Bring Joy to Elderly Refugees in Times of Despair?Sahar Suleiman AlMakhamreh - 2019 - Ethics and Social Welfare 13 (4):409-423.
    Elderly refugees in Jordanian healthcare settings are a vulnerable group. Most of them come from a collectivist culture where family members are the main source of care. Many elderly refugees can no longer work as they did, and are in need of professional intervention from social workers who will take account of their cultural values and beliefs. This exploratory study seeks to understand the role that religion has in the lives of displaced elderly refugees and the impact of those perspectives (...)
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