26 found
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  1. Against COVID‐19 vaccination of healthy children.Steven R. Kraaijeveld, Rachel Gur-Arie & Euzebiusz Jamrozik - 2022 - Bioethics 36 (6):687-698.
  2. Moralization and Mismoralization in Public Health.Steven R. Kraaijeveld & Euzebiusz Jamrozik - 2022 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 25 (4):655-669.
    Moralization is a social-psychological process through which morally neutral issues take on moral significance. Often linked to health and disease, moralization may sometimes lead to good outcomes; yet moralization is often detrimental to individuals and to society as a whole. It is therefore important to be able to identify when moralization is inappropriate. In this paper, we offer a systematic normative approach to the evaluation of moralization. We introduce and develop the concept of ‘mismoralization’, which is when moralization is metaethically (...)
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  3.  9
    Public health ethics: critiques of the “new normal”.Euzebiusz Jamrozik - 2022 - Monash Bioethics Review 40 (1):1-16.
    The global response to the recent coronavirus pandemic has revealed an ethical crisis in public health. This article analyses key pandemic public health policies in light of widely accepted ethical principles: the need for evidence, the least restrictive/harmful alternative, proportionality, equity, reciprocity, due legal process, and transparency. Many policies would be considered unacceptable according to pre-pandemic norms of public health ethics. There are thus significant opportunities to develop more ethical responses to future pandemics. This paper serves as the introduction to (...)
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  4.  14
    COVID-19 vaccine boosters for young adults: a risk benefit assessment and ethical analysis of mandate policies at universities.Kevin Bardosh, Allison Krug, Euzebiusz Jamrozik, Trudo Lemmens, Salmaan Keshavjee, Vinay Prasad, Marty A. Makary, Stefan Baral & Tracy Beth Høeg - 2024 - Journal of Medical Ethics 50 (2):126-138.
    In 2022, students at North American universities with third-dose COVID-19 vaccine mandates risk disenrolment if unvaccinated. To assess the appropriateness of booster mandates in this age group, we combine empirical risk-benefit assessment and ethical analysis. To prevent one COVID-19 hospitalisation over a 6-month period, we estimate that 31 207–42 836 young adults aged 18–29 years must receive a third mRNA vaccine. Booster mandates in young adults are expected to cause a net harm: per COVID-19 hospitalisation prevented, we anticipate at least (...)
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  5.  18
    Imagination and remembrance: what role should historical epidemiology play in a world bewitched by mathematical modelling of COVID-19 and other epidemics?Euzebiusz Jamrozik & George S. Heriot - 2021 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 43 (2):1-5.
    Although every emerging infectious disease occurs in a unique context, the behaviour of previous pandemics offers an insight into the medium- and long-term outcomes of the current threat. Where an informative historical analogue exists, epidemiologists and policymakers should consider how the insights of the past can inform current forecasts and responses.
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  6. Victims, vectors and villains: are those who opt out of vaccination morally responsible for the deaths of others?Euzebiusz Jamrozik, Toby Handfield & Michael J. Selgelid - 2016 - Journal of Medical Ethics (12):762-768.
    Mass vaccination has been a successful public health strategy for many contagious diseases. The immunity of the vaccinated also protects others who cannot be safely or effectively vaccinated—including infants and the immunosuppressed. When vaccination rates fall, diseases like measles can rapidly resurge in a population. Those who cannot be vaccinated for medical reasons are at the highest risk of severe disease and death. They thus may bear the burden of others' freedom to opt out of vaccination. It is often asked (...)
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  7.  10
    Ethical issues surrounding controlled human infection challenge studies in endemic low‐and middle‐income countries.Euzebiusz Jamrozik & Michael J. Selgelid - 2020 - Bioethics 34 (8):797-808.
    Controlled human infection challenge studies (CHIs) involve intentionally exposing research participants to, and/or thereby infecting them with, micro‐organisms. There have been increased calls for more CHIs to be conducted in low‐ and middle‐income countries (LMICs) where many relevant diseases are endemic. This article is based on a research project that identified and analyzed ethical and regulatory issues related to endemic LMIC CHIs via (a) a review of relevant literature and (b) qualitative interviews involving 45 scientists and ethicists with relevant expertise. (...)
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  8.  21
    Human infection challenge studies in endemic settings and/or low-income and middle-income countries: key points of ethical consensus and controversy.Euzebiusz Jamrozik & Michael J. Selgelid - 2020 - Journal of Medical Ethics 46 (9):601-609.
    Human infection challenge studies (HCS) involve intentionally infecting research participants with pathogens (or other micro-organisms). There have been recent calls for more HCS to be conducted in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs), where many relevant diseases are endemic. HCS in general, and HCS in LMICs in particular, raise numerous ethical issues. This paper summarises the findings of a project that explored ethical and regulatory issues related to LMIC HCS via (i) a review of relevant literature and (ii) 45 qualitative interviews (...)
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  9.  16
    SARS-CoV-2 challenge studies: ethics and risk minimisation.Susan Bull, Euzebiusz Jamrozik, Ariella Binik & Michael J. Parker - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 47 (12):e79-e79.
    COVID-19 poses an exceptional threat to global public health and well-being. Recognition of the need to develop effective vaccines at unprecedented speed has led to calls to accelerate research pathways ethically, including by conducting challenge studies ) with SARS-CoV-2. Such research is controversial, with concerns being raised about the social, legal, ethical and clinical implications of infecting healthy volunteers with SARS-CoV-2 for research purposes. Systematic risk evaluations are critical to inform assessments of the ethics of any proposed SARS-CoV-2 CHIs. Such (...)
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  10.  24
    Coronavirus Human Infection Challenge Studies: Assessing Potential Benefits and Risks.Euzebiusz Jamrozik, George S. Heriot & Michael J. Selgelid - 2020 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 17 (4):709-715.
    Human infection challenge studies have been proposed as a means to accelerate SARS-CoV2 vaccine development and thereby help to mitigate a prolonged global public health crisis. A key criterion for the ethical acceptability of SARS-CoV2 HCS is that potential benefits outweigh risks. Although the assessment of risks and benefits is meant to be a standard part of research ethics review, systematic comparisons are particularly important in the context of SARS-CoV2 HCS in light of the significant potential benefits and harms at (...)
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  11.  16
    Should practice and policy be revised to allow for risk-proportional payment to human challenge study participants?Euzebiusz Jamrozik & Michael J. Selgelid - 2020 - Journal of Medical Ethics 46 (12):835-836.
    Human infection challenge studies provide illuminating case studies for several ongoing debates in research ethics, including those related to research risks and payment of participants. Grimwade et al 1 add to previous public engagement, qualitative evidence and philosophical literature on these topics.1–8 The authors advocate revision of research payment policy and practice based on their main finding that members of the public endorse ex ante payment of participants proportional to research-related risk exposure, in addition to post hoc compensation for any (...)
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  12.  78
    The Ethical Obligation for Research During Public Health Emergencies: Insights From the COVID-19 Pandemic.Mariana Barosa, Euzebiusz Jamrozik & Vinay Prasad - 2023 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy (1):49-70.
    In times of crises, public health leaders may claim that trials of public health interventions are unethical. One reason for this claim can be that equipoise—i.e. a situation of uncertainty and/or disagreement among experts about the evidence regarding an intervention—has been disturbed by a change of collective expert views. Some might claim that equipoise is disturbed if the majority of experts believe that emergency public health interventions are likely to be more beneficial than harmful. However, such beliefs are not always (...)
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  13.  87
    JUSTICIA PANDÉMICA GLOBAL. INTRODUCCIÓN JUSTICIA PANDÉMICA PARA Y DESDE AMERICA LATINA.Florencia Luna, Romina Rekers, Euzebiusz Jamrozik & Rachel Gur-Arie - 2023 - Ethic@ - An International Journal for Moral Philosophy 22 (1).
    Este número de acceso abierto tiene como objetivo resaltar los puntos de vista de los países latinoamericanos sobre la justicia en un contexto de pandemia y contribuir al diálogo entre estos y con la comunidad científica global. Explora los desafíos globales de la pandemia de COVID-19, las diferencias relevantes entre las medidas de salud pública y su impacto en los países de ingresos altos versus los países de ingresos bajos o medios, y cómo la injusticia global se profundizó debido a (...)
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  14.  82
    GLOBAL PANDEMIC JUSTICE. INTRODUCTION PANDEMIC JUSTICE FOR AND FROM LATIN AMERICA.Florencia Luna, Romina Rekers, Euzebiusz Jamrozik & Rachel Gur-Arie - 2023 - Ethic@ - An International Journal for Moral Philosophy 22 (1).
    This open-access issue aims to highlight views about justice in a pandemic context from Latin American countries and to contribute to the dialogue between them as well as with the global scientific community. It explores the global challenges of the COVID-19 pandemic, relevant differences between public health measures and their impact on high-income countries versus low- or middle-income countries, and how global injustice deepened because of the COVID-19 pandemic. It also draws attention to experiences, outcomes, and responses to the pandemic (...)
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  15.  14
    Surveillance and control of asymptomatic carriers of drug‐resistant bacteria.Euzebiusz Jamrozik & Michael J. Selgelid - 2019 - Bioethics 33 (7):766-775.
    Drug‐resistant bacterial infections constitute a major threat to global public health. Several key bacteria that are becoming increasingly resistant are among those that are ubiquitously carried by human beings and usually cause no symptoms (i.e. individuals are asymptomatic carriers) until and/or unless a precipitating event leads to symptomatic infection (and thus disease). Carriers of drug‐resistant bacteria can also transmit resistant pathogens to others, thus putting the latter at risk of resistant infections. Accumulating evidence suggests that such transmission occurs not only (...)
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  16.  34
    Expertise, disagreement, and trust in vaccine science and policy. The importance of transparency in a world of experts.Alberto Giubilini, Rachel Gur-Arie & Euzebiusz Jamrozik - forthcoming - Diametros:1-21.
    We discuss the relationship between expertise, expert authority, and trust in the case of vaccine research and policy, with a particular focus on COVID-19 vaccines. We argue that expert authority is not merely an epistemic notion, but entails being trusted by the relevant public and is valuable if it is accompanied by expert trustworthiness. Trustworthiness requires, among other things, being transparent, acknowledging uncertainty and expert disagreement (e.g., around vaccines’ effectiveness and safety), being willing to revise views in response to new (...)
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  17.  23
    Ethics, health policy, and Zika: From emergency to global epidemic?Euzebiusz Jamrozik & Michael J. Selgelid - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (5):343-348.
    Zika virus was recognised in 2016 as an important vector-borne cause of congenital malformations and Guillain-Barré syndrome, during a major epidemic in Latin America, centred in Northeastern Brazil. The WHO and Pan American Health Organisation, with partner agencies, initiated a coordinated global response including public health intervention and urgent scientific research, as well as ethical analysis as a vital element of policy design. In this paper, we summarise the major ethical issues raised during the Zika epidemic, highlighting the PAHO ethics (...)
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  18.  25
    How to hold an ethical pox party.Euzebiusz Jamrozik - 2017 - Journal of Medical Ethics:medethics-2017-104336.
    Pox parties are a controversial alternative to vaccination for diseases such as chickenpox. Such parties involve parents infecting non-immune children by exposing them to a contagious child. If successful, infection will usually lead to immunity, thus preventing infection later in life, which, for several vaccine-preventable diseases, is more severe than childhood infection. Some may consider pox parties more morally objectionable than opting out of vaccination through non-medical exemptions. In this paper, I argue that this is not the case. Pox parties (...)
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  19. An ethical analysis of vaccinating children against COVID-19: benefits, risks, and issues of global health equity [version 2; peer review: 1 approved, 1 approved with reservations].Rachel Gur-Arie, Steven R. Kraaijeveld & Euzebiusz Jamrozik - forthcoming - Wellcome Open Research.
    COVID-19 vaccination of children has begun in various high-income countries with regulatory approval and general public support, but largely without careful ethical consideration. This trend is expected to extend to other COVID-19 vaccines and lower ages as clinical trials progress. This paper provides an ethical analysis of COVID-19 vaccination of healthy children. Specifically, we argue that it is currently unclear whether routine COVID-19 vaccination of healthy children is ethically justified in most contexts, given the minimal direct benefit that COVID-19 vaccination (...)
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  20.  7
    Ethical issues in Nipah virus control and research: addressing a neglected disease.Tess Johnson, Euzebiusz Jamrozik, Tara Hurst, Phaik Yeong Cheah & Michael J. Parker - forthcoming - Journal of Medical Ethics.
    Nipah virus is a priority pathogen that is receiving increasing attention among scientists and in work on epidemic preparedness. Despite this trend, there has been almost no bioethical work examining ethical considerations surrounding the epidemiology, prevention, and treatment of Nipah virus or research that has already begun into animal and human vaccines. In this paper, we advance the case for further work on Nipah virus disease in public health ethics due to the distinct issues it raises concerning communication about the (...)
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  21.  16
    Herd immunity, vaccination and moral obligation.Matthew Bullen, George S. Heriot & Euzebiusz Jamrozik - 2023 - Journal of Medical Ethics 49 (9):636-641.
    The public health benefits of herd immunity are often used as the justification for coercive vaccine policies. Yet, ‘herd immunity’ as a term has multiple referents, which can result in ambiguity, including regarding its role in ethical arguments. The term ‘herd immunity’ can refer to (1) the herd immunity threshold, at which models predict the decline of an epidemic; (2) the percentage of a population with immunity, whether it exceeds a given threshold or not; and/or (3) the indirect benefit afforded (...)
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  22.  10
    University-age vaccine mandates: reply to Lam and Nichols.Tracy Beth Høeg, Allison Krug, Stefan Baral, Euzebiusz Jamrozik, Salmaan Keshavjee, Trudo Lemmens, Vinay Prasad, Martin A. Makary & Kevin Bardosh - 2024 - Journal of Medical Ethics 50 (2):143-145.
    We thank Leo Lam and Taylor Nichols for their response 1 to our paper ‘COVID-19 vaccine boosters for young adults: a risk–benefit assessment and ethical analysis of mandate policies at universities’. 2 In our paper, we demonstrate that the risk–benefit calculus to mandate boosters for young adults aged 18–29 is a net risk intervention. The authors assert that we have made three inappropriate comparisons of benefits versus risks of the mRNA vaccine booster dose in this age group. We provide our (...)
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  23.  9
    Ethics of antibiotic allergy.Yu Yi Xiang, George S. Heriot & Euzebiusz Jamrozik - 2023 - Journal of Medical Ethics 50 (1):39-44.
    Antibiotic allergies are commonly reported among patients, but most do not experience reactions on rechallenge with the same agents. These reported allergies complicate management of infections in patients labelled as having penicillin allergy, including serious infections where penicillin-based antibiotics are the first-line (most effective and least toxic) treatment option. Allergy labels are rarely questioned in clinical practice, with many clinicians opting for inferior second-line antibiotics to avoid a perceived risk of allergy. Reported allergies thereby can have significant impacts on patients (...)
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  24.  10
    Ethics and Drug Resistance: Collective Responsibility for Global Public Health.Euzebiusz Jamrozik & Michael Selgelid (eds.) - 2020 - Springer.
    This Open Access volume provides in-depth analysis of the wide range of ethical issues associated with drug-resistant infectious diseases. Antimicrobial resistance is widely recognized to be one of the greatest threats to global public health in coming decades; and it has thus become a major topic of discussion among leading bioethicists and scholars from related disciplines including economics, epidemiology, law, and political theory. Topics covered in this volume include responsible use of antimicrobials; control of multi-resistant hospital-acquired infections; privacy and data (...)
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  25.  7
    Infections with Benefits.Euzebiusz Jamrozik - 2020 - The Philosophers' Magazine 90:64-70.
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  26.  20
    Invisible epidemics: ethics and asymptomatic infection. [REVIEW]Michael J. Selgelid & Euzebiusz Jamrozik - 2020 - Monash Bioethics Review 38 (Suppl 1):1-16.
    Interactions between microbes and human hosts can lead to a wide variety of possible outcomes including benefits to the host, asymptomatic infection, disease (which can be more or less severe), and/or death. Whether or not they themselves eventually develop disease, asymptomatic carriers can often transmit disease-causing pathogens to others. This phenomenon has a range of ethical implications for clinical medicine, public health, and infectious disease research. The implications of asymptomatic infection are especially significant in situations where, and/or to the extent (...)
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