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  1. Default Positions in Clinical Ethics.Parker Crutchfield, Tyler Gibb & Michael Redinger - forthcoming - Journal of Clinical Ethics.
    Default positions, predetermined starting points that aide in complex decision-making, are common in clinical medicine. In this paper, we identify and critically examine common default positions in clinical ethics practice. Whether default positions ought to be held is an important normative question, but here we are primarily interested in the descriptive, rather than normative, properties of default positions. We argue that default positions in clinical ethics function to protect and promote important values in medicine—respect for persons, utility, and justice. Further, (...)
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  2. Should parents be asked to consent for life-saving paediatric interventions?Nathan K. Gamble & Michal Pruski - forthcoming - Journal of the Intensive Care Society.
    Informed consent, when given by proxy, has limitations: chiefly, it must be made in the interest of the patient. Here we critique the standard approach to parental consent, as present in Canada and the UK. Parents are often asked for consent, but are not given the authority to refuse medically beneficial treatment in many situations. This prompts the question of whether it is possible for someone to consent if they cannot refuse. We present two alternative and philosophically more consistent frameworks (...)
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  3. Unexpected Complications of Novel Deep Brain Stimulation Treatments: Ethical Issues and Clinical Recommendations.Hannah Maslen, Binith Cheeran, Jonathan Pugh, Laurie Pycroft, Sandra Boccard, Simon Prangnell, Alexander Green, James FitzGerald, Julian Savulescu & Tipu Aziz - forthcoming - Neuromodulation.
    Background -/- Innovative neurosurgical treatments present a number of known risks, the natures and probabilities of which can be adequately communicated to patients via the standard procedures governing obtaining informed consent. However, due to their novelty, these treatments also come with unknown risks, which require an augmented approach to obtaining informed consent. -/- Objective -/- This paper aims to discuss and provide concrete procedural guidance on the ethical issues raised by serious unexpected complications of novel deep brain stimulation treatments. -/- (...)
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  4. Feeding infants: Choice-specific considerations, parental obligation, and pragmatic satisficing.Clare Moriarty & Ben Davies - forthcoming - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice.
    Health institutions recommend that young infants be exclusively breastfed on demand, and it is widely held that parents who can breastfeed have an obligation to do so. This has been challenged in recent philosophical work, especially by Fiona Woollard. Woollard’s work critically engages with two distinct views of parental obligation that might ground such an obligation—based on maximal benefit and avoidance of significant harm—to reject an obligation to breastfeed. While agreeing with Woollard’s substantive conclusion, this paper (drawing on philosophical discussion (...)
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  5. The Moral Obligation to Prioritize Research Into Deep Brain Stimulation Over Brain Lesioning Procedures for Severe Enduring Anorexia Nervosa.Jonathan Pugh, Jacinta Tan, Tipu Aziz & Rebecca J. Park - forthcoming - Frontiers in Psychiatry 9:523.
    Deep Brain Stimulation is currently being investigated as an experimental treatment for patients suffering from treatment-refractory AN, with an increasing number of case reports and small-scale trials published. Although still at an exploratory and experimental stage, initial results have been promising. Despite the risks associated with an invasive neurosurgical procedure and the long-term implantation of a foreign body, DBS has a number of advantageous features for patients with SE-AN. Stimulation can be fine-tuned to the specific needs of the particular patient, (...)
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  6. Resolving the Ethical Quagmire of the Persistent Vegetative State.Ognjen Arandjelović - 2023 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice.
    A patient is diagnosed with the persistent vegetative state (PVS) when they show no evidence of the awareness of the self or the environment for an extended period of time. The chance of recovery of any mental function or the ability to interact in a meaningful way is low. Though rare, the condition, considering its nature as a state outwith the realm of the conscious, coupled with the trauma experienced by the patient's kin as well as health care staff confronted (...)
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  7. A Fuzzy-Cognitive-Maps Approach to Decision-Making in Medical Ethics.Alice Hein, Lukas J. Meier, Alena Buyx & Klaus Diepold - 2022 - 2022 IEEE International Conference on Fuzzy Systems (FUZZ-IEEE).
    Although machine intelligence is increasingly employed in healthcare, the realm of decision-making in medical ethics remains largely unexplored from a technical perspective. We propose an approach based on fuzzy cognitive maps (FCMs), which builds on Beauchamp and Childress’ prima-facie principles. The FCM’s weights are optimized using a genetic algorithm to provide recommendations regarding the initiation, continuation, or withdrawal of medical treatment. The resulting model approximates the answers provided by our team of medical ethicists fairly well and offers a high degree (...)
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  8. Clinical Ethics – To Compute, or Not to Compute?Lukas J. Meier, Alice Hein, Klaus Diepold & Alena Buyx - 2022 - American Journal of Bioethics 22 (12):W1-W4.
    Can machine intelligence do clinical ethics? And if so, would applying it to actual medical cases be desirable? In a recent target article (Meier et al. 2022), we described the piloting of our advisory algorithm METHAD. Here, we reply to commentaries published in response to our project. The commentaries fall into two broad categories: concrete criticism that concerns the development of METHAD; and the more general question as to whether one should employ decision-support systems of this kind—the debate we set (...)
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  9. Why we should stop using animal-derived products on patients without their consent.Daniel Rodger - 2022 - Journal of Medical Ethics 48 (10):702-706.
    Medicines and medical devices containing animal-derived ingredients are frequently used on patients without their informed consent, despite a significant proportion of patients wanting to know if an animal-derived product is going to be used in their care. Here, I outline three arguments for why this practice is wrong. First, I argue that using animal-derived medical products on patients without their informed consent undermines respect for their autonomy. Second, it risks causing nontrivial psychological harm. Third, it is morally inconsistent to respect (...)
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  10. Explicability of artificial intelligence in radiology: Is a fifth bioethical principle conceptually necessary?Frank Ursin, Cristian Timmermann & Florian Steger - 2022 - Bioethics 36 (2):143-153.
    Recent years have witnessed intensive efforts to specify which requirements ethical artificial intelligence (AI) must meet. General guidelines for ethical AI consider a varying number of principles important. A frequent novel element in these guidelines, that we have bundled together under the term explicability, aims to reduce the black-box character of machine learning algorithms. The centrality of this element invites reflection on the conceptual relation between explicability and the four bioethical principles. This is important because the application of general ethical (...)
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  11. Aristotle on the Nature and Politics of Medicine.Samuel H. Baker - 2021 - Apeiron 54 (4):441-449.
    According to Aristotle, the medical art aims at health, which is a virtue of the body, and does so in an unlimited way. Consequently, medicine does not determine the extent to which health should be pursued, and “mental health” falls under medicine only via pros hen predication. Because medicine is inherently oriented to its end, it produces health in accordance with its nature and disease contrary to its nature—even when disease is good for the patient. Aristotle’s politician understands that this (...)
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  12. Epistemic Burdens, Moral Intimacy, and Surrogate Decision Making.Parker Crutchfield & Scott Scheall - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics 20 (2):59-61.
    Berger (forthcoming) states that moral intimacy is important in applying the best interests standard. But what he calls moral intimacy requires that someone has overcome epistemic burdens needed to represent the patient. We argue elsewhere that good surrogate decision-making is first and foremost a matter of overcoming epistemic burdens, or those obstacles that stand in the way of a surrogate decision-maker knowing what a patient wants and how to satisfy those preferences. Berger’s notion of moral intimacy depends on epistemic intimacy: (...)
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  13. Surrogate decision making for unrepresented patients: Proposing a harm reduction interpretation of the best interest standard.Nada Gligorov & Phoebe Friesen - 2020 - Clinical Ethics 15 (2):57-64.
    Unrepresented patients are individuals who lack decision makingcapacity and have no family or friends to make medical decisions for them. This population is growing in number in the United States, particularly within emergency and intensive care settings. While some bioethical discussion has taken place in response to the question of who ought to make decisions for these patients, the issue of how surrogate medical decisions ought to be made for this population remains unexplored. In this paper, we argue that standard (...)
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  14. Shove and Nudge: A Commentary on Iserson.Kalle Grill - 2020 - Journal of Clinical Ethics 31 (1):89-91.
    In this comment on Kenneth Iserson’s article, ”Do You Believe in Magic? Shove, Don’t Nudge: Advising Patients at the Bedside,” I discuss the definition of and the moral evaluation of nudging. I propose that using persuasive descriptions and intentionally building trust in patients by one’s demeanor is a form of nudging. I argue that nudging is not necessarily morally problematic, but that it can be controlling and can limit liberty, despite proponents’ claims to the contrary. I agree with Iserson that (...)
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  15. Promoting the Use of Pasteurized Human Donor Milk in the NICU.Kelley L. Baumgartel & Michael J. Deem - 2019 - Nursing 49 (12):11-13.
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  16. Consent’s dominion: Dementia and prior consent to sexual relations.Samuel Director - 2019 - Bioethics 33 (9):1065-1071.
    In this paper, I answer the following question: suppose that two individuals, C and D, have been in a long-term committed relationship, and D now has dementia, while C is competent; if D agrees to have sex with C, is it permissible for C to have sex with D? Ultimately, I defend the view that, under certain conditions, D can give valid consent to sex with C, rendering sex between them permissible. Specifically, I argue there is compelling reason to endorse (...)
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  17. Beneficence in Research Ethics.David G. Kirchhoffer, C. Favor & C. Cordner - 2019 - In D. Kirchhoffer & B. Richards (eds.), Beyond Autonomy: Limits and Alternatives to Informed Consent in Research Ethics and Law. Cambridge:
    This chapter examines the explicit and implicit roles that the concept of beneficence plays in the guidelines that govern biomedical research involving humans. We suggest that the role beneficence is actually playing in the guidelines is more comprehensive than is commonly assumed. The broader conceptualisation of beneficence proposed here clarifies the relationship of beneficence to respect for autonomy. It does this by showing how respect for autonomy is at the service of beneficence rather than in tension with it.
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  18. Conscientious objection in healthcare: How much discretionary space best supports good medicine?Doug McConnell - 2019 - Bioethics 33 (1):154-161.
    Daniel Sulmasy has recently argued that good medicine depends on physicians having a wide discretionary space in which they can act on their consciences. The only constraints Sulmasy believes we should place on physicians’ discretionary space are those defined by a form of tolerance he derives from Locke whereby people can publicly act in accordance with their personal religious and moral beliefs as long as their actions are not destructive to society. Sulmasy also claims that those who would reject physicians’ (...)
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  19. Dual loyalty in military medical ethics: a moral dilemma or a test of integrity?Peter Olsthoorn - 2019 - Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps 165 (4):282-283.
    When militaries mention loyalty as a value they mean loyalty to colleagues and the organisation. Loyalty to principle, the type of loyalty that has a wider scope, plays hardly a role in the ethics of most armed forces. Where military codes, oaths and values are about the organisation and colleagues, medical ethics is about providing patient care impartially. Being subject to two diverging professional ethics can leave military medical personnel torn between the wish to act loyally towards colleagues, and the (...)
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  20. Reasonable Parental and Medical Obligations in Pediatric Extraordinary Therapy.Michal Pruski & Nathan K. Gamble - 2019 - The Linacre Quarterly 86 (2-3):198-206.
    The English cases of Charlie Gard and Alfie Evans involved a conflict between the desires of their parents to preserve their children’s lives and judgments of their medical teams in pursuit of clinically appropriate therapy. The treatment the children required was clearly extraordinary, including a wide array of advanced life-sustaining technological support. The cases exemplify a clash of worldviews rooted in different philosophies of life and medical care. The article highlights the differing perspectives on parental authority in medical care in (...)
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  21. No going back? Reversibility and why it matters for deep brain stimulation.Jonathan Pugh - 2019 - Journal of Medical Ethics 45 (4):225-230.
    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is frequently described as a ‘reversible’ medical treatment, and the reversibility of DBS is often cited as an important reason for preferring it to brain lesioning procedures as a last resort treatment modality for patients suffering from treatment-refractory conditions. Despite its widespread acceptance, the claim that DBS is reversible has recently come under attack. Critics have pointed out that data are beginning to suggest that there can be non-stimulation-dependent effects of DBS. Furthermore, we lack long-term data (...)
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  22. Using animal-derived constituents in anaesthesia and surgery: the case for disclosing to patients.Daniel Rodger & Bruce P. Blackshaw - 2019 - BMC Medical Ethics 20 (1):1-9.
    Animal-derived constituents are frequently used in anaesthesia and surgery, and patients are seldom informed of this. This is problematic for a growing minority of patients who may have religious or secular concerns about their use in their care. It is not currently common practice to inform patients about the use of animal-derived constituents, yet what little empirical data does exist indicates that many patients want the opportunity to give their informed consent. First, we review the nature and scale of the (...)
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  23. Hormone replacement therapy: informed consent without assessment?Toni C. Saad, Bruce Philip Blackshaw & Daniel Rodger - 2019 - Journal of Medical Ethics 45 (12):1-2.
    Florence Ashley has argued that requiring patients with gender dysphoria to undergo an assessment and referral from a mental health professional before undergoing hormone replacement therapy is unethical and may represent an unconscious hostility towards transgender people. We respond, first, by showing that Ashley has conflated the self-reporting of symptoms with self-diagnosis, and that this is not consistent with the standard model of informed consent to medical treatment. Second, we note that the model of informed consent involved in cosmetic surgery (...)
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  24. PHYSICIAN ASSISTED DYING: DEFINING THE ETHICALLY AMBIGUOUS.Chandler O'Leary - 2018 - Aletheia, The Undergraduate Journal of Philosophy at Texas AandM 1:18-26.
    In states where Physician Assisted Dying (PAD) is legal, physicians occasionally receive requests for this form of end-of-life care. Here, I describe the ethically ambiguous sphere and why PAD falls into it. I argue that, given the ethical ambiguity of PAD, physicians should consider patient autonomy as the highest value in the four principles approach and act as informers and educators.
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  25. Why letting die instead of killing? Choosing active euthanasia on moral grounds.Evangelos Protopapadakis - 2018 - Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy.
    Ever since the debate concerning euthanasia was ignited, the distinction between active and passive euthanasia – or, letting die and killing – has been marked as one of its key issues. In this paper I will argue that a) the borderline between act and omission is an altogether blurry one, and it gets even vaguer when it comes to euthanasia, b) there is no morally significant difference between active and passive euthanasia, and c) if there is any, it seems to (...)
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  26. Termination of Pregnancy After NonInvasive Prenatal Testing (NIPT): Ethical Considerations.Tom Shakespeare & Richard Hull - 2018 - Journal of Practical Ethics 6 (2):32-54.
    This article explores the Nuffield Council on Bioethics’ recent report about non-invasive prenatal testing. Given that such testing is likely to become the norm, it is important to question whether there should be some ethical parameters regarding its use. The article engages with the viewpoints of Jeff McMahan, Julian Savulescu, Stephen Wilkinson and other commentators on prenatal ethics. The authors argue that there are a variety of moral considerations that legitimately play a significant role with regard to (prospective) parental decision-making (...)
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  27. The Ethics of Organ Tourism: Role Morality and Organ Transplantation.Marcus P. Adams - 2017 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 42 (6):670-689.
    Organ tourism occurs when individuals in countries with existing organ transplant procedures, such as the United States, are unable to procure an organ by using those transplant procedures in enough time to save their life. In this paper, I am concerned with the following question: When organ tourists return to the United States and need another transplant, do US transplant physicians have an obligation to place them on a transplant list? I argue that transplant physicians have a duty not to (...)
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  28. The BMA's guidance on conscientious objection may be contrary to human rights law.John Olusegun Adenitire - 2017 - Journal of Medical Ethics 43 (4):260-263.
    It is argued that the current policy of the British Medical Association (BMA) on conscientious objection is not aligned with recent human rights developments. These grant a right to conscientious objection to doctors in many more circumstances than the very few recognised by the BMA. However, this wide-ranging right may be overridden if the refusal to accommodate the conscientious objection is proportionate. It is shown that it is very likely that it is lawful to refuse to accommodate conscientious objections that (...)
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  29. Genomic Contraindications for Heart Transplantation.Danton S. Char, Gabriel Lázaro-Muñoz, Aliessa Barnes, David Magnus, Michael J. Deem & John D. Lantos - 2017 - Pediatrics 139 (4).
  30. Going above and beneath the call of duty: the luck egalitarian claims of healthcare heroes, and the accomodation of professionally-motivated treatment refusal.Thomas Douglas - 2017 - Journal of Medical Ethics 43 (12):801-802.
    In 2014, American doctor Ian Crozier chose to travel to Sierra Leone to help fight the West African Ebola epidemic. He contracted Ebola himself and was evacuated to the US, where he received hospital treatment for 40 days. Crozier knowingly chose to expose himself to a risk of contracting Ebola, and thus appears to be at least somewhat morally responsible for his infection. Did this responsibility weaken his justice-based claim to publicly funded treatment? On one influential view—luck egalitarianism—the answer is (...)
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  31. Ethical Challenges for Military Health Care Personnel: Dealing with Epidemics.Daniel Messelken & David Winkler (eds.) - 2017 - Routledge.
    Outbreaks of epidemics like Ebola trigger difficult ethical challenges for civilian and military health care personnel. This book offers theoretical reflections combined with reports from recent military and NGO missions in the field. The authors of this volume focus on military medical ethics adding a distinct voice to the topic of epidemics and infectious diseases. While military health care personnel are always crucially involved during disaster relief operations and large-scale public health emergencies, most of the current literature treats ethical issues (...)
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  32. Exercise Prescription and The Doctor's Duty of Non-Maleficence.Jonathan Pugh, Christopher Pugh & Julian Savulesu - 2017 - British Journal of Sports Medicine 51 (21):1555-1556.
    An abundance of data unequivocally shows that exercise can be an effective tool in the fight against obesity and its associated co-morbidities. Indeed, physical activity can be more effective than widely-used pharmaceutical interventions. Whilst metformin reduces the incidence of diabetes by 31% (as compared with a placebo) in both men and women across different racial and ethnic groups, lifestyle intervention (including exercise) reduces the incidence by 58%. In this context, it is notable that a group of prominent medics and exercise (...)
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  33. Constructing a Coherent Philosophical Basis for Research Ethics.Lucie White - 2017 - Dissertation, Australian National University
    The purpose of this dissertation is to identify some of the most pressing problems in the dominant contemporary approach to research ethics, and to devise an alternative approach that avoids these problems. I contend that the fundamental ethical values invoked in human research are often appealed to in contradictory or ambiguous ways, or in ways that do not adequately capture or do not show an adequate understanding of the specific ethical concerns of human research. One significant problem in this domain (...)
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  34. MRCT Center Post-Trial Responsibilities Framework Continued Access to Investigational Medicines. Guidance Document. Version 1.0, December 2016.Carmen Aldinger, Barbara Bierer, Rebecca Li, Luann Van Campen, Mark Barnes, Eileen Bedell, Amanda Brown-Inz, Robin Gibbs, Deborah Henderson, Christopher Kabacinski, Laurie Letvak, Susan Manoff, Ignacio Mastroleo, Ellie Okada, Usharani Pingali, Wasana Prasitsuebsai, Hans Spiegel, Daniel Wang, Susan Briggs Watson & Marc Wilenzik - 2016 - The Multi-Regional Clinical Trials Center of the Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard (MRCT Center).
    I. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The MRCT Center Post-trial Responsibilities: Continued Access to an Investigational Medicine Framework outlines a case-based, principled, stakeholder approach to evaluate and guide ethical responsibilities to provide continued access to an investigational medicine at the conclusion of a patient’s participation in a clinical trial. The Post-trial Responsibilities (PTR) Framework includes this Guidance Document as well as the accompanying Toolkit. A 41-member international multi-stakeholder Workgroup convened by the Multi-Regional Clinical Trials Center of Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard University (...)
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  35. Free Choice and Patient Best Interests.Emma C. Bullock - 2016 - Health Care Analysis 24 (4):374-392.
    In medical practice, the doctrine of informed consent is generally understood to have priority over the medical practitioner’s duty of care to her patient. A common consequentialist argument for the prioritisation of informed consent above the duty of care involves the claim that respect for a patient’s free choice is the best way of protecting that patient’s best interests; since the patient has a special expertise over her values and preferences regarding non-medical goods she is ideally placed to make a (...)
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  36. Mandatory Disclosure and Medical Paternalism.Emma C. Bullock - 2016 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 19 (2):409-424.
    Medical practitioners are duty-bound to tell their patients the truth about their medical conditions, along with the risks and benefits of proposed treatments. Some patients, however, would rather not receive medical information. A recent response to this tension has been to argue that that the disclosure of medical information is not optional. As such, patients do not have permission to refuse medical information. In this paper I argue that, depending on the context, the disclosure of medical information can undermine the (...)
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  37. The Concept of Well-Being.Stephen M. Campbell - 2016 - In Guy Fletcher (ed.), Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Well-Being. Routledge.
  38. Disability and Well-Being: Appreciating the Complications.Stephen M. Campbell & Joseph A. Stramondo - 2016 - American Philosophical Association Newsletter on Philosophy and Medicine 16 (1):35-37.
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  39. Neurosurgery for Psychopaths? An Ethical Analysis.Dietmar Hübner & Lucie White - 2016 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 7 (3):140-149.
    Recent developments in neuroscience have inspired proposals to perform deep brain stimulation on psychopathic detainees. We contend that these proposals cannot meet important ethical requirements that hold for both medical research and therapy. After providing a rough overview of key aspects of psychopathy and the prospects of tackling this condition via deep brain stimulation, we proceed to an ethical assessment of such measures, referring closely to the distinctive features of psychopathic personality, particularly the absence of subjective suffering and a lack (...)
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  40. Withholding Information to Protect a Loved One.Todd J. Kilbaugh, Daniel Groll, Nabina Liebow, Wynne Morrison & John D. Lantos - 2016 - Pediatrics 6 (136).
    Parents respond to the death of a child in very different ways. Some parents may be violent or angry, some sad and tearful, some quiet and withdrawn, and some frankly delusional. We present a case in which a father’s reaction to his daughter’s death is a desire to protect his wife from the stressful information. The wife is in the second trimester of a high-risk pregnancy and so is particularly fragile. We asked pediatricians and bioethicists to discuss the ways in (...)
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  41. The Medical Ethics of Miracle Max.Shea Brendan - 2015 - In R. Greene (ed.), The Princess Bride and Philosophy: Inconceivable! Chicago, IL: Open Court. pp. 193-203.
    Miracle Max, it seems, is the only remaining miracle worker in all of Florin. Among other things, this means that he (unlike anyone else) can resurrect the recently dead, at least in certain circumstances. Max’s peculiar talents come with significant perks (for example, he can basically set his own prices!), but they also raise a number of ethical dilemmas that range from the merely amusing to the truly perplexing: -/- How much about Max’s “methods” does he need to reveal to (...)
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  42. Alcohol and Controlling Risks through Nudges.Thom Brooks - 2015 - The New Bioethics 21 (1):46-55.
    This article examines the relation of risks and public policy through the lens of alcohol and crime. Alcohol thus lives a double-life as a fountain of celebration while also a wellspring of potentially serious harms. The issue of how risks might be managed much better is approached through considering three different arenas within the criminal law concluding that it is a crude mechanism for grappling with complex issues of criminal responsibility for any higher risks associated with becoming under the influence. (...)
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  43. Aristotle and Principlism in Bioethics.Joseph Cimakasky & Ronald Polansky - 2015 - Diametros 45:59-70.
    Principlism, a most prominent approach in bioethics, has been criticized for lacking an underlying moral theory. We propose that the four principles of principlism can be related to the four traditional cardinal virtues. These virtues appear prominently in Plato's Republic and in Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics. We show how this connection can be made. In this way principlism has its own compelling ethical basis.
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  44. False Friends and False Coinage: A tool for navigating the ethics of sociable robots.Alexis Elder - 2015 - Computers and Society (Acm Sigcas Newsletter) 45 (3):248-254.
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  45. Medicine & Well-Being.Daniel Groll - 2015 - In Guy Fletcher (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Well-Being. Routledge.
    The connections between medicine and well-being are myriad. This paper focuses on the place of well-being in clinical medicine. It is here that different views of well-being, and their connection to concepts like “autonomy” and “authenticity”, both illuminate and are illuminated by looking closely at the kinds of interactions that routinely take place between clinicians, patients, and family members. -/- In the first part of the paper, I explore the place of well-being in a paradigmatic clinical encounter, one where a (...)
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  46. Professional ethics in extreme circumstances: responsibilities of attending physicians and healthcare providers in hunger strikes.Nurbay Irmak - 2015 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 36 (4):249-263.
    Hunger strikes potentially present a serious challenge for attending physicians. Though rare, in certain cases, a conflict can occur between the obligations of beneficence and autonomy. On the one hand, physicians have a duty to preserve life, which entails intervening in a hunger strike before the hunger striker loses his life. On the other hand, physicians’ duty to respect autonomy implies that attending physicians have to respect hunger strikers’ decisions to refuse nutrition. International medical guidelines state that physicians should follow (...)
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  47. When childhood ends: estimating the age of young people.Daniel Messelken, Johan Crouse & David T. Winkler - 2015 - British Medical Journal 315:h6699.
    Minors are increasingly reaching countries far from their homes as migrants, and their ages are often unknown. In Europe, up to 1500 people per country annually have medical examinations and procedures to estimate their chronological age.1 These procedures can cause considerable harm to individuals, particularly if performed without appropriate safeguards. Inappropriate age estimation may deter minors from applying for asylum in specific countries, and doctors may find themselves exploited in the service of migration policy. During missions, military doctors face demands (...)
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  48. Life, Meaning of.Thaddeus Metz - 2015 - In Henk ten Have (ed.), Encyclopedia of Global Bioethics. Springer. pp. 1-6.
    This entry begins by indicating respects in which the concept of life’s meaning has only recently become salient in English-speaking bioethical discussions and by clarifying what talk of ‘life’s meaning’ and cognate phrases mean, at least to most of the philosophers and bioethicists who have used them. This essay then addresses six major respects in which thought about what makes a life meaningful has influenced bioethics. The first four issues concern life and death matters for human beings, and specifically involve: (...)
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  49. The epidemic of misconduct in science: the collapse of the moralizer treatment.Marcos Barbosa de Oliveira - 2015 - Scientiae Studia 13 (4):867-897.
    RESUMO O tema do artigo é a proliferação de más condutas na ciência que vem ocorrendo nas últimas décadas, designada ao longo do texto pelo termo "a epidemia". As más condutas são violações de normas éticas da ciência, sendo os tipos mais importantes as várias modalidades de fraude, e de falsidades autorais. O artigo divide-se em seis seções. Na primeira, apresenta-se o tema e alguns esclarecimentos terminológicos. Na segunda, são expostas as evidências que corroboram a existência da epidemia. A terceira (...)
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  50. The Role of Community Engagement in Novel HIV Research in Infants.Seema K. Shah & Benjamin S. Wilfond - 2015 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 58 (3):344-347.
    The proposed study would be a single-arm interventional trial in a community where HIV is endemic. The proposed observational design can provide confirmatory data for the initial clinical observation, data that would be necessary before considering whether a randomized controlled trial is appropriate. A previous ethical analysis has argued for conducting such a study in a country with limited resources and with higher HIV prevalence, and to recruit those with the highest risk of transmission. The primary rationale was to address (...)
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