About this topic
Summary

Broadly construed, animal ethics is an area of inquiry and debate that focuses on a variety of approaches to assessing the moral status of nonhuman animals. One of the main approaches in contemporary scholarship is deontological and argues for strict rights for animals on the grounds that they are subjects-of-a-life (Tom Regan) and thus possess inherent worth; such views often seek to expand Kant's ascription of inherent worth to rational agents so that it applies to all sentient beings. Other views, including those of some secular naturalists, seek to ascribe moral status to animals not on the basis of inherent worth but on the basis of capacities shared by all sentient beings. Another main approach encompasses a variety of views that tend to be "welfarist" in the sense that they do not seek to ascribe strict right to animals but instead argue that certain actions performed against animals (such as killing them or using them as sources of milk or eggs) are permissible as long as human beings perform them in a humane manner. Welfarist views are generally utilitarian in character, being based on calculations of the quantity of harm that can be done to a given living being, and they tend to assert hierarchies in which beings that are cognitively more sophisticated can be harmed in ways in which beings that are cognitively less sophisticated cannot; on the basis of such hierarchization, welfarist views typically ascribe moral superiority to human beings over nonhuman animals, although they also tend to avoid a speciesistic privileging of all human beings over all nonhuman animals on the grounds that some nonhuman animals are cognitively superior to some human beings. Thus thinkers such as Peter Singer argue that self-conscious beings have a stronger claim to life than non-self-conscious beings, where self-conscious beings are defined as those that can conceptualize the past, present, and future of their lives as one coherent whole. (Summary written by Gary Steiner and Erwin Lengauer)

Key works

Armstrong, Susan /  Botzler, Richard (ed.) ²2008. The Animal Ethics Reader - (AER). 2nd Edition. London; New York, NY, Routledge. 

Beauchamp, Tom L. / Frey, Raymond G. (eds.) 2011. The Oxford Handbook of Animal Ethics. Oxford, Oxford University Press.

Bekoff, Marc (ed.) 2010. Encyclopedia of Animal Rights and Animal Welfare. 2 Volume Set. Santa Barbara, CA, Greenwood Press, Imprint of ABC - Clio. 

Cavalieri, Paola 2001. The Animal Question: Why Non-Human Animals Deserve Human Rights. Oxford, Oxford University Press. 

Chapouthier, Georges (ed.) 1998. The Universal Declaration of Animal Rights: Comments and Intentions. Paris, Ligue Francaise des Droit de l´Animal.

DeGrazia, David (1996). Taking Animals Seriously. Mental Life and Moral Status. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Dombrowski, Daniel A. 1997. Babies and Beasts: The Argument from Marginal Cases. Urbana, IL, University of Illinois Press.

Francione, Gary  2008. Animals as Persons: Essays on the Abolition of Animal Exploitation. New York, NY, Columbia University Press.

Garner, Robert 2005. The Political Theory of Animal Rights (Perspectives on Democratization). Manchester, Manchester University Press.

Kalof, Linda / Fitzgerald, Amy (eds.). 2007. The Animals Reader: The Essential Classic and Contemporary Writings. Oxford, Berg.  

Munro, Lyle 2005. Confronting Cruelty. Moral Orthodoxy and the Challenge of the Animal Rights Movement. Human-Animal Studies.  (Dissertation). Leiden, Brill Academic.     

Palmer, Clare (ed.) 2008. Animal Rights. Clare Palmer. Series: The International Library of Essays on Rights. Aldershot, GB, Ashgate Publishing Company.

Pluhar, Evelyn 1995. Beyond Prejudice. The Moral Significance of Human and Nonhuman Animals. Durham, NC, Duke University Press.

Regan, Tom 1983. The Case for Animal Rights. Berkeley, CA, University of California Press.

Rollin, Bernard  ²1992. Animal Rights and Human Morality. Amherst, Prometheus.

Rowlands, Mark ²2009. Animal Rights. Moral Theory and Practice. London, Macmillan Press.

Sapontzis, Steve F. 1987, ²1992. Morals, Reason and Animals. Philadelphia, PA, Temple University Press.

Singer, Peter 1975, ²1990. Animal Liberation. A New Ethics for our Treatment of Animals. New York, NY, New York Review of Book.

Singer, Peter (ed.) 2006. In Defense of Animals. The Second Wave. Malden, Blackwell.

Steiner, Gary 2008. Animals and the Moral Community: Mental Life, Moral Status, and Kinship. New York, NY, Columbia University Press.

Steiner, Gary. 2013. Animals and the Limits of Postmodernism. New York: Columbia University Press.

Introductions Regan, Tom 2001. Animals, treatment of. In: Becker, Lawrence (ed.). Encyclopedia of Ethics. New York, Routledge: 70-74 (on page 72 about Inherentism)

Regan, Tom ³2004. Animal Welfare and Rights. In:  Post, Stephen (ed.). Encyclopedia of Bioethics. 3. edition. New York, NY, Macmillan. E-Book Version

Wilson, Scott 2010. Animals and Ethics In: Fieser, James (ed.). Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Martin, TN, The University of Tennessee at Martin. –

Wise, Steve M. 2011. animal rights. Encyclopaedia Britannica: Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/25760/animal-rights 

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  1. In the Company of Animals: A Study of Human-Animal Relationships.Keith Burgess-Jackson - 1998 - Ethics and the Environment 3:105-110.
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  2. Review of Created From Animals: The Moral Implications of Darwinism. [REVIEW]Marc Beckoff - unknown
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  3. Panels and Faces: Segmented Metaphors and Reconstituted Time in Art Spiegelman's Maus.Liam Kruger - 2015 - Critical Arts: South-North Cultural and Media Studies 29 (3):357-366.
    An examination of the specifically graphic-novelistic strategies employed in Art Spiegelman's graphic memoir, Maus, in leading the reader into a punctuated experience of time and memory, and in forcing complicity with the novel's problematic animal-as-ethnicity metaphor, in a wider attempt at putting together the critical vocabulary for discussing comic books as simultaneously textual and pictorial ‘texts’.
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  4. Animal Ethics: A Contemporary Introduction, by Bob Fischer.Jacquelyn Ann Kegley - 2022 - Teaching Philosophy 45 (1):112-115.
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  5. Estimating the Economic Value of Lethal Versus Nonlethal Deer Control in Suburban Communities.J. Michael Bowker, David H. Newman, Robert J. Warren & David W. Henderson - 2003 - Society and Natural Resources 16.
    Negative people/wildlife interaction has raised public interest in wildlife population control. We present a contingent valuation study of alternative deer control measures considered for Hilton Head Island, SC. Lethal control usig sharpshooters and nonlethal immuno-contraception techniques are evaluated. A mail-back survey was used to collect resident willingness-to-pay information for reduced deer densities and consequent property damage. Residents are unwilling to spend more for the nonlethal alternative. The estimated WTP appears theoretically consistent as increasing levels of abatement for both lethal and (...)
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  6. Pork, Politics, and Pollution.Ellen Brink - 1997 - The Animals' Agenda 17 (3):31.
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  7. Animal Ethics: Time for a New Approach?Andrew Brennan - 1995 - Animals and Science in the Twenty-First Century: New Technologies and Challenges.
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  8. Vivisection: A Window to the Dark Ages of Science.Don Barnes - 1996 - The Animals' Agenda 16.
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  9. The Postmodern Animal.Elisa Aaltola - 2001 - Environmental Values.
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  10. Should Dogs and Cats Be Vegetarian?Teri Barnato - 1997 - The Animals' Agenda 17 (3).
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  11. On Being Vegan.Matt Ball - 1997 - The Animals' Agenda 17 (1):19.
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  12. Dissection and Dissent.Jonathan Balcombe - 1996 - The Animals' Agenda.
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  13. How to Count Animals, More or Less. [REVIEW]Eliot Michaelson - 2021 - Philosophical Review 130 (4):601-605.
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  14. [Review] Felice Cimatti and Carlo Salzani, Editors. Animality in Contemporary Italian Philosophy. Palgrave Macmillan Animal Ethics Series. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan, 2020. 341 Pp.Matthew Calarco - 2021 - Animal Studies Journal 10.
    Animal Studies Journal 2021 10: [Review] Felice Cimatti and Carlo Salzani, editors. Animality in Contemporary Italian Philosophy. Palgrave Macmillan Animal Ethics Series. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan, 2020. 341 pp.
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  15. The Ethics of Attention: Engaging the Real with Iris Murdoch and Simone Weil.Silvia Caprioglio Panizza - forthcoming - New York, NY, USA: Routledge.
    This book draws on Iris Murdoch’s philosophy to explore questions related to the importance of attention in ethics. In doing so, it also engages with Murdoch’s ideas about the existence of a moral reality, the importance of love, and the necessity but also the difficulty, for most of us, of fighting against our natural self-centred tendencies. -/- Why is attention important to morality? This book argues that many moral failures and moral achievements can be explained by attention. Not only our (...)
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  16. Review of the Evidence of Sentience in Cephalopod Molluscs and Decapod Crustaceans.Jonathan Birch, Charlotte Burn, Alexandra Schnell, Heather Browning & Andrew Crump - manuscript
    Sentience is the capacity to have feelings, such as feelings of pain, pleasure, hunger, thirst, warmth, joy, comfort and excitement. It is not simply the capacity to feel pain, but feelings of pain, distress or harm, broadly understood, have a special significance for animal welfare law. Drawing on over 300 scientific studies, we evaluate the evidence of sentience in two groups of invertebrate animals: the cephalopod molluscs or, for short, cephalopods (including octopods, squid and cuttlefish) and the decapod crustaceans or, (...)
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  17. Application of Ethics to Animal Welfare.Phil Arkow - 1998 - Applied Animal Behaviour Science 59 (1):193-200.
    By virtue of their education and high level of public credibility, veterinarians are widely perceived as community caregivers with important contributions not only to animal well-being, but also to public health and mental heath. However, the profession has never resolved whether its primary responsibility is to the animal patient or the human client. As a result, ethical dilemmas impinge on the practitioner's ability to deliver pure services. This paper will discuss the differences between morals, values, and ethics and will apply (...)
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  18. Cow Care in Hindu Animal Ethics. Kenneth R. Valpey. Palgrave Macmillan, 2020. [REVIEW]Supratik Sen - 2021 - Journal of Dharma Studies 4 (3):343-345.
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  19. Different Religions, Different Animal Ethics?Louis Caruana - 2020 - Animal Frontiers 10 (1):8-14.
    Many people assume that serious reflection on animal ethics arose because of recent technological progress, the sharp rise in human population, and consequent pressure on global ecology. They consequently believe that this sub-discipline is relatively new and that traditional religions have little or nothing to offer. In spite of this however, we are currently seeing a heightened awareness of religion’s important role in all areas of individual and communal life, for better or for worse. As regards our relations with nature (...)
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  20. Thinking Like an Ecosystem: The Ethics of the Relocation, Rehabilitation and Release of Wildlife.Glenn Albrecht - 1998 - Animal Issues 2 (1).
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  21. Subjective Experience in Explanations of Animal PTSD Behavior.Kate Nicole Hoffman - 2020 - Philosophical Topics 48 (1):155-175.
    Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder is a mental health condition in which the experience of a traumatic event causes a series of psychiatric and behavioral symptoms such as hypervigilance, insomnia, irritability, aggression, constricted affect, and self-destructive behavior. This paper investigates two case studies to argue that the experience of PTSD is not restricted to humans alone; we have good epistemic reason to hold that some animals can experience genuine PTSD, given our current and best clinical understanding of the disorder in humans. I (...)
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  22. Feasting on Life.Carol J. Adams - 2000 - Journal for the Study of Religion, Nature and Culture.
    Many vegetarians say they do not have a spiritual practice. Many with a spiritual practice have no interest in vegetarianism. What is to be gained by this dialogue? Let us ask instead, what is lost when there is no exchange? Many vegetarians do not realize they have a spiritual practice when, in fact, they do have one. Many with a spiritual practice have not cultivated their ability to adopt vegetarianism. Vegetari-anism is like any other spiritual practice. It begins with attention (...)
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  23. Robert Morris and a Lost 18th-Century Vegetarian Book: An Introduction to Morris’s A Reasonable Plea for the Animal Creation.Carol Adams - 2005 - Organization and Environment 18 (4).
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  24. El conflicto entre los criterios morales centrados en la posesión de estados mentales y los asumidos por las éticas ambientales.Alejandro Villamor-Iglesias - 2020 - Dilemata 31:109-122.
    The criteria granting moral considerability determines which entities ought to be taken into consideration in our ethical thinking. Accepting the relevance of axiology for normative theory, the attribution of considerability will depend on what theory of value we accept. Accord- ing to certain views, the possession of certain mental states is the moraly relevant factor. However, different views in the so-called “environmentalism ethics” claim that this is not a plausible axiological criterion. This paper will point at the different practical consequences (...)
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  25. The Overwhelming Prevalence of Suffering in Nature.Alejandro Villamor-Iglesias - 2018 - Revista de Bioética y Derecho 42:181-195.
    There are several reasons to believe that there is a predominance of suffering over wellbeing in nature. The difference grows exponentially when the suffering of invertebrates is taken into consideration. Given the relevance of the experience of pain when it comes to attributing moral considerability to an individual, the seriousness and implications of the above statements are significant due to the need to reconcile the interests of an enormous number of individuals who experience pain to some degree. Depending on the (...)
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  26. The Value of Wild Nature: Comments on Kyle Johannsen’s Wild Animal Ethics.Clare Palmer - forthcoming - Philosophia:1-11.
    In his book Wild Animal Ethics, Kyle Johannsen argues that our duties of beneficence to help suffering wild animals require significant interventions into wild nature. In particular, he claims that the majority of wild animals lead miserable lives and that naturalness, or wildness, is not an intrinsically valuable property. In these comments, I question both these claims. First, I argue that a lot more evidence is needed than Johannsen provides to support the claim that most wild animal lives are terrible. (...)
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  27. Defending Wild Animal Ethics.Kyle Johannsen - forthcoming - Philosophia:1-9.
    The purpose of this paper is to respond to the thoughtful commentaries contained in the 'Wild Animal Ethics' book symposium.
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  28. Précis of Wild Animal Ethics.Kyle Johannsen - forthcoming - Philosophia:1-5.
    This paper is a summary of my book 'Wild Animal Ethics'.
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  29. Noble Animals, Brutish Animals.Marcus Hunt - 2021 - Between the Species 24 (1):70-92.
    The paper begins with a description of a grey seal performing conspecific infanticide. The paper then gives an account of “nobleness” and “brutishness.” Roughly, a behavioural-disposition is noble/brutish if it is one that would be a moral virtue/vice if the possessor of the behavioural-disposition were a moral agent. The paper then advances two pairs of axiological claims. The first pair of claims is that nobleness is good and that brutishness is bad. The second pair of claims is about an axiological (...)
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  30. Animal Ethics: A Contemporary Introduction.Bob Fischer - 2021 - New York: Routledge.
    There are many introductions to the animal ethics literature. There aren't many introductions to the practice of doing animal ethics. Bob Fischer's Animal Ethics: A Contemporary Introduction fills that gap, offering an accessible model of how animal ethics can be done today. The book takes up classic issues, such as the ethics of eating meat and experimenting on animals, but tackles them in an empirically informed and nuanced way. It also covers a range of relatively neglected issues in animal ethics, (...)
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  31. Peter Singer Et la Libération Animale: Quarante Ans Plus Tard.Dardenne Emilie, Giroux Valéry & Utria Enrique - 2017 - Rennes, France: Presses universitaires de Rennes.
    Dans son ouvrage La libération animale, Peter Singer développe trois grandes idées : le principe d'égale considération des intérêts, le rejet du spécisme et la nécessité de mettre un terme à certains types d'exploitation des animaux, notamment ceux qui ont trait à la recherche et à l'élevage industriel. Cette oeuvre phare a connu un retentissement immense, à tel point que sa publication, en 1975, a été présentée comme le moment clef dans l'émergence du mouvement éponyme. Cependant, le mouvement de libération (...)
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  32. Pleasures of the Flesh.Jasmine Gunkel - forthcoming - Social Theory and Practice.
    I give an argument for veganism by drawing parallels between a) bestiality and animal fighting, and b) animal product consumption. Attempts to draw principled distinctions between the practices fail. The wrong-making features of bestiality and animal fighting are also found in animal product consumption. These parallels give us insight into why popular objections to veganism, such as the Inefficacy Argument, are inadequate. Because it is often difficult to enact significant life changes, I hope that seeing the parallels between animal product (...)
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  33. Animals: New Essays.Andreas Blank (ed.) - 2016 - Philosophia.
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  34. Neuroethics and Animals: Report and Recommendations From the University of Pennsylvania Animal Research Neuroethics Workshop.Adam Shriver & Tyler M. John - 2021 - ILAR Journal (00):1-10.
    Growing awareness of the ethical implications of neuroscience in the early years of the 21st century led to the emergence of the new academic field of “neuroethics,” which studies the ethical implications of developments in the neurosciences. However, despite the acceleration and evolution of neuroscience research on nonhuman animals, the unique ethical issues connected with neuroscience research involving nonhuman animals remain underdiscussed. This is a significant oversight given the central place of animal models in neuroscience. To respond to these concerns, (...)
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  35. Intensive Animal Agriculture, Land-Use and Biological Conservation: Converging Demands of Justice.Anna Wienhues & Steffen Hirth - 2021 - Justice and Food Security in a Changing Climate.
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  36. Immanence and the Animal: A Conceptual Inquiry.Krzysztof Skonieczny - 2020 - London, UK: Routledge.
    This book reexamines the concept of the animal on the plane of immanence, as opposed to the traditional viewpoint founded on the plane of transcendence. -/- Following Deleuze and Guattari’s notion that philosophy is a discipline of creating concepts, this book traces how the concept of the animal was created in the history of philosophy through re-reading the works of Descartes, Kant, Heidegger, Derrida and Levinas. Their theories show that the concept of the animal was constructed on the "plane of (...)
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  37. Taking Animal Perspectives Into Account in Animal Ethics’.B. Bovenkerk & Eva Meijer - 2019 - In E. Vinnari & M. Vinnari (eds.), Sustainable Governance and Management of Food Systems.
    Recent years have seen an explosion of interest in nonhuman animal agency in different fields. In biology and ethology new studies about animal languages, cultures, cognition and emotion are published weekly, affirming Darwin’s thesis that differences between humans and other animals are of degree and not kind. In the broad field of animal studies the symbolic and ontological human-animal distinction is challenged and other animals are presented as actors. These studies challenge existing approaches to animal ethics. Animals are no longer (...)
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  38. How to Count Animals, More or Less, by Shelly Kagan. [REVIEW]Jeff Sebo - 2021 - Mind 130 (518):689-697.
    How to Count Animals, more or less, by KaganShelly. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2019. Pp. 320.
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  39. Passionate Animals: Emotions, Animal Ethics, and Moral Pragmatics.Mara-Daria Cojocaru - 2022 - Lexington Books.
    To solve the problems of factory farming and animal experimentation, what we need is not new philosophical knowledge but a systematic exploration of how to put what we know into practice. This book argues for combining pragmatism and vision, reason and emotions, and morality and politics to foster significantly better human-animal relations.
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  40. Flesh Without Blood: The Public Health Argument for Synthetic Meat.Jonathan Anomaly, Diana Fleischman, Heather Browning & Walter Veit - manuscript
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  41. Against Neo-Cartesianism: Neurofunctional Resilience and Animal Pain.Phil Halper, Kenneth Williford, David Rudrauf & Perry N. Fuchs - 2021 - Philosophical Psychology 34 (4):474-501.
    Several influential philosophers and scientists have advanced a framework, often called Neo-Cartesianism (NC), according to which animal suffering is merely apparent. Drawing upon contemporary neuroscience and philosophy of mind, Neo-Cartesians challenge the mainstream position we shall call Evolutionary Continuity (EC), the view that humans are on a nonhierarchical continuum with other species and are thus not likely to be unique in consciously experiencing negative pain affect. We argue that some Neo-Cartesians have misconstrued the underlying science or tendentiously appropriated controversial views (...)
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  42. Is Heaven a Zoopolis?A. G. Holdier - 2020 - Faith and Philosophy 37 (4):475–499.
    The concept of service found in Christian theism and related religious perspectives offers robust support for a political defense of nonhuman animal rights, both in the eschaton and in the present state. By adapting the political theory defended by Donaldson and Kymlicka to contemporary theological models of the afterlife and of human agency, I defend a picture of heaven as a harmoniously structured society where humans are the functional leaders of a multifaceted, interspecies citizenry. Consequently, orthodox religious believers (concerned with (...)
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  43. A Practice‐Focused Case for Animal Moral Agency.Dorna Behdadi - 2021 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 38 (2):226-243.
    Considerations of nonhuman animal moral agency typically base their reasoning and (very often negative) verdict on a capacity‐focused approach to moral agency. According to this approach, an entity is a moral agent if it has certain intrapersonal features or capacities, typically in terms of conscious reflection and deliberation. According to a practice‐focused notion of moral agency, however, an entity is a moral agent in virtue of being a participant of a moral responsibility practice (MRP). I argue that a practice‐focused approach (...)
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  44. Animal Cognition.Kristin Andrews & Susana Monsó - 2021 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Rewritten entry for the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  45. After Regan: Animal Rights and Lifeboat Scenarios.Grace Clement - 2021 - Journal of Animal Ethics 11 (1):99.
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  46. Picturing Animals.Rebecca Stanton - 2021 - Journal of Animal Ethics 11 (1):93.
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  47. Cats and Conservationists: The Debate Over Who Owns the Outdoors.Joan E. Schaffner - 2021 - Journal of Animal Ethics 11 (1):84.
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  48. The Global Watchdogs: Toward International Animal Rights Law?Kit de Vriese & Maria Elena Handtrack - 2021 - Journal of Animal Ethics 11 (1):63.
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  49. Legal Personhood and Animal Rights.Visa A. Kurki - 2021 - Journal of Animal Ethics 11 (1):47.
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  50. Legal Personhood: The Case of Chucho the Andean Bear.Macarena Montes Franceschini - 2021 - Journal of Animal Ethics 11 (1):36.
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