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1012 found
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  1. Contraception and Abortion: A Utilitarian View.Leslie Allan - manuscript
    Conservative and liberal approaches to the problem of abortion are oversimplified and deeply flawed. Accepting that the moral status of the conceptus changes during gestation, the author advances a more nuanced perspective. Through applying a form of rules in practice utilitarianism within the context of overall population policy, he provides a compelling ethical and legal framework for regulating contraception and abortion practices.
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  2. The Argument From Back-Street Abortion Revisited.Josiah Della Foresta - manuscript
    Motivated by recent political trends surrounding the legality of abortion, and noting the apparent difficulty with which partisan agreement can be found when engaging with arguments from foetal personhood, this paper revisits a classic axiological argument for the legalisation of abortion which relies on a commitment to the moral relevancy of consequences and the empirically sound nature of said consequences. Academically known as the Argument from Back-Street Abortion, agreement with the argument's premises entails the legalisation of abortion is morally obligatory, (...)
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  3. Self-Ownership and Abortion.Rajiv Shah - manuscript
    This paper argues that in the absence of general duties to rescue a woman may, at any time, terminate an unintended pregnancy even if the foetus is a person. However the rights of the foetus restrict the procedures one may use. In particular only an evictionist procedure may be used. Furthermore the argument presented does not rely on any act of balancing the rights of the woman against the rights of the foetus. There is no “clash of rights” involved. This (...)
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  4. Pregnant Women with Fetal Abnormalities: The Forgotten People in the Abortion Debate.L. De Crespigny & Savulescu, J. - manuscript
    of (from Oxford Uehiro Centre for Practical Ethics) Medical Journal of Australia, 188 (2) 100 - 102.
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  5. Public Health Ethics and Abortion: A Response to Simkulet.Bruce P. Blackshaw & Daniel Rodger - forthcoming - Bioethics.
  6. The Duty to Protect, Abortion, and Organ Donation.Emily Carroll & Parker Crutchfield - forthcoming - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics.
    Some people oppose abortion on the grounds that fetuses have full moral status and thus a right to not be killed. We argue that special obligations that hold between mother and fetus also hold between parents and their children. We argue that if these special obligations necessitate the sacrifice of bodily autonomy in the case of abortion, then they also necessitate the sacrifice of bodily autonomy in the case of organ donation. If we accept the argument that it is obligatory (...)
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  7. Does Abortion Harm the Fetus?Karl Ekendahl & Jens Johansson - forthcoming - Utilitas:1-13.
    A central claim in abortion ethics is what might be called the Harm Claim – the claim that abortion harms the fetus. In this article, we put forward a simple and straightforward reason to reject the Harm Claim. Rather than invoking controversial assumptions about personal identity, or some nonstandard account of harm, as many other critics of the Harm Claim have done, we suggest that the aborted fetus cannot be harmed for the simple reason that it does not occupy any (...)
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  8. The Politics of Legal Abortion: From Direct Action to Dialogue.Jeffrey A. Gauthier - forthcoming - Hypatia:1-5.
    In her highly influential 1984 study Abortion and the Politics of Motherhood, Kristin Luker speculates that opposition to legal abortion among women was likely to be strongest among those who were full-time homemakers without a college education. But despite a marked decline in that demographic group and a well-documented rise in public support for gender equality since then, the rate of support for legal abortion has remained stubbornly fixed at between fifty and fifty-five percent. This tepid support has coincided with (...)
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  9. My Body, Not My Choice: Against Legalised Abortion.Perry Hendricks - forthcoming - Journal of Medical Ethics:medethics-2020-107194.
    There are some cases in which the government should coerce its citizens into providing care to vulnerable persons. For example, suppose that a woman and her infant are snowed in a cabin, and that the only available food for the infant is her mother's breastmilk. The government should coerce the mother into breastfeeding her infant. This fact, however, has significant implications: first, it shows that David Boonin's recent argument for legalised abortion fails. And second, it shows that (given fetal personhood) (...)
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  10. The Axiology of Abortion: Should We Hope Pro-Choicers or Pro-Lifers Are Right?Perry Hendricks - forthcoming - Ergo: An Open Access Journal of Philosophy.
    The ethics of abortion considers whether abortion is immoral. Pro-choice philosophers think that it is not immoral, while pro-life philosophers think that it is. The axiology of abortion considers whether world would be better if the pro-choice or pro-life position is right. While much attention has been given to the ethics of abortion, there has been no attention given to the axiology of abortion. In this article, I seek to change that. I consider various arguments for thinking our world would (...)
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  11. Autonomy Rights and Abortion After the Point of Viability.Kristen Hine - forthcoming - Wiley: Bioethics.
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  12. Maternal Autonomy and Prenatal Harm.Nathan Robert Howard - forthcoming - Bioethics.
    Inflicting harm is generally preferable to inflicting death. If you must choose between the two, you should choose to harm. But prenatal harm seems different. If a mother must choose between harming her fetus or aborting it, she may choose either, at least in many cases. So it seems that prenatal harm is particularly objectionable, sometimes on a par with death. This paper offers an explanation of why prenatal harm seems particularly objectionable by drawing an analogy to the all-or-nothing problem. (...)
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  13. Viewing the Image? Ultrasound Examination During Abortion Preparations, Ethical Challenges.Marianne Kjelsvik, Ragnhild J. T. Sekse, Elin M. Aasen & Eva Gjengedal - forthcoming - Nursing Ethics:096973302110510.
    During preparation for early abortion in Norway, an ultrasound examination is usually performed to determine gestation and viability. This article aims to provide a deeper understanding of women’s and health care personnel’s experiences with ultrasound viewing during abortion preparation in the first trimester. Qualitative in-depth interviews with women who had been prepared for early abortion and focus group interviews with HCP from gynaecological units were carried out. A hermeneutic-phenomenological analysis, inspired by van Manen, was chosen. Thirteen women who were pregnant (...)
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  14. Abortion and Infanticide: A Radical Libertarian Defence.J. C. Lester - forthcoming - In Charles Tandy (ed.), Death And Anti-Death, Volume 19: One Year After Judith Jarvis Thomson (1929-2020). Ria University Press.
    1. First there is an outline of the libertarian approach taken here. 2. On the assumption of personhood, it is explained how there need be no overall inflicted harm and no proactive killing with abortion and infanticide. This starts with an attached-adult analogy and transitions to dealing directly with the issues. Various well-known criticisms are answered throughout. 3. There is then a more-abstract explanation of how it is paradoxical to assume a duty to do more than avoid inflicting overall harm (...)
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  15. Early and Later Abortions: Ethics and Law.Nathan Nobis - forthcoming - In Bob Fischer (ed.), Ethics Left and Right: The Moral Issues that Divide Us. Oxford University Press.
    Most abortions occur early in pregnancy. I argue that these abortions, and so most abortions, are not morally wrong and that the best arguments given to think that these abortions are wrong are weak. I also argue that these abortions, and probably all abortions, should be legal. -/- I begin by observing that people sometimes respond to the issue by describing the circumstances of abortion, not offering reasons for their views about those circumstances; I then dismiss “question-begging” arguments about abortion (...)
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  16. The Case for Telemedical Early Medical Abortion in England: Dispelling Adult Safeguarding Concerns.Jordan A. Parsons & Elizabeth Chloe Romanis - forthcoming - Health Care Analysis:1-24.
    Access to abortion care has been hugely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. This has prompted several governments to permit the use of telemedicine for fully remote care pathways, thereby ensuring pregnant people are still able to access services. One such government is that of England, where these new care pathways have been publicly scrutinised. Those opposed to telemedical early medical abortion care have raised myriad concerns, though they largely centre on matters of patient safeguarding. It is argued that healthcare professionals (...)
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  17. Abortion and the Veil of Ignorance: A Response to Minehan.Joona Räsänen - forthcoming - Journal of Medical Ethics.
    In a recent JME paper, Matthew John Minehan applies John Rawls’ veil of ignorance against Judith Thomson’s famous violinist argument for the permissibility of abortion. Minehan asks readers to ‘imagine that one morning you are back to back in bed with another person. One of you is conscious and the other unconscious. You do not know which one you are’. Since from this position of ignorance, you have an equal chance of being the unconscious violinist and the conscious person attached (...)
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  18. Disputes in Bioethics: Abortion, Euthanasia, and Other Controversies.J. Burke Rea - forthcoming - The New Bioethics:1-4.
    In Disputes in Bioethics: Abortion, Euthanasia, and Other Controversies, Christopher Kaczor presents a series of his previously published articles addressing recent scholarship in bioethics. As suc...
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  19. Disputes in Bioethics: Abortion, Euthanasia, and Other Controversies.J. Burke Rea - forthcoming - Tandf: The New Bioethics:1-4.
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  20. Public Health, Induced Abortion, and Spontaneous Abortion.William Simkulet - forthcoming - Wiley: Bioethics.
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  21. On Anti‐Abortion Violence.Jeremy Williams - forthcoming - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research.
    Anti‐abortion violence (‘AAV’) is anathema to almost everyone, on all sides of the abortion debate. Yet, as this article aims to show, it is far more difficult than has previously been recognised to avoid the deeply unpalatable conclusion that it can sometimes be justified. Some of the most frequently‐occupied positions on the morality of abortion will imply precisely that conclusion, I argue, unless conjoined with an especially stringent and unattractive form of pacifism. This is true not only of strict anti‐abortion (...)
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  22. On Anti‐Abortion Violence.Jeremy Williams - forthcoming - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research.
    Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, EarlyView.
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  23. Can Prolife Theorists Justify an Exception for Rape?Bruce P. Blackshaw - 2022 - Bioethics 36 (1):49-53.
    Prolife theorists typically hold to the claim that all human beings possess equal moral status from conception and consequently possess a right to life. This, they believe, entails that abortion is impermissible in all circumstances. Critics characterize this as an extreme anti-abortion position, as it prima facie allows no exceptions, even in cases of rape. Here, I examine whether the prolife claim regarding equal moral status is compatible with a more attractive moderate stance that permits an exception in the case (...)
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  24. The FDA Ought to Change Plan B’s Label.Christopher ChoGlueck - 2022 - Contraception 106.
    This commentary defends 3 arguments for changing the label of levonorgestrel-based emergency contraception (LNG EC) so that it no longer supports the possibility of a mechanism of action after fertilization. First, there is no direct scientific evidence confirming any postfertilization mechanisms. Second, despite the weight of evidence, there is still widespread public misunderstanding over the mechanism of LNG EC. Third, this FDA label is not a value-free claim, but instead it has functioned like a political tool for reducing contraceptive access. (...)
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  25. Ethics of Fetal Reduction: A Reply to My Critics.Joona Räsänen - 2022 - Journal of Medical Ethics 48 (2):142-143.
    In the article, Twin pregnancy, fetal reduction and the ‘all or nothing problem’, I argued that there is a moral problem in multifetal pregnancy reduction from a twin to a singleton pregnancy. Drawing on Horton’s original version of the ‘all or nothing problem’, I argued that there are two intuitively plausible claims in 2-to-1 MFPR: aborting both fetuses is morally permissible, aborting only one of the twin fetuses is morally wrong. Yet, with the assumption that one should select permissible choice (...)
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  26. Twin Pregnancy, Fetal Reduction and the 'All or Nothing Problem’.Joona Räsänen - 2022 - Journal of Medical Ethics 48 (2):101-105.
    Fetal reduction is the practice of reducing the number of fetuses in a multiple pregnancy, such as quadruplets, to a twin or singleton pregnancy. Use of assisted reproductive technologies increases the likelihood of multiple pregnancies, and many fetal reductions are done after in vitro fertilisation and embryo transfer, either because of social or health-related reasons. In this paper, I apply Joe Horton’s all or nothing problem to the ethics of fetal reduction in the case of a twin pregnancy. I argue (...)
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  27. Fine-Tuning the Impairment Argument.Bruce Philip Blackshaw & Perry Hendricks - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 47 (9):641-642.
    Perry Hendricks’ original impairment argument for the immorality of abortion is based on the impairment principle (TIP): if impairing an organism to some degree is immoral, then ceteris paribus, impairing it to a higher degree is also immoral. Since abortion impairs a fetus to a higher degree than fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and giving a fetus FAS is immoral, it follows that abortion is immoral. Critics have argued that the ceteris paribus is not met for FAS and abortion, and so (...)
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  28. Strengthening the Impairment Argument Against Abortion.Bruce Philip Blackshaw & Perry Hendricks - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 47 (7):515-518.
    Perry Hendricks’ impairment argument for the immorality of abortion is based on two premises: first, impairing a fetus with fetal alcohol syndrome is immoral, and second, if impairing an organism to some degree is immoral, then ceteris paribus, impairing it to a higher degree is also immoral. He calls this the impairment principle. Since abortion impairs a fetus to a higher degree than FAS, it follows from these two premises that abortion is immoral. Critics have focussed on the ceteris paribus (...)
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  29. Miscarriage Can Kill … But It Usually Does Not: Evaluating Inconsistency Arguments.Jessalyn A. Bohn - 2021 - The New Bioethics 27 (3):245-265.
    Recent publications debate the value of inconsistency arguments. Here, I argue that 'Cause of Death Arguments' - inconsistency arguments that claim miscarriage causes death far more often than induced abortion - are unsound or invalid. 'Miscarriage' ambiguously refers both to intrauterine death, an outcome that does not itself cause death, and preterm delivery, which only sometimes causes death. The referential ambiguity also obscures actions people do take to prevent 'miscarriage.' When using the most plausible versions of each premise, these arguments (...)
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  30. DRUG FACTS, VALUES, AND THE MORNING-AFTER PILL.Christopher ChoGlueck - 2021 - Public Affairs Quarterly 35 (1):51-82.
    While the Value-Free Ideal of science has suffered compelling criticism, some advocates like Gregor Betz continue to argue that science policy advisors should avoid value judgments by hedging their hypotheses. This approach depends on a mistaken understanding of the relations between facts and values in regulatory science. My case study involves the morning-after pill Plan B and the “Drug Fact” that it “may” prevent implantation. I analyze the operative values, which I call zygote-centrism, responsible for this hedged drug label. Then, (...)
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  31. Disability and the Complexity of Choice in the Ethics of Abortion and Voluntary Euthanasia.Shane Clifton - 2021 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 46 (4):431-450.
    In the polarized debates about abortion and voluntary euthanasia, disability advocates, who normally align with left-wing social forces, have tended to side with conservative and religious voices in expressing concerns about the impact of technological and sociopolitical developments on disabled futures. This paper draws on the social model of disability and the virtue ethics tradition to explain the alignment between the religious and disability perspectives, and the theory of transformative choice to highlight the limits and biases of the pro-choice logic. (...)
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  32. Miscarriage Is Not a Cause of Death: A Response to Berg’s “Abortion and Miscarriage”.Nicholas Colgrove - 2021 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 46 (4):394-413.
    Some opponents of abortion claim that fetuses are persons from the moment of conception. Following Berg (2017), let us call these individuals “Personhood-At-Conception” (or PAC), opponents of abortion. Berg argues that if fetuses are persons from the moment of conception, then miscarriage kills far more people than abortion. As such, PAC opponents of abortion face the following dilemma: They must “immediately” and “substantially” shift their attention, resources, etc., toward preventing miscarriage or they must admit that they do not actually believe (...)
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  33. Abortion and Multifetal Pregnancy Reduction: An Ethical Comparison.Silje Langseth Dahl, Rebekka Hylland Vaksdal, Mathias Barra, Espen Gamlund & Carl Tollef Solberg - 2021 - Etikk I Praksis - Nordic Journal of Applied Ethics 1:51-73.
    In recent years, multifetal pregnancy reduction has increasingly been a subject of debate in Norway. The intensity of this debate reached a tentative maximum when the Legislation Department delivered their interpretative statement, Section 2 - Interpretation of the Abortion Act, in 2016 in response to a request from the Ministry of Health that the Legislation Department consider whether the Abortion Act allows for MFPR of healthy fetuses in multiple pregnancies. The Legislation Department concluded that the current abortion legislation [as of (...)
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  34. The Issue of Abortion in Contemporary Brazil: An Analysis of Feminist Litigation in the Supreme Court.Maria Ligia Ganacim Granado Rodrigues Elias - 2021 - Feminist Legal Studies 29 (2):159-179.
    This article discusses the issue of abortion in the context of the dispute between progressive and neoconservative political forces in Brazil. The article analyses ADPF 442, a legal instrument known as a Motion of Noncompliance with a Fundamental Precept, which was lodged with the Supreme Court as part of a feminist litigation strategy in the country. The motion calls for the Supreme Court to decide on the constitutionality of the decriminalisation of abortion within the first 12 weeks of gestation. Methodologically, (...)
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  35. Unjustified Asymmetry: Positive Claims of Conscience and Heartbeat Bills.Kyle G. Fritz - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics 21 (8):46-59.
    In 2019, several US states passed “heartbeat” bills. Should such bills go into effect, they would outlaw abortion once an embryonic heartbeat can be detected, thereby severely limiting an individual’s access to abortion. Many states allow health care professionals to refuse to provide an abortion for reasons of conscience. Yet heartbeat bills do not include a positive conscience clause that would allow health care professionals to provide an abortion for reasons of conscience. I argue that this asymmetry is unjustified. The (...)
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  36. Strengthened Impairment Argument: Restating Marquis?Alex Gillham - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics:1-2.
    Blackshaw and Hendricks recently developed a strengthened version of the impairment argument (SIA) that imports Marquis’ account of the wrongness of abortion. I then argued that if SIA imports Marquis’ account, then it restates Marquis’ position and thus is not very significant. In turn, Blackshaw and Hendricks explained why they take SIA to be importantly different from Marquis’ account. I have two aims in this response. First, I reconstruct Blackshaw and Hendricks’ arguments for the claim that SIA is importantly different (...)
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  37. Legal Abortion Limit Raised Up to 24 Weeks of Gestation for Substantial Foetal Anomalies or for Rape Victims: A Welcome Step for Women and Health Providers in India.Anil Kumar Gupta, Sahajal Dhooria, Nandita Kakkar, Himanshu Gupta, Manoj Goyal, Prema Menon, Shefali K. Sharma, Anupriya Kaur, Ruchita Shah, Kanya Mukhopadhyay, Tulika Singh, Yogender Bansal, Ranjana Singh & Rashmi Bagga - 2021 - Asian Bioethics Review 14 (1):5-8.
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  38. How Not to Defend the Unborn.David Hershenov & Philip A. Reed - 2021 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 46 (4):414-430.
    It is sometimes proposed that killing or harming abortion providers is the only logically consistent position available to opponents of abortion. Since lethal violence against morally responsible attackers is normally viewed as justified in order to defend innocent parties, pro-lifers should also think so in the case of the abortion doctor and so they should act to defend the unborn. In our paper, we defend the mainstream pro-life view against killing abortion doctors. We argue that the pro-life view can, in (...)
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  39. Autonomy Rights and Abortion After the Point of Viability.Kristen Hine - 2021 - Bioethics 35 (8):787-792.
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  40. Children, Fetuses, and the Non-Existent: Moral Obligations and the Beginning of Life.Elizabeth Jackson - 2021 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 46 (4):379–393.
    The morality of abortion is a longstanding controversy. One may wonder whether it’s even possible to make significant progress on an issue over which so much ink has already been split and there is such polarizing disagreement (Boyle 1994). The papers in this issue show that this progress is possible—there is more to be said about abortion and other crucial beginning-of-life issues. They do so largely by applying contemporary philosophical tools to moral questions involving life’s beginning. The first two papers (...)
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  41. Applied Ethics: An Impartial Introduction.Elizabeth Jackson, Tyron Goldschmidt, Dustin Crummett & Rebecca Chan - 2021 - Indianapolis, IN: Hackett Publishing.
    This book is devoted to applied ethics. We focus on six popular and controversial topics: abortion, the environment, animals, poverty, punishment, and disability. We cover three chapters per topic, and each chapter is devoted to a famous or influential argument on the topic. After we present an influential argument, we then consider objections to the argument, and replies to the objections. The book is impartial, and set up in order to equip the reader to make up her own mind about (...)
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  42. Balancing Personal Beliefs Against Access to Legal Abortion: An Uneven Negotiation.Anita Kleinsmidt - 2021 - Developing World Bioethics 21 (2):56-57.
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  43. Rupture and Continuity: Abortion, the Medical Profession, and the Transitional State—A Polish Case Study.Atina Krajewska - 2021 - Feminist Legal Studies 29 (3):323-350.
    Taking Poland as a case study, this article examines the sociological and historical-institutional factors that determine the relationship between the process of medical professionalisation and reproductive rights in transitional societies. Focusing on three periods in Polish history, Partition era, the Second Polish Republic, and the post-war period, it identifies ruptures and continuities that have shaped the development of the Polish medical profession and its attitude towards abortion care today. Using insights from feminist historical institutionalism, abortion studies, and the sociology of (...)
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  44. Abortion & Artificial Wombs.J. Y. Lee & Andrea Bidoli - 2021 - Philosophy Now 144:26-27.
    Abortion is the deliberate termination of a pregnancy. In current practice, this involves the death of the foetus. Consequently, the debate on whether those experiencing an unwanted pregnancy have the right to abortion is usually dichotomized as a matter of pro-choice versus pro-life. Pro-choice advocates maintain that abortion is acceptable under various circumstances. The idea that we ought to respect pregnant people’s rights to choose what to do with their bodies – respect for bodily autonomy – is cited as a (...)
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  45. The Turnaway Study: Ten Years, a Thousand Women, and the Consequences of Having—or Being Denied—an Abortion by Diana Green Foster.Kathryn MacKay - 2021 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 14 (2):196-200.
    One thousand women. Ten years. Diana Greene Foster’s epic Turnaway Study, and its namesake book, followed a thousand women who sought abortions across the United States for a decade after they were or were not successful in ending unwanted pregnancies to document how their lives changed. The result is a book rich in detail, full of facts about abortion in the United States—and somewhat more generally—that perhaps many of us knew or suspected but few could find in print. These facts (...)
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  46. Navigating Abortion Law Dilemmas: Experiences and Attitudes Among Ethiopian Health Care Professionals.Morten Magelssen, Jan Helge Solbakk, Viva Combs Thorsen & Demelash Bezabih Ewnetu - 2021 - BMC Medical Ethics 22 (1):1-7.
    BackgroundEthiopia’s 2005 abortion law improved access to legal abortion. In this study we examine the experiences of abortion providers with the revised abortion law, including how they view and resolve perceived moral challenges.MethodsThirty healthcare professionals involved in abortion provisions in Addis Ababa were interviewed. Transcripts were analyzed using systematic text condensation, a qualitative analysis framework.ResultsMost participants considered the 2005 abortion law a clear improvement—yet it does not solve all problems and has led to new dilemmas. As a main finding, the (...)
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  47. Basic Beliefs, the Embryo Rescue Case, and Single-Issue Voting.Tyler McNabb & Michael DeVito - 2021 - The National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 21 (2):203-208.
    In this essay, we respond to Dustin Crummett’s argument that one cannot consistently appeal to body count reasoning to justify being a single-issue pro-life voter if one is also committed to the usual response to the embryo rescue case. Specifically, we argue that a modified version of BCR we call BCR* is consistent with the usual response. We then move to address concerns about the relevance of BCR* to Crummett’s original thesis.
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  48. Emotions and Embodiment as Feminist Practice in the Free Abortion Movement in France.Lucile Ruault - 2021 - European Journal of Women's Studies 28 (3):320-336.
    This article explores the critical role of emotions and bodies in the individual dynamics of engagement as well as the construction of collective identities and action in women’s groups in the 1970s in France. Much literature on emotion work in feminist organizations has tended to discuss emotions stemming from women’s dominant socialization processes as, above all, alienating, thereby as barriers to their activism. The Movement for the liberty of abortion and birth control offers essential insights into how gendered dispositions can (...)
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  49. The Moral Significance of Abortion Inconsistency Arguments.William Simkulet - 2021 - Asian Bioethics Review 14 (1):41-56.
    Most opponents of abortion believe fetuses matter. Critics argue that OA act inconsistently with regards to fetal life, seeking to restrict access to induced abortion, but largely ignoring spontaneous abortion and the creation of surplus embryos by IVF. Nicholas Colgrove, Bruce Blackshaw, and Daniel Rodger call such arguments inconsistency arguments and contend they do not matter. They present three objections to these arguments — the other beliefs, other actions, and hypocrisy objection. Previously, I argued these objections fail and threaten to (...)
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  50. Defending the Distinction Between Pregnancy and Parenthood.Prabhpal Singh - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 47 (3):189-191.
    In this paper, I respond to criticisms toward my account of the difference in moral status between fetuses and newborns. I show my critics have not adequately argued for their view that pregnant women participate in a parent-child relationship. While an important counterexample is raised against my account, this counterexample had already been dealt with in my original paper. Because the criticisms against my account lack argumentative support, they do not pose a problem for my account. I conclude the raised (...)
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