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1135 found
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  1. Contraception and Abortion: A Utilitarian View.Leslie Allan - manuscript
    Conservative and liberal approaches to the problem of abortion are oversimplified and deeply flawed. Accepting that the moral status of the conceptus changes during gestation, the author advances a more nuanced perspective. Through applying a form of rules in practice utilitarianism within the context of overall population policy, he provides a compelling ethical and legal framework for regulating contraception and abortion practices.
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  2. The Argument from Back-Street Abortion Revisited.Josiah Della Foresta -
    Motivated by recent political trends surrounding the legality of abortion, and noting the apparent difficulty with which partisan agreement can be found when engaging with arguments from foetal personhood, this paper revisits a classic axiological argument for the legalisation of abortion which relies on a commitment to the moral relevancy of consequences and the empirically sound nature of said consequences. Academically known as the Argument from Back-Street Abortion, agreement with the argument's premises entails the legalisation of abortion is morally obligatory, (...)
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  3. Pregnant women with fetal abnormalities: The forgotten people in the abortion debate.L. De Crespigny & Savulescu, J. - manuscript
    of (from Oxford Uehiro Centre for Practical Ethics) Medical Journal of Australia, 188 (2) 100 - 102.
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  4. Don't Risk Homicide: Abortion After 10 Weeks Gestation.Matthew Braddock - forthcoming - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy.
    When an abortion is performed, someone dies. Are we killing an innocent human person? Widespread disagreement exists. However, it’s not necessary to establish personhood in order to establish the wrongness of abortion: a substantial chance of personhood is enough. We defend The Don’t Risk Homicide Argument: abortions are wrong after 10 weeks gestation because they substantially and unjustifiably risk homicide, the unjust killing of an innocent person. Why 10 weeks? Because the cumulative evidence establishes a substantial chance (a more than (...)
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  5. Illegal abortion and reproductive injustice in the Pacific Islands: A qualitative analysis of court data.Kate Burry, Kristen Beek, Lisa Vallely, Heather Worth & Bridget Haire - forthcoming - Developing World Bioethics.
    The Oceania region is home to some of the world's most restrictive abortion laws, and there is evidence of Pacific Island women's reproductive oppression across several aspects of their reproductive lives, including in relation to contraceptive decision-making, birthing, and fertility. In this paper we analyse documents from court cases in the Pacific Islands regarding the illegal procurement of abortion. We undertook inductive thematic analysis of documents from eighteen illegal abortion court cases from Pacific Island countries.Using the lens of reproductive justice, (...)
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  6. Illegal abortion and reproductive injustice in the Pacific Islands: A qualitative analysis of court data.Kate Burry, Kristen Beek, Lisa Vallely, Heather Worth & Bridget Haire - forthcoming - Developing World Bioethics.
    The Oceania region is home to some of the world's most restrictive abortion laws, and there is evidence of Pacific Island women's reproductive oppression across several aspects of their reproductive lives, including in relation to contraceptive decision-making, birthing, and fertility. In this paper we analyse documents from court cases in the Pacific Islands regarding the illegal procurement of abortion. We undertook inductive thematic analysis of documents from eighteen illegal abortion court cases from Pacific Island countries.Using the lens of reproductive justice, (...)
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  7. Primary care and abortion legislation in Chile: A failed point of entry.Lidia Casas, Lieta Vivaldi, Adela Montero, Natalia Bozo, Juan José Álvarez & Jorge Babul - forthcoming - Developing World Bioethics.
    While Chile's partial decriminalization of abortion in 2017 was a long overdue recognition of women's sexual and reproductive rights, nearly four years later the caseload remains well below expectations. This pattern is the product of standing barriers in access to abortion-related health services, especially at the primary care point of entry. This study seeks to identify and describe these barriers. The findings presented here were obtained through a qualitative, exploratory study based on 19 semi-structured interviews with relevant actors identified through (...)
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  8. Procreative Justice Reconceived.Emmalon Davis - forthcoming - Journal of the American Philosophical Association (First View):1-23.
    This paper reconsiders Tommie Shelby's (2016) analysis of procreation in poor black communities. I identify three conceptual frames within which Shelby situates his analysis—feminization, choice-as-control, and moralization. I argue that these frames should be rejected on conceptual, empirical, and moral grounds. As I show, this framing engenders a flawed understanding of poor black women's procreative lives. I propose an alternative framework for reconceiving the relationship between poverty and procreative justice, one oriented around reproductive flourishing instead of reproductive responsibility. More generally, (...)
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  9. We should not take abortion services for granted.Nathan Emmerich - forthcoming - Clinical Ethics.
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  10. The Axiology of Abortion: Should We Hope Pro-Choicers or Pro-Lifers are Right?Perry Hendricks - forthcoming - Ergo: An Open Access Journal of Philosophy.
    The ethics of abortion considers whether abortion is immoral. Pro-choice philosophers think that it is not immoral, while pro-life philosophers think that it is. The axiology of abortion considers whether world would be better if the pro-choice or pro-life position is right. While much attention has been given to the ethics of abortion, there has been no attention given to the axiology of abortion. In this article, I seek to change that. I consider various arguments for thinking our world would (...)
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  11. The Impairment Argument Against Abortion.Perry Hendricks - forthcoming - In Nicholas Colgrove, Bruce P. Blackshaw & Daniel Rodger (eds.), Agency, Pregnancy, and Persons: Essays in Defense of Human Life.
    I provide an updated version of The Impairment Argument against abortion and respond to numerous objections that can be (and have been) raised to it.
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  12. Maternal Autonomy and Prenatal Harm.Nathan Robert Howard - forthcoming - Bioethics.
    Inflicting harm is generally preferable to inflicting death. If you must choose between the two, you should choose to harm. But prenatal harm seems different. If a mother must choose between harming her fetus or aborting it, she may choose either, at least in many cases. So it seems that prenatal harm is particularly objectionable, sometimes on a par with death. This paper offers an explanation of why prenatal harm seems particularly objectionable by drawing an analogy to the all-or-nothing problem. (...)
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  13. Human equality arguments against abortion.Calum Miller - forthcoming - Journal of Medical Ethics.
    In this paper, I argue that a commitment to a very modest form of egalitarianism—equality between non-disabled human adults—implies fetal personhood. Since the most plausible bases for human value are in being human, or in a gradated property, and since the latter of which implies an inequality between non-disabled adult humans, I conclude that the most plausible basis for human equality is in being human—an attribute which fetuses have.
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  14. Anti‐abortion strategizing and the afterlife of the Geneva Consensus Declaration.Lynn Morgan - forthcoming - Developing World Bioethics.
    The Geneva Consensus Declaration, introduced by the Trump-Pence administration in 2020 and signed by thirty-two countries, claims that there is no international right to abortion. Although the Declaration was subsequently repudiated by the Biden administration, it did not die. This paper traces the afterlife of the Geneva Consensus Declaration as part of an ongoing antiabortion strategy to form a global coalition. Its supporters hope to mobilize signing nations to remove sexual and reproductive rights from the agendas of multilateral agencies including (...)
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  15. Early and Later Abortions: Ethics and Law.Nathan Nobis - forthcoming - In Bob Fischer (ed.), Ethics Left and Right: The Moral Issues that Divide Us. Oxford University Press.
    Most abortions occur early in pregnancy. I argue that these abortions, and so most abortions, are not morally wrong and that the best arguments given to think that these abortions are wrong are weak. I also argue that these abortions, and probably all abortions, should be legal. -/- I begin by observing that people sometimes respond to the issue by describing the circumstances of abortion, not offering reasons for their views about those circumstances; I then dismiss “question-begging” arguments about abortion (...)
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  16. Bottom‐up advocacy strategies to abortion access during the COVID‐19 pandemic: Lessons learned towards reproductive justice in Brazil.Helena Borges Martins da Silva Paro, Renata Rodrigues Catani, Rafaela Cordeiro Freire & Gabriela Rondon - forthcoming - Developing World Bioethics.
    In Brazil, abortion is only allowed in cases of rape, serious risk to a woman's life or fetal anecephaly. Legal abortion services cover less than 4% of the Brazilian territory and only 1,800 procedures are performed, in average, per year. During the COVID-19 pandemic, almost half of the already few Brazilian abortion clinics shut down and women had to travel even longer distances, reaching abortion services at later gestational ages. In this paper, we describe three bottom-up advocacy strategies that emerged (...)
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  17. Coerced Abortion – The Neglected Face of Reproductive Coercion.Gregory K. Pike - forthcoming - The New Bioethics:1-23.
    Reproductive coercion encompasses a collection of pregnancy promoting and pregnancy avoiding behaviours. Coercion may vary in severity and be perpetrated by intimate partners or others. Research is complicated by the inclusion of behaviours that do not necessarily involve an intention to influence reproduction, such as contraceptive sabotage. These behaviours are the most common, but are not always included in survey instruments. This may explain why the prevalence of reproductive coercion varies widely. Prevalence also varies when coerced abortion is included in (...)
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  18. Egalitarianism, moral status and abortion: a reply to Miller.Joona Räsänen - forthcoming - Journal of Medical Ethics.
    Calum Miller recently argued that a commitment to a very modest form of egalitarianism—equality between non-disabled human adults—implies fetal personhood. Miller claims that the most plausible basis for human equality is in being human—an attribute which fetuses have—therefore, abortion is likely to be morally wrong. In this paper, I offer a plausible defence for the view that equality between non-disabled human adults does not imply fetal personhood. I also offer a challenge for Miller’s view.
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  19. Regulating abortion after ectogestation.Joona Räsänen - forthcoming - Journal of Medical Ethics:medethics-2022-108174.
    A few decades from now, it might become possible to gestate fetuses in artificial wombs. Ectogestation as this is called, raises major legal and ethical issues, especially for abortion rights. In countries allowing abortion, regulation often revolves around the viability threshold—the point in fetal development after which the fetus can survive outside the womb. How should viability be understood—and abortion thus regulated—after ectogestation? Should we ban, allow or require the use of artificial wombs as an alternative to standard abortions? Drawing (...)
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  20. Disputes in Bioethics: Abortion, Euthanasia, and Other Controversies by Christopher Kaczor. [REVIEW]J. Burke Rea - forthcoming - Tandf: The New Bioethics:1-4.
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  21. Why There is No Dilemma for the Birth Strategy: A Response to Bobier and Omelianchuk.Prabhpal Singh - forthcoming - Journal of Medical Ethics.
    Bobier and Omelianchuk argue that the Birth Strategy for addressing analogies between abortion and infanticide is saddled with a dilemma. It must be accepted that non-therapeutic late-term abortions are either, impermissible, or they are not. If accepted, then the Birth Strategy is undermined. If not, then the highly unintuitive claim that non-therapeutic late-term abortions are permissible must be accepted. I argue that the moral principle employed to defend the claim that non-therapeutic late-term abortions are morally impermissible fails to do so. (...)
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  22. Why the wrongness of intentionally impairing children in utero does not imply the wrongness of abortion.Simon Cushing - 2023 - Journal of Medical Ethics 49 (2):146-147.
    Perry Hendricks’ ‘impairment argument’, which he has defended in this journal, is intended to demonstrate that the generally conceded wrongness of giving a fetus fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) shows that abortion must also be immoral, even if we allow that the fetus is not a rights-bearing moral person. The argument fails because the harm of causing FAS is extrinsic but Hendricks needs it to be intrinsic for it to show anything about abortion. Either the subject of the wrong of causing (...)
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  23. Louisiana's “Medically Futile” Unborn Child List: Ethical Lessons at the Post-Dobbs Intersection of Reproductive and Disability Justice.Laura Guidry-Grimes, Devan Stahl & Joel Michael Reynolds - 2023 - Hastings Center Report 53 (1).
    Ableist attitudes and structures regarding disability are increasingly recognized across all sectors of healthcare delivery. After Dobbs, novel questions arose in the USA concerning how to protect reproductive autonomy while avoiding discrimination against and devaluation of disabled persons. As a case study, we examine the Louisiana’s Department of Public Health August 1st Emergency Declaration, “List of Conditions that shall deem an Unborn Child ‘Medically Futile.’” We raise a number of medical, ethical, and public health concerns that lead us to argue (...)
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  24. Resistance in health and healthcare: Applying Essex conceptualisation to a multiphased study on the experiences of Australian nurses and midwives who provide abortion care to people victimised by gender‐based violence.Lydia Mainey, Cathy O'Mullan & Kerry Reid-Searl - 2023 - Bioethics 37 (2):199-207.
    In this article, we explore the act of resistance by nurses and midwives at the nexus of abortion care and gender-based violence. We commence with a brief overview of a multiphased extended grounded theory doctoral project that analysed the individual, situational and socio-political experiences of Australian nurses and midwives who provide abortion care to people victimised by gender-based violence. We then turn to Essex's conceptualisation of resistance in health and healthcare and draw upon these concepts to tell a unifying and (...)
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  25. Resistance in health and healthcare: Applying Essex conceptualisation to a multiphased study on the experiences of Australian nurses and midwives who provide abortion care to people victimised by gender‐based violence.Lydia Mainey, Cathy O'Mullan & Kerry Reid-Searl - 2023 - Bioethics 37 (2):199-207.
    In this article, we explore the act of resistance by nurses and midwives at the nexus of abortion care and gender-based violence. We commence with a brief overview of a multiphased extended grounded theory doctoral project that analysed the individual, situational and socio-political experiences of Australian nurses and midwives who provide abortion care to people victimised by gender-based violence. We then turn to Essex's conceptualisation of resistance in health and healthcare and draw upon these concepts to tell a unifying and (...)
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  26. Orphans Cannot be After-Birth Aborted: A Response to Bobier.Prabhpal Singh - 2023 - Journal of Medical Ethics 49 (2):143-144.
    I offer a response to an objection to my account of the moral difference between fetuses and newborns, an account that seeks to address an analogy between abortion and infanticide which is based on the apparent equality of moral value of fetuses and newborns.
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  27. My body, still my choice: an objection to Hendricks on abortion.Kyle van Oosterum - 2023 - Journal of Medical Ethics 49 (2):145-145.
    In ‘My body, not my choice: against legalised abortion’, Hendricks offers an intriguing argument that suggests the state can coerce pregnant women into continuing to sustain their fetuses. His argument consists partly in countering Boonin’s defence of legalised abortion, followed by an argument from analogy. I argue in this response article that his argument from analogy fails and, correspondingly, it should still be a woman’s legal choice to have an abortion. My key point concerns the burdensomeness of pregnancy which is (...)
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  28. Can the Future-Like-Ours Argument Survive Ontological Scrutiny?Matthew Adams & Nicholas Rimell - 2022 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 47 (5):667-680.
    We argue that the future-like-ours argument against abortion rests on an important assumption. Namely, in the first trimester of an aborted pregnancy, there exists something that would have gone on to enjoy conscious mental states, had the abortion not occurred. To accommodate this assumption, we argue, a proponent of the future-like-ours argument must presuppose that there is ontic vagueness. We anticipate the objection that our argument achieves “too much” because it also applies mutatis mutandis to conscious humans. We respond by (...)
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  29. Decriminalising Abortion in the UK. What Would It Mean?Ilaria Bertini - 2022 - The New Bioethics 28 (3):292-295.
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  30. Can prolife theorists justify an exception for rape?Bruce P. Blackshaw - 2022 - Bioethics 36 (1):49-53.
    Prolife theorists typically hold to the claim that all human beings possess equal moral status from conception and consequently possess a right to life. This, they believe, entails that abortion is impermissible in all circumstances. Critics characterize this as an extreme anti-abortion position, as it prima facie allows no exceptions, even in cases of rape. Here, I examine whether the prolife claim regarding equal moral status is compatible with a more attractive moderate stance that permits an exception in the case (...)
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  31. Why inconsistency arguments fail: a response to Shaw.Bruce P. Blackshaw, Nicholas Colgrove & Daniel Rodger - 2022 - The New Bioethics 28 (2):139-151.
    Opponents of abortion are commonly said to be inconsistent in their beliefs or actions, and to fail in their obligations to prevent the deaths of embryos and fetuses from causes other than induced...
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  32. Hypocrisy, Consistency, and Opponents of Abortion.Bruce P. Blackshaw, Nicholas Colgrove & Daniel Rodger - 2022 - In Nicholas Colgrove, Bruce P. Blackshaw & Daniel Rodger (eds.), Agency, Pregnancy and Persons : Essays in Defense of Human Life. Routledge. pp. 127-144.
    Arguments that claim opponents of abortion are inconsistent in some manner are becoming increasingly prevalent both in academic and public discourse. For example, it is common to claim that they spend considerable time and resources to oppose induced abortion, but show little concern regarding the far greater numbers of naturally occurring intrauterine deaths (miscarriages). Critics argue that if abortion opponents took their beliefs about the value of embryos and fetuses seriously, they would invest more time and resources combating these naturally (...)
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  33. The Duty to Protect, Abortion, and Organ Donation.Emily Carroll & Parker Crutchfield - 2022 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 31 (3):333-343.
    Some people oppose abortion on the grounds that fetuses have full moral status and thus a right to not be killed. We argue that special obligations that hold between mother and fetus also hold between parents and their children. We argue that if these special obligations necessitate the sacrifice of bodily autonomy in the case of abortion, then they also necessitate the sacrifice of bodily autonomy in the case of organ donation. If we accept the argument that it is obligatory (...)
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  34. The FDA Ought to Change Plan B’s Label.Christopher ChoGlueck - 2022 - Contraception 106.
    This commentary defends 3 arguments for changing the label of levonorgestrel-based emergency contraception (LNG EC) so that it no longer supports the possibility of a mechanism of action after fertilization. First, there is no direct scientific evidence confirming any postfertilization mechanisms. Second, despite the weight of evidence, there is still widespread public misunderstanding over the mechanism of LNG EC. Third, this FDA label is not a value-free claim, but instead it has functioned like a political tool for reducing contraceptive access. (...)
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  35. Why I’m Not Backing down from Fighting for Our Right to Abortion.Judy Chu - 2022 - American Journal of Bioethics 22 (8):1-2.
    On the morning of Friday, June 24, 2022, over half of the population of the United States was stripped of a fundamental constitutional right. And, within minutes, the reverberations of the Supreme...
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  36. Travel to Other States for Abortion after Dobbs.I. Glenn Cohen - 2022 - American Journal of Bioethics 22 (8):42-44.
    As Professor Ziegler’s article and prior books show, the reversal of Roe v. Wade has been an overarching goal of the abortion-restrictive movement. With that goal approaching—indeed if the l...
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  37. Where’s the Body?: Victimhood as the Wrongmaker in Abortion.Jacob Derin - 2022 - Axiomathes 32 (3):1041-1057.
    Much of the work in moral philosophy and the political debate on abortion has focused on when in human development personhood begins. In this article, using a variant of Derek Parfit’s view on personal identity, I instead frame the question as one of victimhood. I argue for what I call the Victim Requirement for the wrongness of killing–killing is wrong only if there is an identifiable victim. An identifiable victim is, temporally speaking, in the midst of a chain of psychological (...)
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  38. Decriminalising Abortion in the UK. What Would It Mean?Ilaria Bertini Dr - 2022 - The New Bioethics 28 (3):292-295.
    Decriminalising Abortion in the UK. What would it Mean, edited by Sally Sheldon and Kaye Wellings (Profess...
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  39. Does Abortion Harm the Fetus?Karl Ekendahl & Jens Johansson - 2022 - Utilitas 34 (2):154-166.
    A central claim in abortion ethics is what might be called the Harm Claim – the claim that abortion harms the fetus. In this article, we put forward a simple and straightforward reason to reject the Harm Claim. Rather than invoking controversial assumptions about personal identity, or some nonstandard account of harm, as many other critics of the Harm Claim have done, we suggest that the aborted fetus cannot be harmed for the simple reason that it does not occupy any (...)
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  40. Rethinking Fetal Personhood in Conceptualizing Roe.Rosemarie Garland-Thomson & Joel Michael Reynolds - 2022 - American Journal of Bioethics 22 (8):64-68.
    In this open peer commentary, we concur with the three target articles’ analysis and positions on abortion in the special issue on Roe v. Wade as the exercise of reproductive liberty essential for the bioethical commitment to patient autonomy and self-determination. Our proposed OPC augments that analysis by explicating more fully the concept crucial to Roe of fetal personhood. We explain that the development and use of predictive reproductive technologies over the fifty years since Roe has changed the literal image, (...)
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  41. The Legal Effects of Dobbs in Hopes of an Abortion-Free America.Natalee Geerts - 2022 - Ethics and Medics 47 (7):1-4.
    The Supreme Court’s decision in the Dobb’s case has given rise to confusion in the medical community, mostly concerning the specific definition of an abortion and what procedures are acceptable. Catholic bioethics has a long history of examining the ethical issues surrounding procedures used in vital conflict situations and other instances where direct or indirect abortion may be the preferred treatment. This article lays out the important points and ethical dimensions surrounding some of the most common pregnancy related interventions and (...)
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  42. Pensando críticamente sobre el aborto.Kristina Grob & Nathan Nobis - 2022 - Atlanta, GA: Open Philosophy Press.
    Pensando críticamente sobre el aborto: "Thinking Critically About Abortion" by Kristina Grob and Nathan Nobis, in Spanish.
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  43. My body, not my choice: against legalised abortion.Perry Hendricks - 2022 - Journal of Medical Ethics 48 (7):456-460.
    It is often assumed that if the fetus is a person, then abortion should be illegal. Thomson1 laid the groundwork to challenge this assumption, and Boonin2 has recently argued that it is false: he argues that abortion should be legal even if the fetus is a person. In this article, I explain both Thomson’s and Boonin’s reason for thinking that abortion should be legal even if the fetus is a person. After this, I show that Thomson’s and Boonin’s argument for (...)
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  44. De-Medicalizing Abortion.B. Jessie Hill - 2022 - American Journal of Bioethics 22 (8):57-58.
    As we stand on the precipice of a world without Roe v. Wade and its constitutional protection for the right to terminate a pregnancy, new arguments, approaches, and conceptual frames for understand...
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  45. The Afterlife Dilemma: A Problem for the Christian Pro-Life Movement.Marlowe Kerring - 2022 - Journal of Controversial Ideas 2 (2).
    Many “pro-life” or anti-abortion advocates are Christians who believe that (1) there exists an all-powerful, all-knowing, and morally perfect god who created our universe; (2) restricting abortion ought to be a top social and political priority; and (3) embryos and fetuses that die all go to hell or they all go to heaven. This paper seeks to establish that Christian pro-life advocates with these beliefs face the Afterlife Dilemma. On the one hand, if all embryos and fetuses that die go (...)
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  46. Viewing the image? Ultrasound examination during abortion preparations, ethical challenges.Marianne Kjelsvik, Ragnhild J. T. Sekse, Elin M. Aasen & Eva Gjengedal - 2022 - Nursing Ethics 29 (2):511-522.
    During preparation for early abortion in Norway, an ultrasound examination is usually performed to determine gestation and viability. This article aims to provide a deeper understanding of women’s and health care personnel’s experiences with ultrasound viewing during abortion preparation in the first trimester. Qualitative in-depth interviews with women who had been prepared for early abortion and focus group interviews with HCP from gynaecological units were carried out. A hermeneutic-phenomenological analysis, inspired by van Manen, was chosen. Thirteen women who were pregnant (...)
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  47. Robert Baker: The Structure of Moral Revolutions: Studies of Changes in the Morality of Abortion, Death, and the Bioethics Revolution.Benedict Lane - 2022 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 25 (3):507-509.
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  48. Abortion and the Intersection of Ethics, Activism, and Politics.Elizabeth Lanphier - 2022 - American Journal of Bioethics 22 (8):72-74.
    Katie Watson describes her article in this special issue as “a call to bioethicists to recognize the ways we may have undervalued the moral status of women in our analytic frameworks, and to delibe...
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  49. The limitations of liberal reproductive autonomy.J. Y. Lee - 2022 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 25 (3):523-529.
    The common liberal understanding of reproductive autonomy – characterized by free choice and a principle of non-interference – serves as a useful way to analyse the normative appeal of having certain choices open to people in the reproductive realm, especially for issues like abortion rights. However, this liberal reading of reproductive autonomy only offers us a limited ethical understanding of what is at stake in many kinds of reproductive choices, particularly when it comes to different uses of reproductive technologies and (...)
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  50. Dobbs, Reality, and the “Moral Question” of Abortion.Marianne LeNabat - 2022 - The Philosophers' Magazine 97:6-9.
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