Moral Judgment

Edited by Leonard Kahn (Loyola University, New Orleans, US Naval Academy)
About this topic
Summary Internalism and Externalism about Moral Judgment are, very roughly, contending views about the relationship between making a moral judgment and being motivated to act in accordance with it. Internalists - again, quite roughly - hold that there is a necessary connection between making a moral judgment and being motivated to act appropriately. Externalists deny that the connection is necessary and hold that it is, instead, merely contingent. 
Key works In many ways, Michael Smith's The Moral Problem is the both the most important work on moral judgment and the best place for someone interested in the topic to begin thinking seriously. Smith, better than anyone else, sets out the problems which have dominated the philosophical agenda on moral judgment for the last two decades and presents a novel and powerful cognitivist, Humean, internalist solution to these problems. R.M. Hare's The Language of Morals offers the classic non-cogntivist statement of internalism, while David O. Brink's Moral Realism and the Foundations of Ethics provides a persuasive case for cognitivist externalism and Jonathan Dancy's Moral Reasons argues for cognitivist non-Humeanism. Dancy's work draws in important ways from Thomas Nagel's The Possibility of Altruism, and Russ Shafer-Landau's Moral Realism: A Defense is a worthwhile follow up on both works. Those who wish to approach the problem from a more historical direction may wish to begin with Book III of David Hume's Treatise of Human Nature, Immanuel Kant's Critique of Practical Reason, and Chapter III of John Stuart Mill's Utilitarianism. A more recent work which finds deep inspiration from Kant's work on moral motivation is Christine Korsgaard, The Sources of Normativity.
Introductions Connie Rosati, "Moral Motivation," Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Michael Smith, The Moral Problem, especially Chapter 3 Alex Miller, An Introduction to Contemporary Metaethics, , especially Chapter 3
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  1. How to Weigh Lives. A Computational Model of Moral Judgment in Multiple-Outcome Structures.Neele Engelmann & Michael R. Waldmann - 2022 - Cognition 218 (C):104910.
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  2. Aner Govrin, Ethics and Attachment: How We Make Moral Judgment.Joel Backström - 2021 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 18 (5):527-530.
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  3. Consult Your Heart: The Self as a Source of Moral Judgment.Mutaz al-Khatib - 2023 - In Mutaz Khatib (ed.), Ḥadīth and Ethics Through the Lens of Interdisciplinarity. Brill.
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  4. Thomas Pölzler, Moral Reality and the Empirical Sciences. [REVIEW]Michael Klenk - 2019 - International Journal for the Study of Skepticism 11 (1):78-86.
    Thomas Pölzler’s book offers the first detailed study that focuses explicitly on the promise of science-based arguments for and against moral realism (of both the natural and non-natural kind). His two central claims are that sound arguments bearing on the realism/anti-realism debate are possible, and, yet, that four central attempts to derive metaethical conclusions from science-based arguments uniformly fail. The book then provides several recommendations for future science-based contributions to the realism/anti-realism debate to do better. The book is a valuable (...)
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  5. Bioethics, Experimental Approaches.Jonathan Lewis, Joanna Demaree-Cotton & Brian Earp - 2023 - In M. Sellers & S. Kirste (eds.), Encyclopedia of the Philosophy of Law and Social Philosophy. Dordrecht: Springer. pp. 1-8.
    This entry summarizes an emerging subdiscipline of both empirical bioethics and experimental philosophy (“x-phi”) which has variously been referred to as experimental philosophical bioethics, experimental bioethics, or simply “bioxphi”. Like empirical bioethics, bioxphi uses data-driven research methods to capture what various stakeholders think (feel, judge, etc.) about moral issues of relevance to bioethics. However, like its other parent discipline of x-phi, bioxphi tends to favor experiment-based designs drawn from the cognitive sciences – including psychology, neuroscience, and behavioral economics – to (...)
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  6. Practical Cognition as Volition.Jeremy David Fix - 2022 - European Journal of Philosophy 30 (3):1077-1091.
    Practical cognitivism is the view that practical reason is the self-conscious will and that practical cognition is self-conscious volition. This essay addresses two puzzles for practical cognitivism. In akratic action, I act as I understand is illegitimate and not as I understand is legitimate. In permissible action, I act as I understand is legitimate and also do not act as I understand is legitimate. In both types of action, practical cognition seems to come apart from volition. How, then, can practical (...)
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  7. Practical Cognition as Volition.Jeremy David Fix - 2022 - European Journal of Philosophy 30 (3):1077-1091.
    Practical cognitivism is the view that practical reason is the self-conscious will and that practical cognition is self-conscious volition. This essay addresses two puzzles for practical cognitivism. In akratic action, I act as I understand is illegitimate and not as I understand is legitimate. In permissible action, I act as I understand is legitimate and also do not act as I understand is legitimate. In both types of action, practical cognition seems to come apart from volition. How, then, can practical (...)
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  8. Practical Cognition as Volition.Jeremy David Fix - 2022 - European Journal of Philosophy 30 (3):1077-1091.
    Practical cognitivism is the view that practical reason is the self-conscious will and that practical cognition is self-conscious volition. This essay addresses two puzzles for practical cognitivism. In akratic action, I act as I understand is illegitimate and not as I understand is legitimate. In permissible action, I act as I understand is legitimate and also do not act as I understand is legitimate. In both types of action, practical cognition seems to come apart from volition. How, then, can practical (...)
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  9. Practical Cognition as Volition.Jeremy David Fix - 2022 - European Journal of Philosophy 30 (3):1077-1091.
    Practical cognitivism is the view that practical reason is the self-conscious will and that practical cognition is self-conscious volition. This essay addresses two puzzles for practical cognitivism. In akratic action, I act as I understand is illegitimate and not as I understand is legitimate. In permissible action, I act as I understand is legitimate and also do not act as I understand is legitimate. In both types of action, practical cognition seems to come apart from volition. How, then, can practical (...)
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  10. Practical Cognition as Volition.Jeremy David Fix - 2022 - European Journal of Philosophy 30 (3):1077-1091.
    Practical cognitivism is the view that practical reason is the self-conscious will and that practical cognition is self-conscious volition. This essay addresses two puzzles for practical cognitivism. In akratic action, I act as I understand is illegitimate and not as I understand is legitimate. In permissible action, I act as I understand is legitimate and also do not act as I understand is legitimate. In both types of action, practical cognition seems to come apart from volition. How, then, can practical (...)
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  11. Moralization and Mismoralization in Public Health.Steven R. Kraaijeveld & Euzebiusz Jamrozik - 2022 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 25 (4):655-669.
    Moralization is a social-psychological process through which morally neutral issues take on moral significance. Often linked to health and disease, moralization may sometimes lead to good outcomes; yet moralization is often detrimental to individuals and to society as a whole. It is therefore important to be able to identify when moralization is inappropriate. In this paper, we offer a systematic normative approach to the evaluation of moralization. We introduce and develop the concept of ‘mismoralization’, which is when moralization is metaethically (...)
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  12. Decision Under Normative Uncertainty.Franz Dietrich & Brian Jabarian - 2022 - Economics and Philosophy 38 (3):372-394.
    While ordinary decision theory focuses on empirical uncertainty, real decision-makers also face normative uncertainty: uncertainty about value itself. From a purely formal perspective, normative uncertainty is comparable to (Harsanyian or Rawlsian) identity uncertainty in the 'original position', where one's future values are unknown. A comprehensive decision theory must address twofold uncertainty -- normative and empirical. We present a simple model of twofold uncertainty, and show that the most popular decision principle -- maximising expected value (`Expectationalism') -- has different formulations, namely (...)
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  13. Against Being For.James Brown - 2022 - Journal of Ethics and Social Philosophy 23 (1):136-43.
    Expressivism is the view that normative claims express nondescriptive, practical attitudes. It is widely assumed that this involves denying that normative claims express beliefs, except in a minimal or deflationary sense. However, this assumption is increasingly being called into question. Instead, it is argued, expressivists can and should provide a robust, nondescriptive theory of belief in general which can explain the difference between ordinary descriptive beliefs and nondescriptive normative beliefs. This paper examines one such an attempt due to Mark Schroeder (...)
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  14. Does AI Debias Recruitment? Race, Gender, and AI’s “Eradication of Difference”.Eleanor Drage & Kerry Mackereth - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (4):1-25.
    In this paper, we analyze two key claims offered by recruitment AI companies in relation to the development and deployment of AI-powered HR tools: (1) recruitment AI can objectively assess candidates by removing gender and race from their systems, and (2) this removal of gender and race will make recruitment fairer, help customers attain their DEI goals, and lay the foundations for a truly meritocratic culture to thrive within an organization. We argue that these claims are misleading for four reasons: (...)
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  15. Moral Judgment and the Brain : A Functional Approach to the Question of Emotion and Cognition in Moral Judgment Integrating Psychology, Neuroscience and Evolutionary Biology.Kristin Prehn & Hauke R. Heekeren - 2009 - In Jan Verplaetse (ed.), The moral brain: essays on the evolutionary and neuroscientific aspects of morality. Springer.
  16. Moral Judgment as Reasoning by Constraint Satisfaction.Keith J. Holyoak & Derek Powell - 2019 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 42.
    May's careful examination of empirical evidence makes a compelling case against the primacy of emotion in driving moral judgments. At the same time, emotion certainly is involved in moral judgments. We argue that emotion interacts with beliefs, values, and moral principles through a process of coherence-based reasoning in generating moral judgments and decisions.
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  17. Moral Uncertainty, Noncognitivism, and the Multi‐Objective Story.Pamela Robinson & Katie Steele - forthcoming - Noûs.
    We sometimes seem to face fundamental moral uncertainty, i.e., uncertainty about what is morally good or morally right that cannot be reduced to ordinary descriptive uncertainty. This phenomenon raises a puzzle for noncognitivism, according to which moral judgments are desire-like attitudes as opposed to belief-like attitudes. Can a state of moral uncertainty really be a noncognitive state? So far, noncognitivists have not been able to offer a completely satisfactory account. Here, we argue that noncognitivists should exploit the formal analogy between (...)
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  18. Moral Judgement: An Introduction Through Anglo-American, German and French Philosophy.Étienne Brown - 2022 - Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    This book is the first to introduce readers to contemporary philosophical works on moral judge- ment stemming from France, Germany and the Anglo-American world — many of which remain untranslated. By integrating Kantian and Aristotelian reflections on this subject, the author combines historiography and critical reflection to offer a rich picture of what it means to make good moral decisions. -/- As both Kantians and Aristotelians argue, moral judgements are ultimately grounded in the normativity of practical identities. Thus, it is (...)
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  19. The Influence of Situational Factors in Sacrificial Dilemmas on Utilitarian Moral Judgments.Michael Klenk - 2022 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 13 (3):593-625.
    The standard way to test alternative descriptive theories of moral judgment is by asking subjects to evaluate sacrificial dilemmas, where acting classifies as a utilitarian moral judgment and not acting classifies as a deontological moral judgment. Previous research uncovered many situational factors that alter subject’s moral judgments without affecting which type of action utilitarianism or deontology would recommend. This literature review provides a systematic analysis of the experimental literature on the influence of situational factors on moral judgments in sacrificial dilemmas. (...)
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  20. Serotonin Selectively Influences Moral Judgment and Behavior Through Effects on Harm Aversion.M. J. Crockett, L. Clark, M. D. Hauser & T. W. Robbins - 2010 - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107 (40):17433–17438.
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  21. Expressivism and Explaining Irrationality: Reply to Baker.Sebastian Hengst - 2022 - Erkenntnis 87 (5):2503-2516.
    In a recent paper in this journal, Derek Baker (Erkenntnis 83(4):829–852, 2018) raises an objection to expressivism as it has been developed by Mark Schroeder (Being for, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2008). Baker argues that Schroeder’s expressivist (1) is committed to certain sentences expressing rationally incoherent states of mind, and he objects (2) that the expressivist cannot explain why these states would be rationally incoherent. The aim of this paper is to show that Baker’s argument for (1) is unsound, and (...)
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  22. Social Significance of Gender Equality in New Uzbekistan.Askarova Adolatkhon Mamatkhonovna - unknown
    This article discusses the socio-philosophical importance of gender equality in today's increasingly globalized world. At the same time, in Uzbekistan, which is developing rapidly in all directions, the current issues of women's legal freedoms, protection of their legitimate interests, social relations of women in society and the development of society, social cohesion, family, traditions, It has been scientifically stated that culture, international and inter-civilizational relations, religion, labor and organization of public organizations are of great importance.
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  23. Gender Speech Behavior in the Context of the Socio-Linguistic Factor.Djalilova Zarnigor Obidovna - unknown
    This article is aimed at the study and analysis of speech behavior in modern realities related to gender, as well as their socio-linguistic problems. The article analyzes the theoretical and experimental work of Russian and foreign scientists involved in the study of the gender factor influencing the speech behavior of speakers, as well as the state of research on language changes through the prism of gender linguistics.
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  24. Increasing the Efficiency of Gender Crushing Equipment on the Basis of Eliminating the Production of Slimming Regime at the Bottom of the Well.R. U. Djuraev, O. B. Mustafaev & Abdixakimova Malika Amir Qizi - unknown
    In the process of drilling, in case of untimely lifting of cuttings from the bottom of the well, i.e. when the particles of the destroyed cuttings linger on the surface of the bottom of the well and under the action of hydrostatic pressure, a decrease in the efficiency of the rock cutting tool is observed.This article discusses the movement of broken cuttings at the bottom of the well, its impact on the efficiency of the drilling process, and presents the results (...)
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  25. Gender Aspect of Family Education.Gafforov X. Sh - unknown
    Studies show that the upbringing of children is significantly influenced by gender stereotypes, which are carried by parents. In addition, each of them builds educational interaction with children based on their own ideas, which are determined, among other things, by belonging to a particular gender.
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  26. Gender Use of Word-Sentences.Karimova Zulnura Gulamkodirovna - unknown
    This article is devoted to the gender features of word-sentences, separated as special parts of speech in the Uzbek language. Studying the word-sentences in Uzbek language from gender aspect discovers peculiarities of usage in speech system units. In Uzbek linguistics, word-sentences are studied by a number of scientists. Including R. Bobokalonov studied them under the concept of semantic-functional formed word-sentences.
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  27. Analysis of Pedagogical Problems of Gender Differences in Resolving Conflict Situations.Yakub Ochilov Saydulloyevich & Nilufar Rahmonova Najmiddin Kizi - unknown
    This article describes in detail the analysis of pedagogical issues of gender differences in conflict resolution, the history of scientific and theoretical study of gender issues, psychological analysis of gender issues in social relations and many studie.
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  28. Clinical and Pathogenetic Structure of Neuropsychological Syndromes in Covid-19 Depending on Gender Differences.Safarov Komiljon Kamolovich - unknown
    Currently, the world community is faced with a new infectious disease that has not only medical, but also enormous socio-economic significance - the COVID-19 pandemic.. The article discusses brief etiopathogenetic aspects of the new coronavirus infection. The role of some of the factors contributing to the development of nephro- and cerebrovascular disorders in COVID-19 is discussed. Results of work on coronavirus infection summarized foreign researchers.
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  29. Lexico-Semantic Groups of Words Expressing the Concept of "Gender" in French, German and English Languages.G. I. Akhadova - unknown
    The article defines the lexical-semantic groups of words of masculine and feminine gender, analyzes their semantic similarities and differences in the lexical-semantic field. And a few examples given.
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  30. The Role of Parents and Caregivers in Gender Sustainability.Azimjanova Rushana Rashid Qizi - unknown
    This article is about gender characteristics in preschool children and how to overcome them, which is one of the most pressing issues today.
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  31. Philosophical Foundations of Gender Equality.Djabbarova Khabiba Kuvandikovna - unknown
    The essence of the concept of quality are considered in the article. The philosophical aspects of gender equality and its importance in the life of society are discussed. The article emphasizes the importance of equality in human social adaptation to life. There is also a reaction to the study of gender equality in Western and Eastern philosophy.
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  32. Gender Approach in Teaching a Foreign Language.Gafforov Kxasan Shuxratovich - unknown
    In the modern world, the problem of gender education is of concern to both scientists and practitioners. This is largely due to the fact that attention to the child is increasing, and gender characteristics are one of the main characteristics of the personality. Namely, upbringing presupposes the correct assimilation of gender roles, which implies gender equality, the absence of gender prejudices and gender discrimination. The need to use a gender approach in teaching and upbringing of schoolchildren and young learners is (...)
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  33. Gender of Nouns.Eshonkulova Adolat Khaidarovna - unknown
    The main grammatical feature that is inherent in almost every part of speech is the gender category. How many genders do nouns have and how to correctly define this category for this part of speech? You will find answers to these and other questions in the article.
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  34. Gender Factor in Modern Turkey.Mashkhura Gulomovna Normaeva - unknown
    The impact of the gender factor on Turkey's domestic and international policies is investigated in this article. Also, the use of gender as a "soft power" instrument to achieve geopolitical objectives.
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  35. Gender Management Issues in Modern Pedagogy in Educational Institutions.I. Siddikov - unknown
    In the state, the author's opinions are expressed on the issues of gender and psychological characteristics of personnel in the implementation of management activities, mechanisms and specifications and their manifestations. The research findings relate to practical differences between male and female leaders and female leaders in achieving success.
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  36. Ambiguity of Experience of Gender, Sexuality, and Power in Into the Water by Paula Hawkins.Ahmed Hussein Abbood Altaai - unknown
    Feminism has provided critics and researchers with a helpful methodology to scrutinize those literary works that revolve around women’s repressive conditions in patriarchal societies. Benefitting from the feminist approach to the analysis of literary works aims at forming and setting equal civil, political, financial, and societal rights for women. Depending on its cultural or political goals, feminism is viewed as a movement to attain equality for women in various areas. The present study uses a feminist technique along with Foucault’s theory (...)
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  37. Analysis Women's Political Participation in Public Administration Review From Gender Mainstream.Husain Muhammad & Ramlani Lina Sinaulan - unknown
    Fulfillment of the 30% figure in the management of political parties is inversely proportional to the fulfillment of the quota of women sitting in the DPR RI. The target to be achieved, which is 30% for women in the DPR RI, has not been fulfilled even though it always increases in each period. In the 1999- 2004 period, the number of women in the DPR RI only reached 9.0%, in the 2004-2009 period, the number of women in the DPR RI (...)
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  38. Unveiling the Life of Purdahnashins: A Study of Muslim Women Struggle in India for Identity and Gender Justice in Anees Jung’s Work Night of the New Moon.Sumana Mukherjee - unknown
    This paper attempts to examine through Anees Jung’s work Night of the New Moon, those socio-cultural and religious practices which through interpretation or interpretation by the patriarchal Muslim community, have kept women at a subjugated position since time immemorial. It also attempts to look beyond the veiled faces of Muslim women, and to peep into their lives in order to bring to the forefront their stories of pain and struggle that they have silently been suffering from, due to their degraded (...)
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  39. Culture and Gender Dynamics in the Context of Tribes of India.Souren Bhattacharya & Subhasree Pal - unknown
    Existing norms, belief systems, heritage, and customs all contribute to the formation of a society's culture. Society's culture varies by region. A society's established culture dictates gender roles and relationships. Gender is a western concept that refers to the division of labour in terms of male and female. This means that while sex is a biological term, gender is a social construct. Gender denotes the expected roles of men and women in the realms of production, reproduction, and power relations in (...)
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  40. Gender Issues in Mahesh Dattani’s ‘Seven Steps Around the Fire’.Shauli Mukherjee - unknown
    Mahesh Dattani is an authentic and realistic voice in the arena of contemporary Indian plays written in English. His play Seven Steps Around the Fire was first broadcast by BBC Radio on 9th January 1999 as Seven Circles Around the Fire. It was premiered on stage by MTC Production and The Madras Players on 6th August 1999. The play is a living reflection of Dattani’s abiding interest in the lives and experiences of a sexually marginalized section of the Indian society (...)
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  41. Discursive Construction of the Perception of Gender Identity: The Case of Tenants and Owners in Re-Privatization/Property Restitution in Warsaw.Aleksandra Zubrzycka-Czarnecka - 2021 - Public Policy Studies 8 (1).
    The article examines how the perception of gender identities of tenants and owners was constructed in normalizing discourses regarding re-privatization/property restitution in Warsaw in 2004-2016. As a theoretical approach, it applies the feminist post-structuralist perspective developed by Sophie Watson. The data were collected with discourse analysis, as proposed by Judith Baxter. The article identifies two discourses pertaining to re-privatization/property restitution in Warsaw: 1) property restitution discourse, under which returning property to former owners is presented as a moral imperative; and 2) (...)
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  42. Moral Competence and Foundations of Moral Judgment. An Empirical Exploration of Concepts and New Possibilities for Understanding.Bogdan Popoveniuc - unknown
    The present study examines the relation between the moral intuitions proposed by the ‘Moral Foundations Theory’ according to J. Haidt and the moral orientations in relation with moral competence, as described by the ‘Dual-Aspect Model of Moral Behaviour’ according to G. Lind.It is an empirical exploration of the relation between the five foundational domains and the moral orientations, as this results from the theoretical assumptions of both theories, and the influence on and of the moral competence on these aforementioned relations. (...)
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  43. Gender, Utopias and the Savage Slot: The Role of Anthropology in the (De)Construction of a Concept.Irene Peano - unknown
    The paper addresses some of the ways in which anthropology, as a discourse and a discipline, has contributed to the forging as much as of the problematisation of the concept of gender, not only within the feminist, queer and LGBTQI camps, but also among Catholic fundamentalists. It argues that, despite some recent genealogical critiques of the concept of gender and its origins in mid-20th century bio-medical governance, insufficient attention has been paid to the role of the so-called ‘savage slot’ - (...)
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  44. Mis-Educative Martial Law – The Fate of Free Discourse and the Moral Judgment Competence of Polish University Students From 1977 to 1983.Ewa Nowak & Georg Lind - unknown
    The reprinted paper refers to Georg Lind and his colleagues’ MCT-based FORM study conducted at several European universities in 1977-1983, including Polish ones. After a short phase of democratization, in 1981 Polish society suddenly faced martial law. That experience had an impact on Polish students moral-, discursiveand democratic competences, as measured by MCT. When Ewa Nowak started her Alexander von Humboldt Foundation supported research stay under the supervision of Professor Georg Lind, they were inspired to revisit and discuss the puzzling (...)
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  45. Research on Moral Judgment Competency of College Students in Mainland China with DIT-2.Qian Zhang & Stephen J. Thoma - unknown
    The purpose of this paper was to examine moral judgment competency of a sample of 811 Chinese college students from a Southern university in mainland China with DIT-2; and test whether gender, education, major, academic performance, and one-child policy have significant effect on the participants’ moral judgment competency. Results show that the participants score high in both Personal Interest schema and Postconventional schema, while low in Maintaining Norms schema. Gender and major have significant effect on participants’ moral judgment competency in (...)
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  46. The Concepts of Japanese and German Primary School Children Relating to the Topic of Death in the Context of Values Education and the Ethics of Care – A German-Japanese Comparison with Gender Analysis.Eva Marsal & Takara Dobashi - unknown
    Our contribute compares the concepts of Japanese and German primary school children relating to the topic of death, healing in the context of values education and the ethics of care. This is a project of the German-Japanese Research Initiative on Philosophizing with Children, cialis 40mg which aims to facilitate individual autonomy by enhancing philosophical-ethical judgment. It encourages the application and appropriate transfer of values based on philosophical-ethical knowledge and acquired through independent reflection to the situations of daily life.
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  47. Factors of Chinese Adolescents’ Moral Judgment Competence – Findings From Hubei Province.Jing Zhang - unknown
    This paper uses MJT designed by German moral psychologist Lind as a measurement tool, selects 1933 teenagers from Wuhan, Xiangfan or Hubei province. The result shows that participants’ C-sore of different age is 16.90. Character of politic lies remarkable difference, and gender, profession, education, etc., doesn’t. But the specific characters of them have something to be concerned. On this basis, the author gives some advices and countermeasures for education departments.
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  48. Moral Judgment Competence Between Systems and Administration Students.Victor Hugo Robles Francia - unknown
    It is assumed that the university education positively impacts the student’s moral reasoning. The purpose of this research was to examine the Moral judgment competence MJC between systems and management students at a public university in Hidalgo, Mexico. The effectiveness of their curricula and the university years have impact on students’ moral judgment competence. Data was collected through survey exploration with the Moral Judgment Test completed by 272 administration students and 79 systems students of all semesters. The moral judgment competence (...)
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  49. An Empirical Cross-Cultural Study of Moral Judgment Development in Mainland China.Qian Zhang & Stephen J. Thoma - unknown
    The Chinese version of Rest’s Defining Issues Test II was administered to 113 subjects in Mainland China. The scores on development of moral judgment were compared with those of the online mega sample of American participants from 2011 to 2014. Results are as followings: 1. Chinese participants show the same pattern with Americans by both sex and education. 2. Chinese participants show different pattern from Americans by religious orthodoxy and humanitarian. 3. Chinese participants score higher in meaningless items than Americans. (...)
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  50. Gender Difference and The Predictive Role of Job Tension on Job Satisfaction Among Academic Staff in A Public University.Adekunle A. Kenku, Dare Azeez Fagbenro & Abolade M. Opatola - 2021 - Psychocentrum Review 3 (1).
    Studies have investigated antecedents of job satisfaction, however, little is known about the predictive role of job tension on job satisfaction as well as gender difference on job satisfaction among academic staff in Nigeria. Using job demands–resources model as a theoretical framework, this study examined job tension on job satisfaction among selected academic staff of Nasarawa State University, Keffi. Participants were 75 academic staff with a mean age of 42.11 recruited from six faculties in the university. Data were analyzed using (...)
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