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  1. Bioética y derechos humanos: sobre la representación intelectual del origen de la bioética.Mastroleo Ignacio - forthcoming - Véritas (Arequipa).
    En este trabajo se comparan dos representaciones en competencia sobre el origen de la bioética para llamar la atención sobre un posible cambio de marco teórico dentro de la disciplina. Por un lado, una representación parroquiana del origen de la bioética, centrada en problemas tecnológicos locales, y fundamentada en tradiciones culturales particulares. Por otro lado, una representación universal y pluralista, que enfrenta problemas de justicia y salud globales y que intenta buscar el fundamento normativo del discurso de la bioética en (...)
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  2. Ancillary Care Obligations in the Light of an African Bioethic: From Entrustment to Communion (Repr.).Thaddeus Metz - forthcoming - In Ike Iyioke (ed.), African Research Ethics (tentative title). Brill.
    Reprint of an article that first appeared in Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics (2017).
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  3. Institutional Review Boards and Public Justification.Anantharaman Muralidharan & G. Owen Schaefer - forthcoming - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice:1-19.
    Ethics committees like Institutional Review Boards and Research Ethics Committees are typically empowered to approve or reject proposed studies, typically conditional on certain conditions or revisions being met. While some have argued this power should be primarily a function of applying clear, codified requirements, most institutions and legal regimes allow discretion for IRBs to ethically evaluate studies, such as to ensure a favourable risk-benefit ratio, fair subject selection, adequate informed consent, and so forth. As a result, ethics committees typically make (...)
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  4. Avoiding the potentiality trap: thinking about the moral status of synthetic embryos.Monika Piotrowska - forthcoming - Monash Bioethics Review.
    Research ethics committees must sometimes deliberate about objects that do not fit nicely into any existing category. This is currently the case with the “gastruloid,” which is a self-assembling blob of cells that resembles a human embryo. The resemblance makes it tempting to group it with other members of that kind, and thus to ask whether gastruloids really are embryos. But fitting an ambiguous object into an existing category with well-worn pathways in research ethics, like the embryo, is only a (...)
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  5. The Moral Obligation to Prioritize Research Into Deep Brain Stimulation Over Brain Lesioning Procedures for Severe Enduring Anorexia Nervosa.Jonathan Pugh, Jacinta Tan, Tipu Aziz & Rebecca J. Park - forthcoming - Frontiers in Psychiatry 9:523.
    Deep Brain Stimulation is currently being investigated as an experimental treatment for patients suffering from treatment-refractory AN, with an increasing number of case reports and small-scale trials published. Although still at an exploratory and experimental stage, initial results have been promising. Despite the risks associated with an invasive neurosurgical procedure and the long-term implantation of a foreign body, DBS has a number of advantageous features for patients with SE-AN. Stimulation can be fine-tuned to the specific needs of the particular patient, (...)
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  6. Navigating conflicts of justice in the use of race and ethnicity in precision medicine.G. Owen Schaefer, Tai E. Shyong & Shirley Hsiao-Li Sun - forthcoming - Bioethics (Early View).
    Given the sordid history of injustices linking genetics to race and ethnicity, considerations of justice are central to ensuring the responsible development of precision medicine programmes around the world. While considerations of justice may be in tension with other areas of concern, such as scientific value or privacy, there are also be tensions between different aspects of justice. This paper focuses on three particular aspects of justice relevant to this context: social justice, distributive justice and human rights. The implications of (...)
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  7. Quantitative Framework for Retrospective Assessment of Interim Decisions in Clinical Trials.Roger Stanev - forthcoming - Medical Decision Making.
    This article presents a quantitative way of modeling the interim decisions of clinical trials. While statistical approaches tend to focus on the epistemic aspects of statistical monitoring rules, often overlooking ethical considerations, ethical approaches tend to neglect key epistemic dimension. The proposal is a second-order decision theoretic framework. The framework provides means for retrospective assessment of interim decisions based on a clear and consistent set of criteria that combines both ethical and epistemic considerations. The framework is broadly Bayesian and addresses (...)
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  8. Medical Ontology.Kazem Sadegh-Zadeh - 2nd ed. 2015 - In Handbook of Analytic Philosophy of Medicine. Springer Verlag.
    Due to the intricate nature of its subject matter, medicine is always threatened by speculations and disagreements about which among its entities exist, e.g., any specific biological structures, substructures or substances, pathogenic agents, pathophysiological processes, diseases, psychosomatic relationships, therapeutic effects, and other possible and impossible things. To avoid confusion, and to determine what entities an item of medical knowledge presupposes to exist if it is to be true, we need medical ontology. The term “medical ontology” we understand to mean the (...)
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  9. Reconciling Regulation with Scientific Autonomy in Dual-Use Research.Nicholas G. Evans, Michael J. Selgelid & Robert Mark Simpson - 2022 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 47 (1):72-94.
    In debates over the regulation of communication related to dual-use research, the risks that such communication creates must be weighed against against the value of scientific autonomy. The censorship of such communication seems justifiable in certain cases, given the potentially catastrophic applications of some dual-use research. This conclusion however, gives rise to another kind of danger: that regulators will use overly simplistic cost-benefit analysis to rationalize excessive regulation of scientific research. In response to this, we show how institutional design principles (...)
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  10. Animal Models in Neuropsychiatry: Do the benefits outweigh the moral costs?Carrie Figdor - 2022 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 32 (4):530-535.
    Animal models have long been used to investigate human mental disorders, including depression, anxiety, and schizophrenia. This practice is usually justified in terms of the benefits (to humans) outweighing the costs (to the animals). I argue on utility maximization grounds that we should phase out animal models in neuropsychiatric research. Our leading theories of how human minds and behavior evolved invoke sociocultural factors whose relation to nonhuman minds, societies, and behavior has not been homologized. Thus it is not at all (...)
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  11. Equipoise, standard of care, and consent: Responding to the authorisation of new COVID-19 treatments in randomised controlled trials.Soren Holm, Jonathan Lewis & Rafael Dal-Ré - 2022 - Journal of Medical Ethics:1-6.
    In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, large-scale research and pharmaceutical regulatory processes have proceeded at a dramatically increased pace with new and effective, evidence-based COVID-19 interventions rapidly making their way into the clinic. However, the swift generation of high-quality evidence and the efficient processing of regulatory authorisation have given rise to more specific and complex versions of well-known research ethics issues. In this paper, we identify three such issues by focusing on the authorisation of Molnupiravir, a novel antiviral medicine aimed (...)
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  12. Ethics by committee: a history of reasoning together about medicine, science, society, and the state.Noortje Jacobs - 2022 - Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Ethics boards have become obligatory passage points in today's medical science, and we forget how novel they really are. The use of humans in experiments is an age-old practice that records show goes back to at least the third century BC and, since the early modern period, as a practice it has become increasingly popular. Yet, in most countries around the world, hardly any formal checks and balances existed to govern the communal oversight of experiments involving human subjects until at (...)
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  13. Justifying the risks of COVID-19 challenge trials: The analogy with organ donation.Athmeya Jayaram, Jacob Sparks & Daniel Callies - 2022 - Bioethics 36 (1):100-106.
    In the beginning of the COVID pandemic, researchers and bioethicists called for human challenge trials to hasten the development of a vaccine for COVID. However, the fact that we lacked a specific, highly effective treatment for COVID led many to argue that a COVID challenge trial would be unethical and we ought to pursue traditional phase III testing instead. These ethical objections to challenge trials may have slowed the progress of a COVID vaccine, so it is important to evaluate their (...)
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  14. Health Privacy, Racialization, and the Causal Potential of Legal Regulations.Joanna Malinowska & Bartek Chomanski - 2022 - American Journal of Bioethics 22 (7):76-78.
    Pyrrho and colleagues (2022) argue that the loss of health privacy can damage democratic values by increasing social polarization, removing individual choice, and limiting self-determination. As a remedy, the authors propose a data-regulation regime that prohibits companies from using such data for discriminatory purposes. Our commentary addresses three issues. First, we point out an additional problematic dimension of excessive health privacy loss, namely, the potential racialization of groups and individuals that it may likely contribute to. Second, we note that, in (...)
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  15. Why iBlastoids (Embryo-like Structures) Do Not Raise Significant Ethical Issues.Alberto Molina-Pérez & Aníbal Monasterio Astobiza - 2022 - American Journal of Bioethics 22 (1):59-61.
    Most technology is used properly for their intended purpose, but certain technological breakthroughs have a dual-use nature, pose risks or lead to unintended consequences when applied in some areas...
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  16. Vacunagate: ¿Era posible justificar moralmente el caso peruano? Pyro & Franklin Ibañez - 2022 - Letras 93 (138):168-182.
    El artículo analiza el Vacunagate: escándalo suscitado en el Perú a inicios de 2021 por la inoculación de la vacuna Sinopharm cuando aún se encontraba en fase experimental. Se analiza la moralidad del caso para iluminar la discusión pública sobre políticas de conducción y supervisión de ensayos clínicos en un contexto de pandemia. Se evalúa si eran moralmente justificables dos acciones: primero, la utilización de la candidata a vacuna por fuera de un ensayo clínico y, segundo, priorizar algunos grupos en (...)
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  17. Reducing the Inadvertent Spread of Retracted Science: recommendations from the RISRS report.Jodi Schneider, Nathan D. Woods, Randi Proescholdt & The Risrs Team - 2022 - Research Integrity and Peer Review 7 (1).
    Background Retraction is a mechanism for alerting readers to unreliable material and other problems in the published scientific and scholarly record. Retracted publications generally remain visible and searchable, but the intention of retraction is to mark them as “removed” from the citable record of scholarship. However, in practice, some retracted articles continue to be treated by researchers and the public as valid content as they are often unaware of the retraction. Research over the past decade has identified a number of (...)
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  18. Model systems in biology: history, philosophy, and practical concerns.Georg Striedter - 2022 - Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press.
    Instead of arguing for a specific animal model, Striedter will review the history and philosophy of animal models in biomedical research, examining their various advantages and limitations.
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  19. Nothing about Us without Us: Inclusion and IRB Review of Mental Health Research Protocols.Ian Tully - 2022 - Ethics and Human Research 44 (3):34-40.
    Research on mental health and illness presents a variety of unique ethical challenges. This article argues that institutional review boards (IRBs) can improve their reviews of such research by including the perspectives of individuals with the condition under study either as members of the IRB or as consultants thereto. Several reasons for including the perspectives of these individuals are advanced, with the discussion organized around a hypothetical case study involving the assessment of a novel talk-therapy modality. Having made this case, (...)
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  20. Addressing the Continued Circulation of Retracted Research as a Design Problem.Nathan D. Woods, Jodi Schneider & The Risrs Team - 2022 - GW Journal of Ethics in Publishing 1 (1).
    In this article, we discuss the continued circulation and use of retracted science as a complex problem: Multiple stakeholders throughout the publishing ecosystem hold competing perceptions of this problem and its possible solutions. We describe how we used a participatory design process model to co-develop recommendations for addressing this problem with stakeholders in the Alfred P. Sloan-funded project, Reducing the Inadvertent Spread of Retracted Science (RISRS). After introducing the four core RISRS recommendations, we discuss how the issue of retraction-related stigma (...)
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  21. Is Dupras and Bunnik’s Framework for Assessing Privacy Risks in Multi-Omic Research and Databases Still Too Exceptionalist?Karla Alex & Eva C. Winkler - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics 21 (12):80-82.
    Dupras and Bunnik’s strong statement against the normative approach of genetic exceptionalism, which can no longer be justified in the midst of multi-omic research, is of great importance fo...
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  22. Institutional Review Board: member handbook.Robert J. Amdur - 2021 - Burlington, Massachusetts: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
    This book is a small handbook designed to give Institutional Review Board members the information they need to protect the rights and welfare of research subjects in a way that is both effective and efficient. The chapters of this book are short and to the point. Topic-specific chapters list the criteria IRB members should use to determine how to vote on specific kinds of studies and offer practical advice on what IRB members should do before and during full-committee meetings.
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  23. Institutional review board: management and function.Elizabeth A. Bankert, Bruce G. Gordon, Elisa A. Hurley & Sharon P. Shriver (eds.) - 2021 - Burlington, Massachusetts: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
    The National Institutes of Health invests over $37 billion per year in support of research to improve human health. All research funded by NIH that involves human subjects is subject to regulatory oversight, requiring institutions to staff and manage Institutional Review Boards. IRB members, chairs, and the many associated human subjects protections oversight professionals who support the work of the IRB must navigate complex federal regulations issued by multiple agencies. This book is the industry standard reference work for the research (...)
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  24. Portfolio. Cv - 2021 - In Robert Foley (ed.), How to succeed in medical research: a practical guide. Wiley-Blackwell.
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  25. How to succeed in medical research: a practical guide.Robert Foley - 2021 - Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell.
    Over the last few decades, there has been a push towards evidence-based medicine, with the medical fraternity recognising and embracing the improved outcomes brought about by this approach. Central to this is the ability of healthcare professionals across all levels to be able to understand and undertake scientifically sound efforts to gather and learn from this evidence. This can be on a local level, for example departmental audits, or on a national or international level, as is the case with large (...)
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  26. Governing AI-Driven Health Research: Are IRBs Up to the Task?Phoebe Friesen, Rachel Douglas-Jones, Mason Marks, Robin Pierce, Katherine Fletcher, Abhishek Mishra, Jessica Lorimer, Carissa Véliz, Nina Hallowell, Mackenzie Graham, Mei Sum Chan, Huw Davies & Taj Sallamuddin - 2021 - Ethics and Human Research 2 (43):35-42.
    Many are calling for concrete mechanisms of oversight for health research involving artificial intelligence (AI). In response, institutional review boards (IRBs) are being turned to as a familiar model of governance. Here, we examine the IRB model as a form of ethics oversight for health research that uses AI. We consider the model's origins, analyze the challenges IRBs are facing in the contexts of both industry and academia, and offer concrete recommendations for how these committees might be adapted in order (...)
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  27. Risk, double effect and the social benefit requirement.Robert C. Hughes - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 47 (12):e29-e29.
    Many ethicists maintain that medical research on human subjects that presents no prospect of direct medical benefit must have a prospect of social benefit to be ethical. Payment is not the sort of benefit that justifies exposing subjects to risk. Alan Wertheimer has raised a serious challenge to this view, pointing out that in industry, social value is not considered necessary to make dangerous jobs ethical. This article argues that Wertheimer was correct to think that the ethics of hazard pay (...)
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  28. Avoiding exploitation in multinational covid-19 vaccine trials.Alexander A. Iyer, Joseph Millum, Christine Grady & David Wendler - 2021 - The BMJ 372:n541.
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  29. Motives and risk perceptions of participants in a phase 1 trial for Hepatitis C Virus investigational therapy in pregnancy.Yasaswi Kislovskiy, Catherine Chappell, Emily Flaherty, Megan E. Hamm, Flor de Abril Cameron, Elizabeth Krans & Judy C. Chang - 2021 - Sage Publications Ltd: Research Ethics 18 (2):132-150.
    Research Ethics, Volume 18, Issue 2, Page 132-150, April 2022. Limited research has been done among pregnant people participating in investigational drug trials. To enhance the ethical understanding of pregnant people’s perspectives on research participation, we sought to describe motives and risk perceptions of participants in a phase 1 trial of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir treatment for chronic Hepatitis C virus during pregnancy. Pregnant people with chronic HCV infection enrolled in an open-label, phase 1 study of LDV/SOF participated in semi-structured, in-depth interviews to (...)
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  30. Aporia of the Gift: Precision Medicine’s Obligations Without Expectations.Elizabeth Lanphier - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics 21 (4):83-85.
    In “Obligations of the Gift” Sandra Lee (2021) suggests that social norms of reciprocity and the expectations and obligations associated with gift-giving afford a framework for addressing social justice considerations in precision medicine. Lee is particularly concerned with obligations to marginalized or oppressed racial and ethnic groups, which are also historically under-represented populations in precision medicine. Obligations arise, Lee argues, through the “gift” that research participants make when they contribute their data or biospecimens to precision medicine research. This conceptualization of (...)
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  31. Ippocrate è morto ad Auschwitz: la vera storia dei medici nazisti.Giulio Meotti - 2021 - Torino: Lindau.
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  32. Can we learn from hidden mistakes? Self-fulfilling prophecy and responsible neuroprognostic innovation.Mayli Mertens, Owen C. King, Michel J. A. M. van Putten & Marianne Boenink - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 48 (11):922-928.
    A self-fulfilling prophecy in neuroprognostication occurs when a patient in coma is predicted to have a poor outcome, and life-sustaining treatment is withdrawn on the basis of that prediction, thus directly bringing about a poor outcome for that patient. In contrast to the predominant emphasis in the bioethics literature, we look beyond the moral issues raised by the possibility that an erroneous prediction might lead to the death of a patient who otherwise would have lived. Instead, we focus on the (...)
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  33. Ethical issues in genomics research on neurodevelopmental disorders: a critical interpretive review.Signe Mezinska, L. Gallagher, M. Verbrugge & E. M. Bunnik - 2021 - Human Genomics 16 (15).
    Background Genomic research on neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs), particularly involving minors, combines and amplifies existing research ethics issues for biomedical research. We performed a review of the literature on the ethical issues associated with genomic research involving children affected by NDDs as an aid to researchers to better anticipate and address ethical concerns. Results Qualitative thematic analysis of the included articles revealed themes in three main areas: research design and ethics review, inclusion of research participants, and communication of research results. Ethical (...)
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  34. Normative framework of informed consent in clinical research in Germany, Poland, and Russia.Marcin Orzechowski, Katarzyna Woniak, Cristian Timmermann & Florian Steger - 2021 - BMC Medical Ethics 22 (1):1-10.
    Background: Biomedical research nowadays is increasingly carried out in multinational and multicenter settings. Due to disparate national regulations on various ethical aspects, such as informed consent, there is the risk of ethical compromises when involving human subjects in research. Although the Declaration of Helsinki is the point of reference for ethical conduct of research on humans, national normative requirements may diverge from its provisions. The aim of this research is to examine requirements on informed consent in biomedical research in Germany, (...)
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  35. Improving the Ethical Review of Health Policy and Systems Research: Some Suggestions.Govind Persad - 2021 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 49 (1):123-125.
    Consistent and well-designed frameworks for ethical oversight enable socially valuable research while forestalling harmful or poorly designed studies. I suggest some alterations that might strengthen the valuable checklist Rattani & Hyder propose for the ethical review of health policy and systems research (HPSR), or prompt future work in the area.
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  36. Psychiatric Research Ethics.Dominic Sisti & William R. Smith - 2021 - In Ana S. Iltis & Douglas MacKay (eds.), Oxford Handbook of Research Ethics. Oxford University Press.
    Psychiatric research often poses special ethical concerns. This chapter first provides historical context, including scandals that stoked public concern about psychiatric research and led to the promulgation of canonical documents and bioethics scholarship, and then explores issues related to the decision-making capacity and safety of participants—including the use of placebos and washout periods, the design of suicide prevention studies, and research in emergency psychiatry. The chapter then describes how shifting models of psychiatric nosology have precipitated conflicts in the determination of (...)
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  37. Centrifugal and Centripetal Thinking About the Biopsychosocial Model in Psychiatry.Kathryn Tabb - 2021 - European Journal of Analytic Philosophy 17 (2):(M3)5-28.
    The biopsychosocial model, which was deeply influential on psychiatry following its introduction by George L. Engel in 1977, has recently made a comeback. Derek Bolton and Grant Gillett have argued that Engel’s original formulation offered a promising general framework for thinking about health and disease, but that this promise requires new empirical and philosophical tools in order to be realized. In particular, Bolton and Gillett offer an original analysis of the ontological relations between Engel’s biological, social, and psychological levels of (...)
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  38. An Argument For Reinterpreting the Benign Behavioral Intervention Exemption.Ian Tully - 2021 - Ethics and Human Research 43 (4):20-26.
    Recent changes to the Common Rule have helped reduce regulatory burden on researchers conducting minimal risk research. However, in this paper, I propose a way of minimizing burden further within the existing confines of the current regulations. I focus my discussion on the newly created “benign behavioral interventions” category of exempt research, arguing that this exemption from the federal regulations governing research with human subjects should be more expansively interpreted by the Secretary's Advisory Committee on Human Research Protections (SACHRP) than (...)
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  39. Carte blanche: the erosion of medical consent.Harriet Washington - 2021 - New York, NY: Columbia Global Reports.
    Carte Blanche is the alarming tale of how the right of Americans to say "no" to risky medical research is eroding at a time when we are racing to produce a vaccine and treatments for Covid-19. This medical right that we have long taken for granted was first sacrificed on the altar of military expediency in 1990 when the Department of Defense asked for and received from the FDA a waiver that permitted it to force an experimental anthrax vaccine on (...)
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  40. Regulating human research: IRBs from peer review to compliance bureaucracy.Sarah L. Babb - 2020 - Stanford, California: Stanford University Press.
    This book traces the historic transformation of institutional review boards (IRBs) from academic committees to compliance bureaucracies. Sarah Babb opens the black box of contemporary IRB decision-making, which is increasingly outsourced to specialized private firms.
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  41. Public interest in health data research: laying out the conceptual groundwork.Angela Ballantyne & G. Owen Schaefer - 2020 - Journal of Medical Ethics 46 (9):610-616.
    The future of health research will be characterised by three continuing trends: rising demand for health data; increasing impracticability of obtaining specific consent for secondary research; and decreasing capacity to effectively anonymise data. In this context, governments, clinicians and the research community must demonstrate that they can be responsible stewards of health data. IRBs and RECs sit at heart of this process because in many jurisdictions they have the capacity to grant consent waivers when research is judged to be of (...)
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  42. COVID-19 and mental health: government response and appropriate measures.Genevieve Bandares-Paulino & Randy A. Tudy - 2020 - Eubios Journal of Asian and International Bioethics 30 (7):378-382.
    As governments around the world imposed lockdowns or stay-at-home measures, people began to feel the stress as time dragged on. There were already reports on some individuals committing suicide. How do governments respond to such a phenomenon? Our main focus is the Philippine government and how it responded to the COVID-19 pandemic. In this paper, we argue that the problem with COVID-19 went forth just dealing with physical health. First, people suffer not just from being infected but the psychological stress (...)
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  43. Pandemic ethics: the case for risky research.Richard Yetter Chappell & Peter Singer - 2020 - Research Ethics 16 (3-4):1-8.
    There is too much that we do not know about COVID-19. The longer we take to find it out, the more lives will be lost. In this paper, we will defend a principle of risk parity: if it is permissible to expose some members of society (e.g. health workers or the economically vulnerable) to a certain level of ex ante risk in order to minimize overall harm from the virus, then it is permissible to expose fully informed volunteers to a (...)
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  44. Clinical Reasoning: Knowledge, Uncertainty, and Values in Health Care.Daniele Chiffi - 2020 - Cham: Springer.
    This book offers a philosophically-based, yet clinically-oriented perspective on current medical reasoning aiming at 1) identifying important forms of uncertainty permeating current clinical reasoning and practice 2) promoting the application of an abductive methodology in the health context in order to deal with those clinical uncertainties 3) bridging the gap between biomedical knowledge, clinical practice, and research and values in both clinical and philosophical literature. With a clear philosophical emphasis, the book investigates themes lying at the border between several disciplines, (...)
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  45. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Human Challenge Trials: Too Risky, Too Soon.Liza Dawson, Jake Earl & Jeffrey Livezey - 2020 - Journal of Infectious Diseases 222 (3):514-516.
    Eyal et al have recently argued that researchers should consider conducting severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) human challenge studies to hasten vaccine development. We have conducted (J. L.) and overseen (L. D.) human challenge studies and agree that they can be useful in developing anti-infective agents. We also agree that adults can autonomously choose to undergo risks with no prospect of direct benefit to themselves. However, we disagree that SARS-CoV-2 challenge studies are ethically appropriate at this time, for (...)
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  46. The Belmont Report and Innovative Practice.Jake Earl - 2020 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 63 (2):313-326.
    One of the Belmont Report’s most important contributions was the clear and serviceable distinction it drew between standard medical practice and biomedical research. A less well-known achievement of the Report was its conceptualization of innovative practice, a type of medical practice that is often mistaken for research because it is new, untested, or experimental. Although the discussion of innovative practice in Belmont is brief and somewhat cryptic, this does not reflect the significant progress its authors made in understanding innovative practice (...)
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  47. The Ethics of Information-Gathering in Innovative Practice.Jake Earl & David Wendler - 2020 - Internal Medicine Journal 50 (12):1583-1587.
    Innovative practice involves medical interventions that deviate from standard practice in significant ways. For many patients, innovative practice offers the best chance of successful treatment. Because little is known about most innovative treatments, clinicians who engage in innovative practice might consider including extra procedures, such as scans or blood draws, to gather information about the innovation. Such information-gathering interventions can yield valuable information for modifying the innovation to benefit future patients and for designing scientific studies of the innovation. However, existing (...)
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  48. Recognizing the past in the present: new studies on medicine before, during, and after the Holocaust.Sabine Hildebrandt, Miriam Offer & Michael A. Grodin (eds.) - 2020 - New York: Berghahn Books.
    Following decades of silence about the involvement of doctors, medical researchers and other health professionals in the Holocaust and other National Socialist (Nazi) crimes, scholars in recent years have produced a growing body of research that reveals the pervasive extent of that complicity. This interdisciplinary collection of studies presents documentation of the critical role medicine played in realizing the policies of Hitler's regime. It traces the history of Nazi medicine from its roots in the racial theories of the 1920s, through (...)
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  49. Unethical informed consent caused by overlooking poorly measured nocebo effects.Jeremy Howick - 2020 - Journal of Medical Ethics 16:00-03.
    Unlike its friendly cousin the placebo effect, the nocebo effect (the effect of expecting a negative outcome) has been almost ignored. Epistemic and ethical confusions related to its existence have gone all but unnoticed. Contrary to what is often asserted, adverse events following from taking placebo interventions are not necessarily nocebo effects; they could have arisen due to natural history. Meanwhile, ethical informed consent (in clinical trials and clinical practice) has centred almost exclusively on the need to inform patients about (...)
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  50. A Moral Obligation to Proper Experimentation: Research Ethics as Epistemic Filter in the Aftermath of World War II.Noortje Jacobs - 2020 - Isis 111 (4):759-780.
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