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  1. Coronavirus Pandemic: Philosophers in Lockdown جائحة كورونا ... فلاسفة في العُزلة.Salah Osman - manuscript
    كان يمشي في الأرض مرحًا، مُصعرًا خده للطبيعة، ومُنتشيًا برفاهيات حضاراته؛ أو يخطو فوق أديمها مهمومًا بضنك العيش، يعتصره ألم البحث عن قوت يومه، قبل أن يُفاجئه الفيروس التاجي ليقلب حياته رأسًا على عقب. إنه الإنسان، ذلك المجهول لنفسه، الجاهل بعلمه، المغرور بعقله، الضعيف بقوته، المتناقض مع ذاته، الفقير بثرواته الضخمة! فجأة باتت تعتمل بداخله مشاعر الحيرة والخوف والقلق، تؤرقه تساؤلات تسخر من عجزه الصارخ عن الإجابة عنها: ما أصل هذا الفيروس؟ هل هو نبتٌ طبيعي أم مؤامرة من بني جلدته؟ (...)
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  2. Bioética y derechos humanos: sobre la representación intelectual del origen de la bioética.Mastroleo Ignacio - forthcoming - Véritas (Arequipa).
    En este trabajo se comparan dos representaciones en competencia sobre el origen de la bioética para llamar la atención sobre un posible cambio de marco teórico dentro de la disciplina. Por un lado, una representación parroquiana del origen de la bioética, centrada en problemas tecnológicos locales, y fundamentada en tradiciones culturales particulares. Por otro lado, una representación universal y pluralista, que enfrenta problemas de justicia y salud globales y que intenta buscar el fundamento normativo del discurso de la bioética en (...)
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  3. The Medical Model of “Obesity” and the Values Behind the Guise of Health.Kayla R. Mehl - forthcoming - Synthese 201 (6):1-28.
    Assumptions about obesity—e.g., its connection to ill health, its causes, etc.—are still prevalent today, and they make up what I call the medical model of fatness. In this paper, I argue that the medical model was established on the basis of insufficient evidence and has nevertheless continued to be relied upon to justify methodological choices that further entrench the assumptions of the medical model. These choices are illegitimate in so far as they conflict with both the epistemic and social aims (...)
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  4. The Moral Obligation to Prioritize Research Into Deep Brain Stimulation Over Brain Lesioning Procedures for Severe Enduring Anorexia Nervosa.Jonathan Pugh, Jacinta Tan, Tipu Aziz & Rebecca J. Park - forthcoming - Frontiers in Psychiatry 9:523.
    Deep Brain Stimulation is currently being investigated as an experimental treatment for patients suffering from treatment-refractory AN, with an increasing number of case reports and small-scale trials published. Although still at an exploratory and experimental stage, initial results have been promising. Despite the risks associated with an invasive neurosurgical procedure and the long-term implantation of a foreign body, DBS has a number of advantageous features for patients with SE-AN. Stimulation can be fine-tuned to the specific needs of the particular patient, (...)
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  5. The Influence of Values on Medical Research.S. Andrew Schroeder - forthcoming - In Alex Broadbent (ed.), Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Medicine. Oxford University Press.
    Mainstream views of medical research tell us it should be a fact-based, value-free endeavor: what a scientist (or her funding source) wants or cares about should not influence her findings. At the same time, we also sometimes criticize medical research for failing to embody certain values, e.g. when we criticize pharmaceutical companies for largely ignoring the diseases that affect the global poor. This chapter seeks to reconcile these perspectives by distinguishing appropriate from inappropriate influences of values on medical research. It (...)
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  6. The Normative Power of Consent and Limits on Research Risks.Aaron Eli Segal & David S. Wendler - forthcoming - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice.
    Research regulations around the world do not impose any limits on the risks to which consenting adults may be exposed. Nonetheless, most review committees regard some risks as too high, even for consenting adults. To justify this practice, commentators have appealed to a range of considerations which are external to informed consent and the risks themselves. Most prominently, some argue that exposing consenting adults to very high risks has the potential to undermine public trust in research. This justification assumes that (...)
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  7. Should the use of adaptive machine learning systems in medicine be classified as research?Robert Sparrow, Joshua Hatherley, Justin Oakley & Chris Bain - forthcoming - American Journal of Bioethics.
    A novel advantage of the use of machine learning (ML) systems in medicine is their potential to continue learning from new data after implementation in clinical practice. To date, considerations of the ethical questions raised by the design and use of adaptive machine learning systems in medicine have, for the most part, been confined to discussion of the so-called “update problem,” which concerns how regulators should approach systems whose performance and parameters continue to change even after they have received regulatory (...)
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  8. Quantitative Framework for Retrospective Assessment of Interim Decisions in Clinical Trials.Roger Stanev - forthcoming - Medical Decision Making.
    This article presents a quantitative way of modeling the interim decisions of clinical trials. While statistical approaches tend to focus on the epistemic aspects of statistical monitoring rules, often overlooking ethical considerations, ethical approaches tend to neglect key epistemic dimension. The proposal is a second-order decision theoretic framework. The framework provides means for retrospective assessment of interim decisions based on a clear and consistent set of criteria that combines both ethical and epistemic considerations. The framework is broadly Bayesian and addresses (...)
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  9. Bioethics: 50 Puzzles, Problems, and Thought Experiments.Sean D. Aas, Collin O'Neil & Chiara Lepora - 2024 - New York: Routledge.
    Bioethics: 50 Puzzles, Problems, and Thought Experiments collects 50 cases—both real and imaginary—that have been, or should be, of special interest and importance to philosophical bioethics. Cases are collected together under topical headings in a natural order for an introductory course in bioethics. Each case is described in a few pages, which includes bioethical context, a concise narrative of the case itself, and a discussion of its importance, both for broader philosophical issues and for practical problems in clinical ethics and (...)
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  10. Ophthalmic Research’s Unique Challenges: Not All First-in-Human Surgeries Are the Same.Deborah R. Barnbaum - 2024 - American Journal of Bioethics 24 (5):90-92.
    Laspro et al. (2024) present an insightful survey of ethical issues emerging in first-in-human whole eye transplants (WET). Their discussion is applicable to a broad range of first-in-human surgica...
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  11. Ethical Justifications for Waiving Informed Consent for a Perianal Swab in Critical Burn Care Research.Jake Earl, Jeffrey W. Shupp & Ben Krohmal - 2024 - American Journal of Bioethics 24 (4):110-113.
    The case (Dawson et al. 2024) describes an Institutional Review Board (IRB) chair who seeks consultation about waiving the requirement that investigators obtain prospective, informed consent for collection of microbiome samples by swabbing the perianal region of severely burned patients shortly after their admission to an intensive care unit (ICU). We argue that it is ethically permissible to waive informed consent requirements for the perianal swab and that the IRB should approve a waiver as permitted by regulations.
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  12. An African Research Ethics Reader.Ike Iyioke (ed.) - 2024 - Brill.
    Afro-cultural research ethics is in a nascent phase within the field of research ethics as a whole and requires more attention and in-depth articulation. With specific case studies, this vital volume provides unique perspectives on topics such as social autonomy vis-a-vis interests of individuals.
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  13. Ancillary Care Obligations in the Light of an African Bioethic: From Entrustment to Communion (Repr.).Thaddeus Metz - 2024 - In Ike Iyioke (ed.), An African Research Ethics Reader. Brill. pp. 92-111.
    Reprint of an article that first appeared in Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics (2017).
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  14. What is the standard of care in experimental development economics?Marcos Picchio - 2024 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 23 (2):205-226.
    A central feature of experimental development economics is the use of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate the effectiveness of prospective socioeconomic interventions. The use of RCTs in development economics raises a host of ethical issues which are just beginning to be explored. In this article, I address one ethical issue in particular: the routine use of the status quo as a control when designing and conducting a development RCT. Drawing on the literature on the principle of standard care in (...)
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  15. Qualitative health research and procedural ethics: An interview study to investigate researchers’ ways of navigating the demands of medical research ethics committees in Germany.Sarah Potthoff, Fee Roth & Matthé Scholten - 2024 - Research Ethics 20 (2):388-410.
    This study explores how qualitative health researchers navigate the demands of medical research ethics committees in Germany where qualitative research is subject to approval only when it is conducted in medical contexts. We present the results of a grounded theory study to investigate qualitative health researchers’ experiences with procedural ethics and the strategies they adopt to navigate its demands. Our analysis revealed six dimensions of experience and three strategies adopted by researchers to navigate the demands of medical research ethics committees. (...)
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  16. Comparative ethical evaluation of epigenome editing and genome editing in medicine: first steps and future directions.Karla Alex & Eva C. Winkler - 2023 - Journal of Medical Ethics (doi: 10.1136/jme-2022-108888):1-9.
    Targeted modifications of the human epigenome, epigenome editing (EE), are around the corner. For EE, techniques similar to genome editing (GE) techniques are used. While in GE the genetic information is changed by directly modifying DNA, intervening in the epigenome requires modifying the configuration of DNA, for example, how it is folded. This does not come with alterations in the base sequence (‘genetic code’). To date, there is almost no ethical debate about EE, whereas the discussions about GE are voluminous. (...)
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  17. Social Value, Beneficial Information, and Obligations to Participants in a Trial of Novel COVID-19 Vaccines.Jake Earl & Liza Dawson - 2023 - American Journal of Bioethics 23 (10):126-128.
    The case describes researchers who are seeking ethics guidance on communicating with participants in a phase-1 COVD-19 vaccine trial about FDA-authorized COVID-19 vaccines (Wilfond, Duenas, and Johnson 2023). The researchers want help choosing among three options they have identified for encouraging participants to obtain one of the authorized vaccines. We argue that research ethics consultants should consider going beyond this question to address another ethics concern the researchers might have overlooked.
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  18. What should recognition entail? Responding to the reification of autonomy and vulnerability in medical research.Jonathan Lewis & Soren Holm - 2023 - Journal of Medical Ethics 49 (7):491-492.
    Smajdor argues that “recognition” is the solution to the “reifying attitude” that results from “the urge to protect ‘vulnerable’ people through exclusion from research”. Drawing on theories of reification, we argue that it is the concepts of autonomy and vulnerability themselves that have been reified, resulting in the impoverishment of approaches to autonomy at law and in research ethics. Overcoming such reification demands a deeper consideration of the grounds on which vulnerable individuals are owed recognition and thereby the forms such (...)
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  19. Diversity and inclusion for rodents: how animal ethics committees can help improve translation.Piotrowska Monika - 2023 - Journal of Medical Ethics 1.
    Translation failure occurs when a treatment shown to be safe and effective in one type of population does not produce the same result in another. We are currently in a crisis involving the translatability of preclinical studies to human populations. Animal trials are no better than a coin toss at predicting the safety and efficacy of drugs in human trials, and the high failure rate of drugs entering human trials suggests that most of the suffering of laboratory animals is futile, (...)
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  20. From depressed mice to depressed patients: a less “standardized” approach to improving translation.Monika Piotrowska - 2023 - Biology and Philosophy 38 (6):1-19.
    Depression is a widespread and debilitating disorder, but developing effective treatments has proven challenging. Despite success in animal models, many treatments fail in human trials. While various factors contribute to this translational failure, standardization practices in animal research are often overlooked. This paper argues that certain standardization choices in behavioral neuroscience research on depression can limit the generalizability of results from rodents to humans. This raises ethical and scientific concerns, including animal waste and a lack of progress in treating human (...)
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  21. Gibt es einen therapeutischen Imperativ zum genome editing in der menschlichen Keimbahn? [Is there a therapeutic imperative for editing the human germline genome? / Existe-t-il un impératif thérapeutique à l'édition du génome dans la lignée germinale humaine].Karla Alex & Christoph Rehmann-Sutter - 2022 - URPP Human Reproduction Reloaded | H2R (University of Zurich), Working Paper Series, 05/2022. Zurich and Geneva: Seismo 1 (5):1-21.
    Abstract: This working paper focuses on the question whether there is a therapeutic imperative that, in specific situations, would oblige us to perform genome editing at the germline level in the context of assisted reproduction. The answer to this central question is discussed primarily with reference to specific scenarios where preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) does not represent an acceptable alternative to germline genome editing based on either medical, or ethical, or – from the perspective of the potential parents – moral (...)
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  22. Institutional Review Board: member handbook.Robert J. Amdur - 2022 - Burlington, Massachusetts: Jones & Bartlett Learning. Edited by Elizabeth A. Bankert.
    This book is a small handbook designed to give Institutional Review Board (IRB) members the information they need to protect the rights and welfare of research subjects in a way that is both effective and efficient. The chapters of this book are short and to the point. Topic-specific chapters list the criteria IRB members should use to determine how to vote on specific kinds of studies and offer practical advice on what IRB members should do before and during full-committee meetings.
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  23. Institutional review board: management and function.Elizabeth A. Bankert, Bruce G. Gordon, Elisa A. Hurley & Sharon P. Shriver (eds.) - 2022 - Burlington, Massachusetts: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) invests over $37 billion per year in support of research to improve human health. All research funded by NIH that involves human subjects is subject to regulatory oversight, requiring institutions to staff and manage Institutional Review Boards (IRBs). IRB members, chairs, and the many associated human subjects protections oversight professionals who support the work of the IRB must navigate complex federal regulations issued by multiple agencies. This book is the industry standard reference work for (...)
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  24. Reconciling Regulation with Scientific Autonomy in Dual-Use Research.Nicholas G. Evans, Michael J. Selgelid & Robert Mark Simpson - 2022 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 47 (1):72-94.
    In debates over the regulation of communication related to dual-use research, the risks that such communication creates must be weighed against against the value of scientific autonomy. The censorship of such communication seems justifiable in certain cases, given the potentially catastrophic applications of some dual-use research. This conclusion however, gives rise to another kind of danger: that regulators will use overly simplistic cost-benefit analysis to rationalize excessive regulation of scientific research. In response to this, we show how institutional design principles (...)
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  25. Animal Models in Neuropsychiatry: Do the benefits outweigh the moral costs?Carrie Figdor - 2022 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 32 (4):530-535.
    Animal models have long been used to investigate human mental disorders, including depression, anxiety, and schizophrenia. This practice is usually justified in terms of the benefits (to humans) outweighing the costs (to the animals). I argue on utility maximization grounds that we should phase out animal models in neuropsychiatric research. Our leading theories of how human minds and behavior evolved invoke sociocultural factors whose relation to nonhuman minds, societies, and behavior has not been homologized. Thus it is not at all (...)
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  26. Do Clinicians Have a Duty to Participate in Pragmatic Clinical Trials?Andrew Garland, Stephanie Morain & Jeremy Sugarman - 2022 - American Journal of Bioethics 23 (8):22-32.
    Clinicians have good moral and professional reasons to contribute to pragmatic clinical trials (PCTs). We argue that clinicians have a defeasible duty to participate in this research that takes place in usual care settings and does not involve substantive deviation from their ordinary care practices. However, a variety of countervailing reasons may excuse clinicians from this duty in particular cases. Yet because there is a moral default in favor of participating, clinicians who wish to opt out of this research must (...)
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  27. Equipoise, standard of care, and consent: Responding to the authorisation of new COVID-19 treatments in randomised controlled trials.Soren Holm, Jonathan Lewis & Rafael Dal-Ré - 2022 - Journal of Medical Ethics:1-6.
    In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, large-scale research and pharmaceutical regulatory processes have proceeded at a dramatically increased pace with new and effective, evidence-based COVID-19 interventions rapidly making their way into the clinic. However, the swift generation of high-quality evidence and the efficient processing of regulatory authorisation have given rise to more specific and complex versions of well-known research ethics issues. In this paper, we identify three such issues by focusing on the authorisation of Molnupiravir, a novel antiviral medicine aimed (...)
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  28. Vacunagate: ¿Era posible justificar moralmente el caso peruano?Franklin Ibañez & Pyro Suarez - 2022 - Letras 93 (138):168-182.
    El artículo analiza el Vacunagate: escándalo suscitado en el Perú a inicios de 2021 por la inoculación de la vacuna Sinopharm cuando aún se encontraba en fase experimental. Se analiza la moralidad del caso para iluminar la discusión pública sobre políticas de conducción y supervisión de ensayos clínicos en un contexto de pandemia. Se evalúa si eran moralmente justificables dos acciones: primero, la utilización de la candidata a vacuna por fuera de un ensayo clínico y, segundo, priorizar algunos grupos en (...)
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  29. Ethics by committee: a history of reasoning together about medicine, science, society, and the state.Noortje Jacobs - 2022 - Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Ethics boards have become obligatory passage points in today's medical science, and we forget how novel they really are. The use of humans in experiments is an age-old practice that records show goes back to at least the third century BC and, since the early modern period, as a practice it has become increasingly popular. Yet, in most countries around the world, hardly any formal checks and balances existed to govern the communal oversight of experiments involving human subjects until at (...)
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  30. Justifying the risks of COVID-19 challenge trials: The analogy with organ donation.Athmeya Jayaram, Jacob Sparks & Daniel Callies - 2022 - Bioethics 36 (1):100-106.
    In the beginning of the COVID pandemic, researchers and bioethicists called for human challenge trials to hasten the development of a vaccine for COVID. However, the fact that we lacked a specific, highly effective treatment for COVID led many to argue that a COVID challenge trial would be unethical and we ought to pursue traditional phase III testing instead. These ethical objections to challenge trials may have slowed the progress of a COVID vaccine, so it is important to evaluate their (...)
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  31. Existing Ethical Tensions in Xenotransplantation.L. Syd M. Johnson - 2022 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 31 (3):355-367.
    The genetic modification of pigs as a source of transplantable organs is one of several possible solutions to the chronic organ shortage. This paper describes existing ethical tensions in xenotransplantation (XTx) that argue against pursuing it. Recommendations for lifelong infectious disease surveillance and notification of close contacts of recipients are in tension with the rights of human research subjects. Parental/guardian consent for pediatric xenograft recipients is in tension with a child’s right to an open future. Individual consent to transplant is (...)
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  32. Health Privacy, Racialization, and the Causal Potential of Legal Regulations.Joanna Malinowska & Bartek Chomanski - 2022 - American Journal of Bioethics 22 (7):76-78.
    Pyrrho and colleagues (2022) argue that the loss of health privacy can damage democratic values by increasing social polarization, removing individual choice, and limiting self-determination. As a remedy, the authors propose a data-regulation regime that prohibits companies from using such data for discriminatory purposes. Our commentary addresses three issues. First, we point out an additional problematic dimension of excessive health privacy loss, namely, the potential racialization of groups and individuals that it may likely contribute to. Second, we note that, in (...)
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  33. Why iBlastoids (Embryo-like Structures) Do Not Raise Significant Ethical Issues.Alberto Molina Pérez & Aníbal Monasterio Astobiza - 2022 - American Journal of Bioethics 22 (1):59-61.
    Most technology is used properly for their intended purpose, but certain technological breakthroughs have a dual-use nature, pose risks or lead to unintended consequences when applied in some areas...
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  34. Toward Meeting the Obligation of Respect for Persons in Pragmatic Clinical Trials.Stephanie R. Morain, Stephanie A. Kraft, Benjamin S. Wilfond, Amy Mcguire, Neal W. Dickert, Andrew Garland & Jeremy Sugarman - 2022 - Hastings Center Report 52 (3):9-17.
    Hastings Center Report, Volume 52, Issue 3, Page 9-17, May–June 2022.
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  35. Institutional Review Boards and Public Justification.Anantharaman Muralidharan & G. Owen Schaefer - 2022 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 26 (3):405-423.
    Ethics committees like Institutional Review Boards and Research Ethics Committees are typically empowered to approve or reject proposed studies, typically conditional on certain conditions or revisions being met. While some have argued this power should be primarily a function of applying clear, codified requirements, most institutions and legal regimes allow discretion for IRBs to ethically evaluate studies, such as to ensure a favourable risk-benefit ratio, fair subject selection, adequate informed consent, and so forth. As a result, ethics committees typically make (...)
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  36. Reducing the Inadvertent Spread of Retracted Science: recommendations from the RISRS report.Jodi Schneider, Nathan D. Woods, Randi Proescholdt & The Risrs Team - 2022 - Research Integrity and Peer Review 7 (1).
    Background Retraction is a mechanism for alerting readers to unreliable material and other problems in the published scientific and scholarly record. Retracted publications generally remain visible and searchable, but the intention of retraction is to mark them as “removed” from the citable record of scholarship. However, in practice, some retracted articles continue to be treated by researchers and the public as valid content as they are often unaware of the retraction. Research over the past decade has identified a number of (...)
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  37. Models in biology: history, philosophy, and practical concerns.Georg F. Striedter - 2022 - Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press.
    Instead of arguing for a specific animal model, Striedter will review the history and philosophy of animal models in biomedical research, examining their various advantages and limitations.
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  38. Dose optimisation and scarce resource allocation: two sides of the same coin.Garth Strohbehn, Govind Persad, William F. Parker & Srinivas Murthy - 2022 - BMJ Open 12 (10):e063436.
    Objective: A deep understanding of the relationship between a scarce drug's dose and clinical response is necessary to appropriately distribute a supply-constrained drug along these lines. Summary of key data: The vast majority of drug development and repurposing during the COVID-19 pandemic – an event that has made clear the ever-present scarcity in healthcare systems –has been ignorant of scarcity and dose optimisation's ability to help address it. Conclusions: Future pandemic clinical trials systems should obtain dose optimisation data, as these (...)
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  39. Pandemic surveillance: ethics at the intersection of information, research, and health.Daniel Susser - 2022 - In Margaret Hu (ed.), Pandemic Surveillance: Privacy, Security, and Data Ethics. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar. pp. 187-196.
    This chapter provides a high-level overview of key ethical issues raised by the use of surveillance technologies, such as digital contact tracing, disease surveillance, and vaccine passports, to combat the COVID-19 pandemic. To some extent, these issues are entirely familiar. I argue that they raise old questions in new form and with new urgency, at the intersection of information ethics, research ethics, and public health. Whenever we deal with data-driven technologies, we have to ask how they fare in relation to (...)
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  40. Nothing about Us without Us: Inclusion and IRB Review of Mental Health Research Protocols.Ian Tully - 2022 - Ethics and Human Research 44 (3):34-40.
    Research on mental health and illness presents a variety of unique ethical challenges. This article argues that institutional review boards (IRBs) can improve their reviews of such research by including the perspectives of individuals with the condition under study either as members of the IRB or as consultants thereto. Several reasons for including the perspectives of these individuals are advanced, with the discussion organized around a hypothetical case study involving the assessment of a novel talk-therapy modality. Having made this case, (...)
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  41. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Based Systems for Personalising Epilepsy Treatment: Research Ethics Challenges and New Insights for the Ethics of Personalised Medicine.Mary Jean Walker, Jane Nielsen, Eliza Goddard, Alex Harris & Katrina Hutchison - 2022 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 13 (2):120-131.
    This paper examines potential ethical and legal issues arising during the research, develop- ment and clinical use of a proposed strategy in personalized medicine (PM): using human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived tissue cultures as predictive models of individ- ual patients to inform treatment decisions. We focus on epilepsy treatment as a likely early application of this strategy, for which early-stage stage research is underway. In relation to the research process, we examine issues associated with biological samples; data; health; vulnerable (...)
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  42. Addressing the Continued Circulation of Retracted Research as a Design Problem.Nathan D. Woods, Jodi Schneider & The Risrs Team - 2022 - GW Journal of Ethics in Publishing 1 (1).
    In this article, we discuss the continued circulation and use of retracted science as a complex problem: Multiple stakeholders throughout the publishing ecosystem hold competing perceptions of this problem and its possible solutions. We describe how we used a participatory design process model to co-develop recommendations for addressing this problem with stakeholders in the Alfred P. Sloan-funded project, Reducing the Inadvertent Spread of Retracted Science (RISRS). After introducing the four core RISRS recommendations, we discuss how the issue of retraction-related stigma (...)
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  43. Is Dupras and Bunnik’s Framework for Assessing Privacy Risks in Multi-Omic Research and Databases Still Too Exceptionalist?Karla Alex & Eva C. Winkler - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics 21 (12):80-82.
    Dupras and Bunnik’s strong statement against the normative approach of genetic exceptionalism, which can no longer be justified in the midst of multi-omic research, is of great importance fo...
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  44. Portfolio. Cv - 2021 - In Robert Foley (ed.), How to succeed in medical research: a practical guide. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell.
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  45. How to succeed in medical research: a practical guide.Robert Foley - 2021 - Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell. Edited by Robert Maweni, Shahram Shirazi & Hussein Jaafar.
    Over the last few decades, there has been a push towards evidence-based medicine, with the medical fraternity recognising and embracing the improved outcomes brought about by this approach. Central to this is the ability of healthcare professionals across all levels to be able to understand and undertake scientifically sound efforts to gather and learn from this evidence. This can be on a local level, for example departmental audits, or on a national or international level, as is the case with large (...)
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  46. Governing AI-Driven Health Research: Are IRBs Up to the Task?Phoebe Friesen, Rachel Douglas-Jones, Mason Marks, Robin Pierce, Katherine Fletcher, Abhishek Mishra, Jessica Lorimer, Carissa Véliz, Nina Hallowell, Mackenzie Graham, Mei Sum Chan, Huw Davies & Taj Sallamuddin - 2021 - Ethics and Human Research 2 (43):35-42.
    Many are calling for concrete mechanisms of oversight for health research involving artificial intelligence (AI). In response, institutional review boards (IRBs) are being turned to as a familiar model of governance. Here, we examine the IRB model as a form of ethics oversight for health research that uses AI. We consider the model's origins, analyze the challenges IRBs are facing in the contexts of both industry and academia, and offer concrete recommendations for how these committees might be adapted in order (...)
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  47. Recognizing the past in the present: new studies on medicine before, during, and after the Holocaust.Sabine Hildebrandt, Miriam Offer & Michael A. Grodin (eds.) - 2021 - New York: Berghahn Books.
    Following decades of silence about the involvement of doctors, medical researchers and other health professionals in the Holocaust and other National Socialist (Nazi) crimes, scholars in recent years have produced a growing body of research that reveals the pervasive extent of that complicity. This interdisciplinary collection of studies presents documentation of the critical role medicine played in realizing the policies of Hitler's regime. It traces the history of Nazi medicine from its roots in the racial theories of the 1920s, through (...)
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  48. Risk, double effect and the social benefit requirement.Robert C. Hughes - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 47 (12):e29-e29.
    Many ethicists maintain that medical research on human subjects that presents no prospect of direct medical benefit must have a prospect of social benefit to be ethical. Payment is not the sort of benefit that justifies exposing subjects to risk. Alan Wertheimer has raised a serious challenge to this view, pointing out that in industry, social value is not considered necessary to make dangerous jobs ethical. This article argues that Wertheimer was correct to think that the ethics of hazard pay (...)
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  49. Avoiding exploitation in multinational covid-19 vaccine trials.Alexander A. Iyer, Joseph Millum, Christine Grady & David Wendler - 2021 - The BMJ 372:n541.
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  50. Motives and risk perceptions of participants in a phase 1 trial for Hepatitis C Virus investigational therapy in pregnancy.Yasaswi Kislovskiy, Catherine Chappell, Emily Flaherty, Megan E. Hamm, Flor de Abril Cameron, Elizabeth Krans & Judy C. Chang - 2021 - Sage Publications Ltd: Research Ethics 18 (2):132-150.
    Research Ethics, Volume 18, Issue 2, Page 132-150, April 2022. Limited research has been done among pregnant people participating in investigational drug trials. To enhance the ethical understanding of pregnant people’s perspectives on research participation, we sought to describe motives and risk perceptions of participants in a phase 1 trial of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir treatment for chronic Hepatitis C virus during pregnancy. Pregnant people with chronic HCV infection enrolled in an open-label, phase 1 study of LDV/SOF participated in semi-structured, in-depth interviews to (...)
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