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  1. Critical analysis of three arguments against consent requirement for the diagnosis of brain death.Osamu Muramoto - manuscript
    In modern hospitals in developed countries, deaths are determined usually after a prearranged schedule of resuscitative efforts. By default, death is diagnosed and determined after “full code” or after the failure of intensive resuscitation. In end-of-life contexts, however, various degrees of less-than-full resuscitation and sometimes no resuscitation are allowed after the consent and shared decision-making of the patient and/or surrogates. The determination of brain death is a unique exception in these contexts because such an end-of-life care plan is usually not (...)
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  2. Pragmatism and the determination of death.Martin Benjamin - forthcoming - Pragmatic Bioethics:193--206.
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  3. The medical determination of brain death.E. Byrne - forthcoming - Proceedings of the 1984 Conference on Bioethics, Melbourne.
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  4. Death, Definition and Determination of: II. Legal Issues in Pronouncing Death.Alexander Morgan Capron - forthcoming - Encyclopedia of Bioethics.
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  5. Organ Donation and Declaration of Death: Combined Neurologic and Cardiopulmonary Standards.Stephen E. Doran & Joseph Michael Vukov - forthcoming - The Linacre Quarterly 86.
    Prolonged survival after the declaration of death by neurologic criteria creates ambiguity regarding the validity of this methodology. This ambiguity has perpetuated the debate among secular and nondissenting Catholic authors who question whether the neurologic standards are sufficient for the declaration of death of organ donors. Cardiopulmonary criteria are being increasingly used for organ donors who do not meet brain death standards. However, cardiopulmonary criteria are plagued by conflict of interest issues, arbitrary standards for candidacy, and the lack of standardized (...)
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  6. Death, Definition and Determination of: III. Philosophical and theological perspectives.Karen G. Gervais - forthcoming - Encyclopedia of Bioethics.
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  7. What It Is To Die.Cody Gilmore - forthcoming - In Michael Cholbi & Travis Timmerman (eds.), Exploring the Philosophy of Death and Dying. New York: Routledge.
    A defense of the view that (i) to be alive is to be actively undergoing (not merely capable of undergoing) certain vital processes, that (ii) to die is cease to be capable of undergoing those processes (not to cease undergoing them), and that (iii) organisms in cryptobiosis (suspended animation) are not undergoing those processes but are capable of doing so, and are neither alive nor dead.
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  8. Is Death Irreversible?Nada Gligorov - forthcoming - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy.
    There are currently two legally established criteria for death: the irreversible cessation of circulation and respiration and the irreversible cessation of neurologic function. Recently there have been technological developments that could undermine the irreversibility requirement. In this paper, I focus both on whether death should be identified as an irreversible state and on the proper scope of irreversibility in the biological definition of death. In section two of this paper, I tackle the distinction between the commonsense definition of death and (...)
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  9. Inconsistency between the circulatory and the brain criteria of death in the Uniform Determination of Death Act.Alberto Molina-Pérez, James L. Bernat & Anne Dalle-Ave - forthcoming - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy.
    Since 1968, a brain-based criterion of death has been adopted in medical practice and passed into law or national guidelines in most countries worldwide. In some countries, such as Australia, Spain, and the United States, death can be determined by either the circulatory and respiratory criterion or by the neurological criterion. This practice corresponds to recommendations by the World Health Organization and the World Medical Association. In the USA, the Uniform Determination of Death Act (UDDA) provides that “an individual who (...)
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  10. It is reasonable to reject the diagnosis of brain death.Robert Truog & James Fackler - forthcoming - The Journal of Ethics.
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  11. Whole-brain and neocortical definitions of death.R. M. Veatch - forthcoming - Bioethics. New York: Harcourt Brace.
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  12. Pediatric Brain Death Testing Over Parental Objections: Not an Ethically Preferable Option.Jonathan M. Marron - 2023 - American Journal of Bioethics 23 (1):90-93.
    In many ways, Maddie’s case brings together some of the most challenging features seen in clinical ethics consultation. First, it centers around a heart-wrenching event—the near-drowning of a young...
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  13. Muslim Disquiet over Brain-Death: Advancing Islamic Bioethics Discourses by Treating Death as a Social Construct that Aligns Purposes with Criteria and Ethical Behaviours.Aasim I. Padela - 2023 - In Mohammed Ghaly (ed.), End-of-Life Care, Dying and Death in the Islamic Moral Tradition. Brill.
  14. An American’s Experience with End-of-Life Care in Japan: Comparing Brain Death, Limiting and Withdrawing Life-Prolonging Interventions, and Healthcare Ethics Consultation Practices in Japan and the United States.Alexander A. Kon, Keiichiro Yamamoto, Eisuke Nakazawa, Reina Ozeki-Hayashi & Akira Akabayashi - 2022 - Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics 12 (1):93-102.
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  15. Global Ischemic Penumbra and Brain Death Declaration.Christina Leblang - 2022 - Ethics and Medics 47 (4):3-4.
    Brain death is a contentious subject, especially in the area of Catholic bioethics. Answering the question of when an individual is truly dead has a wide application in the field of medicine, particularly when determining when it is licit to begin the process of organ transplantation. Global Ischemic Penumbra raises an additional issue in that it closely mimics brain death, but is not in fact a terminal condition.
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  16. Brain Death, the Soul, and Material Dispositions.Patrick Lee - 2022 - Christian Bioethics 28 (1):41-57.
    I defend the position argued previously by Germain Grisez and me that total brain death is a valid criterion of death on the grounds that a human being is essentially a rational animal, and a brain-dead body lacks the radical capacity for rational actions. I reply to Josef Seifert’s objection that our positions rest on a reductionist view of the human person, and to other objections concerning the inter-relation between the human soul, its powers, and functions of the brain. I (...)
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  17. Brain Death: Still A Puzzle After All These Years.Richard Maundrell - 2022 - Neuroethics 16 (1):1–9.
    The definition of death as “irreversible coma” was introduced in 1968 by the Harvard University Medical School. It was developed largely in diagnostic terms as the “irreversible cessation of all functions of the entire brain, including the brainstem.” In its review of brain death in 1981, The President’s Commission for the Study of Ethical Problems in Medicine argued that brain death is consonant with circulatory death because the loss of certain brain functions results in the “loss of integrative unity of (...)
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  18. The Demise of Brain Death.Lukas J. Meier - 2022 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 73 (2):487-508.
    Fifty years have passed since brain death was first proposed as a criterion of death. Its advocates believe that with the destruction of the brain, integrated functioning ceases irreversibly, somatic unity dissolves, and the organism turns into a corpse. In this article, I put forward two objections against this assertion. First, I draw parallels between brain death and other pathological conditions and argue that whenever one regards the absence or the artificial replacement of a certain function in these pathological conditions (...)
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  19. Brain Death Debates: From Bioethics to Philosophy of Science.Alberto Molina-Pérez - 2022 - F1000Research 11:195.
    50 years after its introduction, brain death remains controversial among scholars. The debates focus on one question: is brain death a good criterion for determining death? This question has been answered from various perspectives: medical, metaphysical, ethical, and legal or political. Most authors either defend the criterion as it is, propose some minor or major revisions, or advocate abandoning it and finding better solutions to the problems that brain death was intended to solve when it was introduced. Here I plead (...)
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  20. Neuroethics, Consciousness and Death: Where Objective Knowledge Meets Subjective Experience.Alberto Molina-Pérez & Anne Dalle Ave - 2022 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 13 (4):259-261.
    Laura Specker Sullivan (2022) makes a fairly compelling case for the value of the perspectives of Buddhist practitioners in neuroethics. In this study, Tibetan Buddhist monks have been asked, among other things, whether consciousness, in brain-injured patients in a minimally conscious state, entails a duty to preserve life. In our view, some of the participants’ responses could be used to inform the bioethical debate on death determination.
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  21. Expanding the Social Status of "Corpse" to the Severely Comatose: Henry Beecher and the Harvard Brain Death Committee.Michael Nair-Collins - 2022 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 65 (1):41-58.
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  22. Cases Abusing Brain Death Definition in Organ Procurement in China.Norbert W. Paul, Kirk C. Allison & Huige Li - 2022 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 31 (3):379-385.
    Organ donation after brain death has been practiced in China since 2003 in the absence of brain death legislation. Similar to international standards, China’s brain death diagnostic criteria include coma, absence of brainstem reflexes, and the lack of spontaneous respiration. The Chinese criteria require that the lack of spontaneous respiration must be verified with an apnea test by disconnecting the ventilator for 8 min to provoke spontaneous respiration. However, we have found publications in Chinese medical journals, in which the donors (...)
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  23. Eugène Bouchut’s (1818–1891) Early Anticipation of the Concept of Brain Death.Toni Saad - 2022 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 47 (3):407-423.
    The conventional historical account of the concept of brain death credits developments and discoveries of the twentieth century with its inception, emphasizing the role of technological developments and professional conferences, notably the 1968 Ad Hoc Committee of the Harvard Medical School to Examine the Definition of Brain Death. This essay argues that the French physician Eugène Bouchut anticipated the concept of brain death as early as 1846. Correspondence with Bouchut’s understanding of brain death and one important contemporary concept of brain (...)
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  24. How the Body Became Integrated: Cybernetics in the History of the Brain Death Debate.Paul Scherz - 2022 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 47 (3):387-406.
    Although the term integration is central to the definition of brain death, there is little agreement on what it means. Through a genealogical analysis, this essay argues that there have been two primary ways of understanding integration in regard to organismal wholeness. One stems from neuroscience, focusing on the role of the brain in responding to external stimuli, which was taken up in phenomenological accounts of life. A second, arising out of cybernetics, focuses on the brain’s role in homeostasis. Recent (...)
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  25. Double Effect Donation.Charles Camosy & Joseph Vukov - 2021 - The Linacre Quarterly 88 (2):149-162.
    Double Effect Donation claims it is permissible for a person meeting brain death criteria to donate vital organs, even though such a person may be alive. The reason this act is permissible is that it does not aim at one’s own death but rather at saving the lives of others, and because saving the lives of others constitutes a proportionately serious reason for engaging in a behavior in which one foresees one’s death as the outcome. Double Effect Donation, we argue, (...)
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  26. The intractable problems with brain death and possible solutions.Ari R. Joffe, Gurpreet Khaira & Allan R. de Caen - 2021 - Philosophy, Ethics and Humanities in Medicine 16 (1):1-27.
    Brain death has been accepted worldwide medically and legally as the biological state of death of the organism. Nevertheless, the literature has described persistent problems with this acceptance ever since brain death was described. Many of these problems are not widely known or properly understood by much of the medical community. Here we aim to clarify these issues, based on the two intractable problems in the brain death debates. First, the metaphysical problem: there is no reason that withstands critical scrutiny (...)
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  27. It Is Time to Abandon the Dogma That Brain Death Is Biological Death.Franklin G. Miller, Michael Nair-Collins & Robert D. Truog - 2021 - Hastings Center Report 51 (4):18-21.
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  28. Brain Death, Challenges Between Reality and the New Concept of Death May Not Be Synonymous With the True Meaning and Need Redefining.Davoud Nezamoleslami, Alireza Olyaeemanesh, Ahmad Jonidi, Seyiedhossein Hajimirzaie, Reihaneh Kiamanesh, Ali Akbar Haghveisy & Fattanehsadat Bathaei - 2021 - Health, Spirituality and Medical Ethics 8 (3):191-197.
    : Introduction : This review article is based on jurisprudential rulings, legal approaches, social aspects, medical and ethical approach perspectives, and clarifies decisions related to the issue of brain death. Correct understanding of the brain death phenomenon in terms of brain structure and functioning, and the attitude of the community towards this phenomenon, and in particular the understanding of the condition of a patient with brain death in the future, will modify the form and content of the type of decision (...)
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  29. Brain Death as the End of a Human Organism as a Self-moving Whole.Adam Omelianchuk - 2021 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 46 (5):530-560.
    The biophilosophic justification for the idea that “brain death” is death needs to support two claims: that what dies in human death is a human organism, not merely a psychological entity distinct from it; that total brain failure signifies the end of the human organism as a whole. Defenders of brain death typically assume without argument that the first claim is true and argue for the second by defending the “integrative unity” rationale. Yet the integrative unity rationale has fallen on (...)
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  30. The ethical obligation to provide care to patients diagnosed with brain death until the end stages based on grounded theory.Hamideh Yazdimoghaddam, Zahra Sadat Manzari, Abbas Heydari & Eesa Mohammadi - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine 14.
    Nurses are faced with tremendous pressure when providing brain-dead patients with care. There is limited guidance for nurses on the care of these patients. The present study aimed to report the experiences of nurses regarding the care of patients diagnosed with brain death.Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 31 nurses and other stakeholders, and the observations and field notes were analyzed using continuous and comparative analysis based on grounded theory.The qualitative analysis of the data resulted in extraction of six final categories, (...)
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  31. Restoring Trust and Requiring Consent in Death by Neurological Criteria.L. Syd M. Johnson - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics 20 (6):33-35.
    Volume 20, Issue 6, June 2020, Page 33-35.
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  32. Brain Death: What We Are and When We Die.Lukas J. Meier - 2020 - Dissertation, University of St. Andrews
    When does a human being cease to exist? For millennia, the answer to this question had remained largely unchanged: death had been diagnosed when heartbeat and breathing were permanently absent. Only comparatively recently, in the 1950s, rapid developments in intensive-care medicine called into question this widely accepted criterion. What had previously been deemed a permanent cessation of vital functions suddenly became reversible. -/- A new criterion of death was needed. It was suggested that the destruction of the brain could indicate (...)
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  33. Death Determination and Clinicians’ Epistemic Authority.Alberto Molina-Pérez & Gonzalo Díaz-Cobacho - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics 20 (6):44-47.
    Requiring family authorization for apnea testing subtracts health professionals control over death determination, a procedure that has traditionally been considered a matter of clinical expertise alone. In this commentary, we first provide evidence showing that health professionals’ (HPs) disposition to act on death determination without family’s prior consent could be much lower than that referred to by Berkowitz and Garrett (2020). We hypothesize that HPs may have reservations about their own expertise as regards death, and may thus hesitate to impose (...)
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  34. Philosophische Überlegungen zu Hirntod und Organspende.Ralf Stoecker - 2019 - In S. M. Probst (ed.), Hirntod und Organspende aus interkultureller Sicht. Leipzig, Deutschland: Hentrich & Hentrich Verlag. pp. 85-101.
    Tod und Sterblichkeit sind Themen, die die Menschen seit Menschengedenken beschäftigt haben. Davon zeugen jahrtausendealte Grabstätten wie beispielsweise die in Stonehenge, aber auch vielfältige künstlerische Werke. Schon eines der ersten bekannten Bücher der Menschheit überhaupt, dass Gilgamesch-Epos, thematisiert die Angst vor dem Sterben und die Hoffnung auf Unsterblichkeit. Tod und Sterblichkeit waren auch schon immer zentrale Themen der Philosophie. Philosophen haben sich die Köpfe darüber zerbrochen, ob es ein Leben nach dem Tod gibt, wie man am besten damit umgehen sollte, (...)
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  35. Organ donation, brain death and the limits of liberal bioethics.Hagai Boas & Shai Lavi - 2018 - In Hagai Boas, Shai Joshua Lavi, Yael Hashiloni-Dolev, Dani Filc & Nadav Davidovitch (eds.), Bioethics and biopolitics in Israel: socio-legal, political and empirical analysis. Cambridge University Press.
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  36. Re A and the United Kingdom Code of Practice for the Diagnosis and Confirmation of Death: Should a Secular Construct of Death Override Religious Values in a Pluralistic Society?Kartina A. Choong & Mohamed Y. Rady - 2018 - HEC Forum 30 (1):71-89.
    The determination of death by neurological criteria remains controversial scientifically, culturally, and legally, worldwide. In the United Kingdom, although the determination of death by neurological criteria is not legally codified, the Code of Practice of the Academy of Medical Royal Colleges is customarily used for neurological death determination and treatment withdrawal. Unlike some states in the US, however, there are no provisions under the law requiring accommodation of and respect for residents' religious rights and commitments when secular conceptions of death (...)
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  37. Defining Death: Beyond Biology.John P. Lizza - 2018 - Diametros 55:1-19.
    The debate over whether brain death is death has focused on whether individuals who have sustained total brain failure have satisfied the biological definition of death as “the irreversible loss of the integration of the organism as a whole.” In this paper, I argue that what it means for an organism to be integrated “as a whole” is undefined and vague in the views of those who attempt to define death as the irreversible loss of the integration of the organism (...)
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  38. In Defense of Brain Death: Replies to Don Marquis, Michael Nair-Collins, Doyen Nguyen, and Laura Specker Sullivan.John P. Lizza - 2018 - Diametros 55:68-90.
    In this paper, I defend brain death as a criterion for determining death against objections raised by Don Marquis, Michael Nair-Collins, Doyen Nguyen, and Laura Specker Sullivan. I argue that any definition of death for beings like us relies on some sortal concept by which we are individuated and identified and that the choice of that concept in a practical context is not determined by strictly biological considerations but involves metaphysical, moral, social, and cultural considerations. This view supports acceptance of (...)
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  39. Death is a Biological Phenomenon.Don Marquis - 2018 - Diametros 55:20-26.
    John Lizza says that to define death well, we must go beyond biological considerations. Death is the absence of life in an entity that was once alive. Biology is the study of life. Therefore, the definition of death should not involve non-biological concerns.
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  40. Śmierć mózgowa – zmiana w rozumieniu człowieka?Jacek Meller - 2018 - Diametros 56:151-156.
    Review of the book: Człowiek na granicy istnienia. Dyskusje o śmierci mózgowej i innych aspektach umierania, Grzegorz Hołub, Piotr Duchliński, Akademia Ignatianum w Krakowie, Wydawnictwo WAM, Kraków 2017.
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  41. A Biological Theory of Death: Characterization, Justification, and Implications.Michael Nair-Collins - 2018 - Diametros 55:27-43.
    John P. Lizza has long been a major figure in the scholarly literature on criteria for death. His searching and penetrating critiques of the dominant biological paradigm, and his defense of a theory of death of the person as a psychophysical entity, have both significantly advanced the literature. In this special issue, Lizza reinforces his critiques of a strictly biological approach. In my commentary, I take up Lizza’s challenge regarding a biological concept of death. He is certainly right to point (...)
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  42. A Holistic Understanding of Death: Ontological and Medical Considerations.Doyen Nguyen - 2018 - Diametros 55:44-62.
    In the ongoing ‘brain death’ controversy, there has been a constant push for the use of the ‘higher brain’ formulation as the criterion for the determination of death on the grounds that brain-dead individuals are no longer human beings because of their irreversible loss of consciousness and mental functions. This essay demonstrates that such a position flows from a Lockean view of human persons. Compared to the ‘consciousness-related definition of death,’ the substance view is superior, especially because it provides a (...)
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  43. Authenticity, Insight and Impaired Decision-Making Capacity in Acquired Brain Injury.Gareth S. Owen, Fabian Freyenhagen & Wayne Martin - 2018 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 25 (1):29-32.
    Thanks to Barton Palmer and John McMillan for these thoughtful commentaries. We found much to agree with and it is striking how so many of the issues relating to decision-making capacity assessment find resonances outside of an English jurisdiction. California and New Zealand are clearly grappling with a very similar set of issues and the commentaries speak to the international nature of these discussions.We will pick up on some main points the commentaries raise.As Palmer notes, DMC law is vulnerable to (...)
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  44. Reply: Conscientious objection to deceased organ donation by healthcare professionals.Michal Pruski & Toni C. Saad - 2018 - Journal of the Intensive Care Society 19 (4):NP1.
    Here we respond to Shaw et al., and show why the application of Conscientious Objection cannot be dismissed from cases of organ donation, where the donor is presumed to be dead.
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  45. What Does a Definition of Death Do?Laura Specker Sullivan - 2018 - Diametros 55:63-67.
    In his article, “Defining Death: Beyond Biology,” John Lizza argues in favor of a civil definition of death, according to which the potential for consciousness and social interaction marks us as the “kind of being that we are.” In this commentary, I critically discuss this approach to the bioethical debate on the definition of death. I question whether Lizza’s account is based on a full recognition of the “practical, moral, religious, philosophical, and cultural considerations” at play in this debate. I (...)
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  46. The Brain Dead Patient Is Still Sentient: A Further Reply to Patrick Lee and Germain Grisez.Nicanor Pier Giorgio Austriaco - 2016 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 41 (3):315-328.
    Patrick Lee and Germain Grisez have argued that the total brain dead patient is still dead because the integrated entity that remains is not even an animal, not only because he is not sentient but also, and more importantly, because he has lost the radical capacity for sentience. In this essay, written from within and as a contribution to the Catholic philosophical tradition, I respond to Lee and Grisez’s argument by proposing that the brain dead patient is still sentient because (...)
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  47. Are Brain Dead Individuals Dead? Grounds for Reasonable Doubt.E. Christian Brugger - 2016 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 41 (3):329-350.
    According to the biological definition of death, a human body that has not lost the capacity to holistically organize itself is the body of a living human individual. Reasonable doubt against the conclusion that it has lost the capacity exists when the body appears to express it and no evidence to the contrary is sufficient to rule out reasonable doubt against the conclusion that the apparent expression is a true expression. This essay argues that the evidence and arguments against the (...)
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  48. Determination of Death: A Scientific Perspective on Biological Integration.Maureen L. Condic - 2016 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 41 (3):257-278.
    Human life is operationally defined by the onset and cessation of organismal function. At postnatal stages of life, organismal integration critically and uniquely requires a functioning brain. In this article, a distinction is drawn between integrated and coordinated biologic activities. While communication between cells can provide a coordinated biologic response to specific signals, it does not support the integrated function that is characteristic of a living human being. Determining the loss of integrated function can be complicated by medical interventions that (...)
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  49. A Defense of Brain Death.Nada Gligorov - 2016 - Neuroethics 9 (2):119-127.
    In 1959 two French neurologists, Pierre Mollaret and Maurice Goullon, coined the term coma dépassé to designate a state beyond coma. In this state, patients are not only permanently unconscious; they lack the endogenous drive to breathe, as well as brainstem reflexes, indicating that most of their brain has ceased to function. Although legally recognized in many countries as a criterion for death, brain death has not been universally accepted by bioethicists, by the medical community, or by the public. I (...)
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  50. Neuroethics and the Scientific Revision of Common Sense.Nada Gligorov - 2016 - Dordrecht: Springer, Studies in Brain and Mind, Vol. 11.
    Neuroethics is an emerging interdisciplinary field with unsettled boundaries. Many of the ethical issues within the purview of neuroethics could be described as resulting from the clash between the scientific perspective on concepts such as free will, personal identity, consciousness, etc., and the putatively commonsense conceptions of those terms. The assumption that undergirds the framing of the conflict between these two approaches is that advances in neuroscience, psychiatry, and psychology can be used to explain phenomena covered by commonsense concepts and (...)
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