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  1. A Therapist's Guide to the Recovery Resilience Program: An I-System Model Application.Guy Pierre du Plessis - forthcoming - Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
  2. Psychedelics and environmental virtues.Nin Kirkham & Chris Letheby - forthcoming - Philosophical Psychology:1-25.
    The urgent need for solutions to critical environmental challenges is well attested, but often environmental problems are understood as fundamentally collective action problems. However, to solve to these problems, there is also a need to change individual behavior. Hence, there is a pressing need to inculcate in individuals the environmental virtues — virtues of character that relate to our environmental place in the world. We propose a way of meeting this need, by the judicious, safe, and controlled administration of “classic” (...)
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  3. Philosophical Perspectives on the Psychedelic Renaissance.Chris Letheby & Philip Gerrans (eds.) - forthcoming - Oxford University Press.
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  4. Philosophy and classic psychedelics: A review of some emerging themes.Chris Letheby & Jaipreet Mattu - forthcoming - Journal of Psychedelic Studies.
    Serotonergic (or “classic”) psychedelics have struck many researchers as raising significant philosophical questions that, until recently, were largely unexplored by academic philosophers. This paper provides an overview of four emerging lines of research at the intersection of academic philosophy and psychedelic science that have gained considerable traction in the last decade: selfless consciousness, psychedelic epistemology, psychedelic ethics, and spiritual/religious naturalism. In this paper, we highlight philosophical questions concerning (i) psychedelics, self-consciousness, and phenomenal consciousness, (ii) the epistemic profile of the psychedelic (...)
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  5. Drug-Induced Alterations of Bodily Awareness.Raphaël Millière - forthcoming - In Adrian J. T. Alsmith & Andrea Serino (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Bodily Awareness. London: Routledge.
    Philosophical and empirical research on bodily awareness has mostly focused so far on bodily disorders – such as anorexia nervosa, somatoparaphrenia, or xenomelia (body integrity dysphoria) – and bodily illusions induced in an experimental setting – such as the rubber hand illusion, or the thermal grid illusion. Studying these conditions can be illuminating to investigate a broad range of issues about the nature, function, and etiology of bodily experience. However, a number of psychoactive compounds can also induce a remarkably wide (...)
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  6. Philosophy as a Way of Life as a Pathway to Recovery for Addicted Individuals.Guy Pierre Du Plessis - 2022 - Qeios 1 (1):1-15.
    In this essay I address the notions of motivation and self-deception by exploring the value of philosophy in the context of addiction treatment. More specifically, in this essay I explore the notion of philosophy as a way of life as a recovery pathway for individuals in addiction recovery. My hypothesis is that philosophy as a way of life can be a compelling, and legitimate recovery pathway for individuals in addiction recovery, as one of many recovery pathways. I will focus on (...)
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  7. Psychedelics, Atheism, and Naturalism Myth and Reality.Chris Letheby - 2022 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 29 (7-8):69-92.
    An emerging body of research suggests that psychedelic experiences can change users’ religious or metaphysical beliefs. Here I explore issues concerning psychedelic-induced belief change via a critique of some recent arguments by Wayne Glausser. Two scientific studies seem to show that psychedelic experiences can convert atheists to belief in God, but Glausser holds that academic and popular discussions of these studies are misleading. I offer a different analysis of the relevant findings, attempting to preserve the insights of Glausser’s critique while (...)
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  8. Naturalistic Entheogenics.Chris Letheby - 2022 - Philosophy and the Mind Sciences 3.
    In this précis I summarise the main ideas of my book Philosophy of Psychedelics. The book discusses philosophical issues arising from the therapeutic use of “classic” psychedelic drugs such as psilocybin and LSD. The book is organised around what I call the Comforting Delusion Objection to psychedelic therapy: the concern that this novel and promising treatment relies essentially on the induction of non-naturalistic metaphysical beliefs, rendering it epistemically objectionable. I begin the précis by summarizing material from chapters two and three (...)
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  9. Naturalizando la epistemología psicodélica.Chris Letheby & Fernando Huesca - 2022 - Reflexiones Marginales.
    Resumen. El objetivo de este ensayo consiste en mostrar que tipo de conocimiento de puede adquirir en las experiencias psicodélicas, pero tomando como marco de referencia una posición naturalista. En este texto se analizan tres formas en las que esto es posible: 1) la introspección psicodinámica o el saber qué, 2) el saber cómo, que se vincula con el aprendizaje de alguna habilidad concreta y 3) el conocimiento por familiaridad. No son todas las que son posibles, pero si son suficientes (...)
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  10. Selfless Memories.Raphaël Millière & Albert Newen - 2022 - Erkenntnis:0-22.
    Many authors claim that being conscious constitutively involves being self-conscious, or conscious of oneself. This claim appears to be threatened by reports of `selfless' episodes, or conscious episodes lacking self-consciousness, recently described in a number of pathological and nonpathological conditions. However, the credibility of these reports has in turn been challenged on the following grounds: remembering and reporting a past conscious episode as an episode that one went through is only possible if one was conscious of oneself while undergoing it. (...)
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  11. Self-treatment of psychosis and complex post-traumatic stress disorder with LSD and DMT—A retrospective case study.Mika Turkia - 2022 - Psychiatry Research Case Reports 1 (2):100029.
    This article describes a case of a teenager with early complex trauma due to chronic domestic violence. Cannabis use triggered auditory hallucinations, after which the teenager was diagnosed with an acute schizophrenia-like psychotic disorder. Antipsychotic medication did not fully resolve symptoms. Eventually the teenager chose to self-medicate with LSD in order to resolve a suicidal condition. The teenager carried out six unsupervised LSD sessions, followed by an extended period of almost daily use of inhaled low-dose DMT. Psychotic symptoms were mostly (...)
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  12. Peer Review Report: Ontologies relevant to behaviour change interventions, version 3.Robert M. Kelly, David Limbaugh & Barry Smith - 2021 - Human Behaviour Change Project.
    In the present review we focus on what we take to be some remaining issues with the Behaviour Change Intervention Ontology (BCIO). We are in full agreement with the authors’ endorsement of the principles of best practice for ontology development In particular, we agree that an ontology should be “logically consistent and having a clear structures [sic], preferably a well-organised hierarchical structure,” and that “Maximising the new ontology’s interoperability with existing ontologies by reusing entities from existing ontologies where appropriate” is (...)
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  13. Is the universe conscious? Reflexive monism and the ground of being.Max Velmans - 2021 - In Edward F. Kelly & Paul Marshall (eds.), Consciousness Unbound: Liberating Mind From the Tyranny of Materialism. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    This chapter examines the integrative nature of reflexive monism (RM), a psychological/philosophical model of a reflexive, self-observing universe that can accommodate both ordinary and extraordinary experiences in a natural, non-reductive way that avoids both the problems of reductive materialism and the (inverse) pitfalls of reductive idealism. To contextualize the ancient roots of the model, the chapter touches briefly on classical models of consciousness, mind and soul and how these differ in a fundamental way from how mind and consciousness are viewed (...)
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  14. The Multi-Dimensional Approach to Drug-Induced States: A Commentary on Bayne and Carter’s “Dimensions of Consciousness and the Psychedelic State”.Raphaël Millière & Martin Fortier - 2020 - Neuroscience of Consciousness 2020 (1):1-5.
    Bayne and Carter argue that the mode of consciousness induced by psychedelic drugs does not fit squarely within the traditional account of modes as levels of consciousness, and favor instead a multi-dimensional account according to which modes of consciousness differ along several dimensions—none of which warrants a linear ordering of modes. We discuss the assumption that psychedelic drugs induce a single or paradigmatic mode of consciousness, as well as conceptual issues related to Bayne and Carter’s main argument against the traditional (...)
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  15. Radical disruptions of self-consciousness.Raphael Milliere & Thomas Metzinger - 2020 - Philosophy and the Mind Sciences 1 (I):1-13.
    This special issue is about something most of us might find very hard to conceive: states of consciousness in which self-consciousness is radically disrupted or altogether missing.
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  16. Limitations on the Scientific Study of Drug‐Enabled Mystical Experiences.Richard H. Jones - 2019 - Zygon 54 (3):756-792.
    Scientific interest in drug-induced mystical experiences reemerged in the 1990s. This warrants reexamining the philosophical issues surrounding such studies: Do psychedelic drugs cause mystical experiences? Are drug-induced experiences the same in nature as other mystical experiences? Does the fact that mystical experiences can be induced by drugs invalidate or validate mystical cognitive claims? Those questions will be examined here. An overview of the scientific examination of drug-induced mystical experiences is included, as is a brief overview of the history of the (...)
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  17. Psychedelics, Meditation, and Self-Consciousness.Raphaël Millière, Robin L. Carhart-Harris, Leor Roseman, Fynn-Mathis Trautwein & Aviva Berkovich-Ohana - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9:375105.
    In recent years, the scientific study of meditation and psychedelic drugs has seen remarkable developments. The increased focus on meditation in cognitive neuroscience has led to a cross-cultural classification of standard meditation styles validated by functional and structural neuroanatomical data. Meanwhile, the renaissance of psychedelic research has shed light on the neurophysiology of altered states of consciousness induced by classical psychedelics, such as psilocybin and LSD, whose effects are mainly mediated by agonism of serotonin receptors. Few attempts have been made (...)
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  18. Inspired by Mary Jane? Mechanisms underlying enhanced creativity in cannabis users.Emily M. LaFrance & Carrie Cuttler - 2017 - Consciousness and Cognition 56:68-76.
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  19. Introduction to the Special Issue: Ayahuasca, Plant‐Based Spirituality, and the Future of Amazonia.Christina Callicott - 2016 - Anthropology of Consciousness 27 (2):113-120.
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  20. Mind-Body Workbook for Addiction: Effective Tools for Substance Abuse Recovery and Relapse Prevention.Guy Du Plessis - 2016 - New York: New Harbinger.
  21. Mind-Body Workbook for Addiction: Effective Tools for Substance-Abuse Recovery and Relapse Prevention.Guy Pierre du Plessis - 2016 - New York, NY, USA: New Harbinger.
  22. The epistemic innocence of psychedelic states.Chris Letheby - 2016 - Consciousness and Cognition 39:28-37.
    One recent development in epistemology, the philosophical study of knowledge, is the notion of ‘epistemic innocence’ introduced by Bortolotti and colleagues. This concept expresses the idea that certain suboptimal cognitive processes may nonetheless have epistemic (knowledge-related) benefits. The idea that delusion or confabulation may have psychological benefits is familiar enough. What is novel and interesting is the idea that such conditions may also yield significant and otherwise unavailable epistemic benefits. I apply the notion of epistemic innocence to research on the (...)
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  23. A very brief review of the life and work of neuroscientist, physician, psychoanalyst, inventor, animal rights activist and pioneer in dolphins, isolation tanks and psychedelics John C Lilly 1915-2001.Starks Michael - 2016 - In Michael Starks (ed.), Suicidal Utopian Delusions in the 21st Century: Philosophy, Human Nature and the Collapse of Civilization-- Articles and Reviews 2006-2017 2nd Edition Feb 2018. Michael Starks. pp. 577-580.
    Lilly was one of the greatest scientists and pioneers on the limits of human possibility but after his death a collective amnesia has descended and he is now almost forgotten. His Wiki is good but inevitably incomplete so here are a few missing details and viewpoints. Lilly was a generation (or more) ahead of his time. He is almost single-handedly responsible for the great interest in dolphins (which led to the Marine Mammal Protection Act in the USA and helped to (...)
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  24. Ayahuasca Treatment Center Safety for the Western Seeker.Raven Renèe Ray & Kerry S. Lassiter - 2016 - Anthropology of Consciousness 27 (2):121-150.
    Ayahuasca, an ancient Amazonian psychedelic tea traditionally used ceremonially among indigenous peoples, has recently become known as a possible treatment for a wide range of disorders. The awareness of this sacred medicine has grown exponentially over the past decade, attracting westerners from a wide variety of backgrounds, hoping to find treatment for a myriad of emotional and physical illnesses, as well as spiritual needs. In the wake of the commercialization and westernization of the use of ayahuasca, and the subsequent proliferation (...)
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  25. Transcultual Perspective on Consciousness: Traditional Use of Ayahuasca in Psychiatry in the 21st Century in the Western World.Tania Re & Palma - 2016 - Cosmos and History 12 (2):237-249.
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  26. Review of Listening Into the Heart of Things-on MDMA and LSD by Samuel Widmer (1989).Michael Starks - 2016 - In Suicidal Utopian Delusions in the 21st Century: Philosophy, Human Nature and the Collapse of Civilization-- Articles and Reviews 2006-2017 2nd Edition Feb 2018. Henderson,NV, USA: Michael Starks. pp. 573-575.
    This is an early volume from a much respected psychedelic psychotherapist. He has written several other books since this one but until recently none of his books were on Amazon and still you can only find a German edition and a Spanish one (from 1993) but no English one (except a couple used copies). This is sad since these drugs have enormous therapeutic potential but afaik government suppression still prevents their use. The most interesting and readable parts are the case (...)
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  27. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene modulates private self-consciousness and self-flexibility.Bei Wang, Wenzhao Ru, Xing Yang, Lu Yang, Pengpeng Fang, Xu Zhu, Guomin Shen, Xiaocai Gao & Pingyuan Gong - 2016 - Consciousness and Cognition 44:186-192.
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  28. QEEG Studies of the Acute Effects of the Visionary Tryptamine DMT.Juan Acosta-Urquidi - 2015 - Cosmos and History 11 (2):115-129.
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  29. The Philosophy of Psychedelic Transformation.Chris Letheby - 2015 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 22 (9-10):170-193.
    Recent scientific research into the therapeutic potential and mechanisms of psychedelic drugs raises intriguing and hitherto largely unexplored philosophical questions. A brief overview of the relevant science is given before addressing these questions. It is argued that psychedelic transformation is a distinctive psycho- pharmacological intervention because its mechanism of action ineliminably involves conscious mental representations, and thus is more transparent to the subject than the mechanisms of other drug therapies. This argument connects with issues in the philosophy of (cognitive) scientific (...)
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  30. Noumenautics: Metaphysics – Meta-ethics – Psychedelics.Peter Sjöstedt-H. - 2015 - Falmouth, UK: Psychedelic Press.
    Philosopher Peter Sjöstedt-H’s Noumenautics traverses the mindscape of metaphysics, nihilism and psychedelic phenomenology. It navigates through subjects such as the sentience of cells, the constrictions of consciousness, the metaphysics of might, the magic of mushrooms, the narcotics of Nietzsche, and the neologism of neo-nihilism – the last of which may itself cause flashbacks. -/- Tracing the fall of western morality through Kant, Schopenhauer and Nietzsche, the book descends deeper still into a metaphysics further upheld by Henri Bergson and Alfred North (...)
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  31. A pressure-reversible cellular mechanism of general anesthetics capable of altering a possible mechanism of consciousness.Kunjumon Vadakkan - 2015 - Springerplus 4:1-17.
    Different anesthetics are known to modulate different types of membrane-bound receptors. Their common mechanism of action is expected to alter the mechanism for consciousness. Consciousness is hypothesized as the integral of all the units of internal sensations induced by reactivation of inter-postsynaptic membrane functional LINKs during mechanisms that lead to oscillating potentials. The thermodynamics of the spontaneous lateral curvature of lipid membranes induced by lipophilic anesthetics can lead to the formation of non-specific inter-postsynaptic membrane functional LINKs by different mechanisms. These (...)
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  32. An Integral Ontology of Addiction: A multiple object existing as a continuum of ontological complexity. Journal of Integral Theory and Practice, 9(1), 38–54.Guy du Plessis - 2014 - Journal of Integral Theory and Practice 9 (1):38-54.
    ABSTRACT In previous work I explored how Integral Theory can be applied as a metatheoretical and transdisciplinary framework, in an attempt to arrive at an integrally informed metatheory of addiction. There was an overemphasis on Integral Methodological Pluralism in that thread of research, without clarifying the ontological pluralism of addiction as a multiple object enacted by various methodologies. To arrive at a comprehensive integral metatheory and integral ontology of addiction, I believe it is necessary to include the conception of Integral (...)
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  33. Towards an integral metatheory of addiction.Guy Pierre du Plessis - 2014 - Dissertation,
    Addiction is one of the most significant problems facing contemporary society. Consequently many scholars, institutions and clinicians have sought to understand this complex phenomenon, as is evident in the abundance of etiological models of addiction in existence today. A literature review pointed that there is little consensus regarding the nature and etiopathogenesis of addiction, and integrative models have not yet been able to provide the sought-after integration. In addressing this problem, this study offers a theoretical analysis of the paradigmatic and (...)
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  34. Here and now: Discovering the sacred with entheogens.William A. Richards - 2014 - Zygon 49 (3):652-665.
    Renewed research with entheogens (psychedelic substances) has been able to facilitate the occurrence of mystical forms of consciousness in healthy volunteers with a high degree of reliability. This article explores the potential significance of this development for religious scholars, especially those interested in the study of mysticism. The definition of “mystical consciousness” employed in this research is presented and differentiated from visionary/archetypal and other types of alternative mental states. The ways in which entheogens may be employed with skill and maximum (...)
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  35. Just how cognitive is emotion? The continuing importance of the philosophy of emotion in enhancement ethics.Rebecca Bamford - 2013 - American Journal of Bioethics-Neuroscience 4 (1):18-19.
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  36. Spiritual Biologicals. [REVIEW]Meg Stalcup - 2013 - Biosocieties 8 (2):234–238.
  37. Ayahuasca as Antidepressant? Psychedelics and Styles of Reasoning in Psychiatry.Brian T. Anderson - 2012 - Anthropology of Consciousness 23 (1):44-59.
    There is a growing interest among scientists and the lay public alike in using the South American psychedelic brew, ayahuasca, to treat psychiatric disorders like depression and anxiety. Such a practice is controversial due to a style of reasoning within conventional psychiatry that sees psychedelic-induced modified states of consciousness as pathological. This article analyzes the academic literature on ayahuasca's psychological effects to determine how this style of reasoning is shaping formal scientific discourse on ayahuasca's therapeutic potential as a treatment for (...)
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  38. Special Ayahuasca Issue Introduction: Toward a Multidisciplinary Approach to Ayahuasca Studies.Stephan V. Beyer - 2012 - Anthropology of Consciousness 23 (1):1-5.
  39. Amnesia, Anesthesia, and Warranted Fear.Vanessa Carbonell - 2012 - Bioethics 28 (5):245-254.
    Is a painful experience less bad for you if you will not remember it? Do you have less reason to fear it? These questions bear on how we think about medical procedures and surgeries that use an anesthesia regimen that leaves patients conscious – and potentially in pain – but results in complete ‘drug-induced amnesia’ after the fact. I argue that drug-induced amnesia does not render a painful medical procedure a less fitting object of fear, and thus the prospect of (...)
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  40. Healing with Plant Intelligence: A Report from Ayahuasca.Richard Doyle - 2012 - Anthropology of Consciousness 23 (1):28-43.
    Numerous and diverse reports indicate the efficacy of shamanic plant adjuncts (e.g., iboga, ayahuasca, psilocybin) for the care and treatment of addiction, post-traumatic stress disorder, cancer, cluster headaches, and depression. This article reports on a first-person healing of lifelong asthma and atopic dermatitis in the shamanic context of the contemporary Peruvian Amazon and the sometimes digital ontology of online communities. The article suggests that emerging language, concepts, and data drawn from the sciences of plant signaling and behavior regarding “plant intelligence” (...)
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  41. Integrated Recovery Therapy: Towards an Integrally Informed Psychotherapy for Addicted Populations.Guy Pierre Du Plessis - 2012 - Journal of Integral Theory and Practice 7 (1):124-148.
    Abstract This article proposes and outlines an integrally informed 12 Step-based therapy that is adapted for treating addicted populations. Integrated Recovery Therapy (IRT) as a therapeutic orientation is an Integral Methodological Pluralism to therapy for treating addiction. Its two main features are paradigmatic and meta-paradigmatic. The paradigmatic aspect refers to the recognition, compilation and implementation of various methodologies in a comprehensive and inclusive manner. The meta-paradigmatic aspect refers to IRT’s capacity to weave together, relate and integrate the various paradigmatic practices. (...)
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  42. Working with “La Medicina”: Elements of Healing in Contemporary Ayahuasca Rituals.Evgenia Fotiou - 2012 - Anthropology of Consciousness 23 (1):6-27.
  43. Personal Report: Significance of Community in an Ayahuasca Jungle Dieta.Bethe Hagens & Steven Lansky - 2012 - Anthropology of Consciousness 23 (1):103-109.
    What is the potential significance of community in a prolonged dieta (10-day restricted diet with regular ritual consumption of ayahuasca and other medicinal plants) in a remote jungle location in the Amazon basin of Peru? Pre-dieta experiences including how participants join the community, cleansing routines prior to departure to Peru, sharing with the shaman one's personal intentions and health history, and prior experience with medicinal and entheogenic plants are introduced. Dieta rituals such as tambo housing, meals, hygiene and maintenance, music, (...)
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  44. Ayahuasca Religions in Acre: Cultural Heritage in the Brazilian Borderlands.Beatriz Caiuby Labate - 2012 - Anthropology of Consciousness 23 (1):87-102.
    The Brazilian ayahuasca religions, Santo Daime, Barquinha, and União do Vegetal, have increasingly sought formal recognition by government agencies in Brazil and other countries to guarantee their legal use of ayahuasca, which contains DMT, a substance that is listed. This article focuses on new alliances and rifts that have emerged between and among different ayahuasca groups as they have sought and in some cases achieved formal recognition and legitimacy at the state and national levels in Brazil and abroad. It presents (...)
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  45. Responsibility Without Blame: Empathy and the Effective Treatment of Personality Disorder.Hanna Pickard - 2011 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 18 (3):209-224.
  46. A hallucinogenic tea, laced with controversy: Ayahuasca in the amazon and the united states. By Marlene dobkin de rios and Roger rumrrill.John R. Baker - 2010 - Anthropology of Consciousness 21 (1):109-111.
  47. Sacred plants and visionary consciousness.José Luis Díaz - 2010 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 9 (2):159-170.
    Botanical preparations used by shamans in rituals for divination, prophecy, and ecstasy contain widely different psychoactive compounds, which are incorrectly classified under a single denomination such as “hallucinogens,” “psychedelics,” or “entheogens.” Based on extensive ethnopharmacological search, I proposed a psychopharmacological classification of magic plants in 1979. This paper re-evaluates this taxonomy in the context of consciousness research. Several groups of psychodysleptic magic plants are proposed: (1) hallucinogens—psilocybin mushrooms, mescaline cacti, dimethyltryptamine snuffs, and the synthetic ergoline lysergic acid diethylamide induce strong (...)
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  48. The Integrated Recovery Model for Addiction Treatment and Recovery.Guy Du Plessis - 2010 - Journal of Integral Theory and Practice 5 (3):68-87.
    This article outlines an integrally informed model for addictionon treatment and recover that is being pioneered and developed at Tabankulu Secondary Addiction Recovery Center in Cape Town, South Africa. Tabankulu is the world’s first inpatient Addictionon treatment center to implement an integrally informed treatment model. The Integrated Recovery model is a comprehensive, balanced, multi-phased, and multi-disciplinary approach to the treatment of and recovery from addiction. Its philosophy is derived from integrang a 12 Step abstinence-based methodology, mindfulness-based interventions, positive psychology, and (...)
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  49. Conference review: Notes on the "international congress of traditional medicine, interculturality, and mental health," takiwasi center, tarapoto, peru, June 7–10, 20091. [REVIEW]Beatriz Caiuby Labate - 2010 - Anthropology of Consciousness 21 (1):30-46.
    English translation by Glenn H. Shepard Jr. Revision by Matthew MeyerThis article reports on the recent “International Congress of Traditional Medicine, Interculturality, and Mental Health” held by the Takiwasi Center in Tarapoto in the Peruvian Amazon. The event united 218 researchers and indigenous and religious representatives from 22 countries to present results of scientific discussions and engage in political and ethical debates surrounding the increasingly globalized, transnational, and biomedicalized reach of indigenous medical practices, especially ayahuasca-based therapy and religious practice. The (...)
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  50. The epistemics of ayahuasca visions.Benny Shanon - 2010 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 9 (2):263-280.
    In this paper, I discuss substance-induced visions and consider their epistemic status, meaning, and modes of proper interpretation. I focus on the visions induced by ayahuasca, a powerful psychoactive plant-made brew that has had a central status and role in the indigenous tribal cultures of the upper Amazonian region. The brew is especially famous for the visions seen with it. These are often coupled with personal psychological insights, mentations concerning topics of special significance to one, intellectual (notably, philosophical and metaphysical) (...)
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