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1040 found
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  1. The puzzle of masked liberals.István Aranyosi - manuscript
    The Covid-19 pandemic has brought to surface new and puzzling manifestations of the culture wars between liberals and conservatives, especially in the US. One such manifestation is the one centered around mask-wearing as a way to protect others from viral infection. In public spaces, mask-wearing has become a signal as to whether one is a liberal or a conservative. Liberals tend to wear the mask and condemn as immoral conservatives, who tend not to wear it. I argue that the liberal (...)
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  2. Applying the Precautionary Principle to Pandemics.Jonathan Birch - manuscript
    When faced with an urgent and credible threat of grave harm, we should take proportionate precautions. This maxim captures the core commitments of the “precautionary principle”. But what is it for a precaution to be “proportionate”? I construct an account of proportionality (the “ARCANE” account) that consists of five fundamental conditions (absolute rights compatibility, reasonable compensation, consistency, adequacy and non- excessiveness) and a tie-breaker (efficiency). I apply this account to two examples from the COVID-19 pandemic (border closures and school closures), (...)
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  3. On Atonement.S. Chattopadhyay - manuscript
    This paper deals with the theme of Atonement. It is a rudimentary paper which has been prepared in a hurry in these trying times; especially for the use of students all over the world during the ongoing pandemic of COVID 19. It deals with the title of Atonement. The article should be cited properly if referred to by anyone. It is made open access since the author believes any knowledge worth sharing should be freely available to all.
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  4. Epistemic vice predicts acceptance of Covid-19 misinformation.Marco Meyer, Mark Alfano & Boudewijn De Bruin - manuscript
    Why are mistaken beliefs about Covid-19 so prevalent? Political identity, education and other demographic variables explain only a part of individual differences in the susceptibility to Covid-19 misinformation. This paper focuses on another explanation: epistemic vice. Epistemic vices are character traits that interfere with acquiring, maintaining, and transmitting knowledge. If the basic assumption of vice epistemology is right, then people with epistemic vices such as indifference to the truth or rigidity in their belief structures will tend to be more susceptible (...)
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  5. Ethics in the pandemic.Sfetcu Nicolae - manuscript
    The largest medical institutions and various ethicists advocate a utilitarian approach in times of public health crises, to maximize benefits for society, in direct conflict with our usual (Kantian) view of respect for people as individuals. A central problem with utilitarianism is that there is no clear way to evaluate moral choices, including in medical decisions. In general, in medicine is respected the Kantian medical ethics. But in a pandemic, when resources are poor, deep choices of life and death must (...)
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  6. The world after the COVID-19 pandemic.Sfetcu Nicolae - manuscript
    In the case of the COVID-19 pandemic, there are some signs of a shift of paradigm, including the sudden disappearance of the wall ideology: a cough was enough to suddenly make it impossible to avoid the responsibility that each individual has towards all living beings for the simple fact that it is part of this world, and of the desire to be part of it. The whole is always involved in part, because everything is, in a sense, in everything and (...)
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  7. Ce a fost mai întâi: virusul sau celula?Sfetcu Nicolae - manuscript
    O retrospectivă a dezbaterilor privind originea vieții: virusul sau celula? Virusul are nevoie de celulă pentru replicare, în schimb celula este o formă mai evoluată pe scara evoluționistă a vieții. Virușii par să fi jucat un rol în evenimente precum originea vieții celulare și evoluția mamiferelor. Chiar și cea mai simplă bacterie este mult prea complexă pentru a fi apărut spontan la începutul evoluției. Ulterior, evoluția a putut produce sisteme din ce în ce mai complexe. Prima celulă adevărată este posibil (...)
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  8. Philosophical aspects of pandemics.Sfetcu Nicolae - manuscript
    From the existentialism of Albert Camus and Sartre, to the replacement of the exclusion ritual with the disciplinary mechanism of Michel Foucault, an ideal form of control of state authorities of all forms of "disorder", and viral modernity and bioinformationalism. And about the Gaia hypothesis, developed by James Lovelock and supported in the current pandemic by Bruno Latour. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.34967.80801.
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  9. Aspecte filosofice ale pandemiilor.Sfetcu Nicolae - manuscript
    De la existențialismul lui Albert Camus și Sartre, la înlocuirea ritualului de excludere cu mecanismul disciplinar al lui Michel Foucault, o formă ideală de control al autorităților statului a tuturor formelor de ”dezordine”, și modernitatea virală și bioinformaționalism. Și despre ipoteza Gaia, dezvoltată de James Lovelock și susținută în actuala pandemie de Bruno Latour. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.31276.49284.
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  10. Etica în pandemie.Sfetcu Nicolae - manuscript
    Cele mai mari instituții medicale și diverși eticieni pledează pentru o abordare utilitaristă în perioadele de crize de sănătate publică, pentru a maximiza beneficiile pentru societate, în conflict direct cu viziunea noastră obișnuită (kantiană) privind respectul față de persoane ca indivizi. O problemă centrală a utilitarismului este că nu există nicio modalitate clară de a evalua alegerile morale, inclusiv în deciziile medicale. În general, în medicină se respectă etica medicală kantiană. Dar în pandemie, când resursele sunt sărace, trebuie făcute alegeri (...)
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  11. Viața și moartea în pandemie.Sfetcu Nicolae - manuscript
    O scurtă retrospectivă a virusul COVID-19 care a cauzat actuala pandemie, a cilului său de viață și a istoriei sale. Reacții, măsuri și efecte ale pandemiei COVID-19. O prezentare a diverselor abordări filosofice, cu accent pe filosofia morții, ecopsihanaliză, și apel la filosofiile lui Sigmund Freud și Albert Camus. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.17900.59528.
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  12. Aspects philosophiques des pandémies.Sfetcu Nicolae - manuscript
    De l'existentialisme d'Albert Camus et Sartre, au remplacement du rituel d'exclusion par le mécanisme disciplinaire de Michel Foucault, forme idéale de contrôle des autorités étatiques de toutes les formes de « désordre », et à la modernité virale et au bioinformationalisme. Et à propos de l'hypothèse Gaia, développée par James Lovelock et soutenue dans la pandémie actuelle par Bruno Latour. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.20639.18089.
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  13. Life and death in a pandemic.Sfetcu Nicolae - manuscript
    A brief retrospective of the COVID-19 virus that caused the current pandemic, its life cycle and its history. Reactions, measures and effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. A presentation of various philosophical approaches, with an emphasis on the philosophy of death, eco-psychoanalysis, and appeal to the philosophies of Sigmund Freud and Albert Camus. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.14848.25608.
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  14. Desocialization in and after the pandemic.Sfetcu Nicolae - manuscript
    Social isolation (desocialization) implies a complete or almost complete lack of contact between an individual and society. This can be a problem for people of any age, although the symptoms may differ depending on the age group. Social isolation can include staying home for long periods of time, and lack of face-to-face communication with family, acquaintances, friends, or co-workers. Social isolation can lead to feelings of loneliness, fear of others or negative self-esteem. We cannot exist independently of our relationships with (...)
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  15. A travers la pandémie, vers un nouveau communisme ?Sfetcu Nicolae - manuscript
    Suite à la déclaration de la pandémie COVID-19, Slavoj Žižek a publié un livre intitulé « Pandemic!: COVID-19 Shakes the World », qui a déclenché une vague de réactions. Dans le livre, il présente comment les médias ont impitoyablement exploité ce sujet, accentuant la panique. De nombreuses études majeures ont prédit l'émergence d'une telle pandémie, mais ont été ignorées par tous les gouvernements, les déclarant exagérées. Žižek estime que la pandémie actuelle a conduit à la faillite du capitalisme « barbare (...)
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  16. Lumea după pandemia COVID-19.Sfetcu Nicolae - manuscript
    În cazul pandemiei COVID-19, există unele semne ale schimbării de paradigmă, inclusiv dispariția bruscă a ideologiei legate de „ziduri”: ”o tuse a fost suficientă pentru a face dintr-o dată imposibilă evitarea responsabilității pe care fiecare individ o are față de toate ființele vii pentru simplul fapt că este parte a acestei lumi, și a dorinței de a fi parte a ei”. Întregul este întotdeauna implicat în parte, pentru că totul este, într-un anumit sens, în tot și în natură nu există (...)
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  17. Desocializarea în și după pandemie.Sfetcu Nicolae - manuscript
    Izolarea socială (desocializarea) presupune o lipsă completă sau aproape completă de contact între un individ și societate. Aceasta poate fi o problemă pentru persoanele de orice vârstă, deși simptomele pot diferi în funcție de grupul de vârstă. Izolarea socială poate include șederea acasă pentru perioade îndelungate de timp, și lipsa comunicării față în față cu familia, cunoștințele, prietenii sau colegii de servici. Izolarea socială poate duce la sentimente de singurătate, frica de ceilalți sau stima de sine negativă. Nu putem exista (...)
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  18. Prin pandemie, spre un nou comunism?Sfetcu Nicolae - manuscript
    După declararea pandemiei COVID-19, Slavoj Žižek a publicat o carte numită „Pandemic!: COVID-19 Shakes the World”, care a declanșat un val de reacții. În carte, el prezintă modul în care media a exploatat fără milă acest subiect, accentuând panica. Multe studii majore au prezis apariția unei astfel de pandemii, dar au fost ignorate de toate guvernele, declarându-le ca fiind exagerate. Žižek crede că actuala pandemie a dus la falimentul actualului capitalism ”barbar”, întrebându-se dacă nu cumva drumul pe care îl va (...)
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  19. Biopolitique dans la pandémie COVID-19.Sfetcu Nicolae - manuscript
    Le biopouvoir fait référence à la pratique des États-nations modernes à travers une explosion de techniques nombreuses et diverses pour parvenir à l'assujettissement des corps et au contrôle des populations. Foucault a utilisé le terme pour désigner spécifiquement les pratiques de santé publique, entre autres mécanismes de régulation. La biopolitique est un concept qui prend en compte la gestion de la vie et des populations d'une région gouvernée. La biopolitique produit une société disciplinaire généralisée et des contrôles réglementaires à travers (...)
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  20. L'éthique pendant la pandémie.Sfetcu Nicolae - manuscript
    Les plus grandes institutions médicales et divers éthiciens préconisent une approche utilitariste en période de crise de santé publique, afin de maximiser les bénéfices pour la société, en conflit direct avec notre vision habituelle (kantienne) du respect des personnes en tant qu'individus. Un problème central de l'utilitarisme est qu'il n'y a pas de moyen clair d'évaluer les choix moraux, y compris dans les décisions médicales. En général, l'éthique médicale kantienne est respectée en médecine. Mais dans une pandémie, lorsque les ressources (...)
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  21. Dimensiuni sociale ale pandemiilor.Sfetcu Nicolae - manuscript
    Virușii coabitează de cca. 300 milioane de ani cu oamenii. Uneori, virușii pot infecta oamenii pe scară largă. Dar, cum a fost posibilă actuala pandemie? Încălzirea globală determină fenomene meteorologice extreme care au dus la o creștere a bolilor infecțioase. Noul climat poate susține vectori epidemiologici pentru perioade mai lungi de timp, creând condiții mai favorabile replicării și apariția de noi vectori. În cazul bolilor infecțioase emergente, se consideră că există o graniță peste care s-a sărit deja. Virușii au, în (...)
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  22. Social Dimensions of Pandemics.Sfetcu Nicolae - manuscript
    The viruses coexist for approx. 300 million years with the humans. Sometimes viruses can infect people on a large scale. But how was the current pandemic possible? Global warming is causing extreme weather events that have led to an increase in infectious diseases. The new climate can support epidemiological vectors for longer periods of time, creating more favorable conditions for replication and the emergence of new vectors. In the case of emerging infectious diseases, it is considered that there is a (...)
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  23. Biopolitics in the COVID-19 pandemic.Sfetcu Nicolae - manuscript
    Biopower refers to the practice of modern nation-states through an explosion of numerous and diverse techniques for achieving the subjugation of bodies and the control of populations. Foucault used the term to refer specifically to public health practices, among other regulatory mechanisms. Biopolitics is a concept that takes into account the management of the life and populations of a governed region. Biopolitics produces a generalized disciplinary society and regulatory controls through population biopolitics. Giorgio Agamben states that what is manifesting in (...)
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  24. La vie et la mort pendant une pandémie.Sfetcu Nicolae - manuscript
    Une brève rétrospective du virus COVID-19 qui a causé la pandémie actuelle, son cycle de vie et son histoire. Réactions, mesures et effets de la pandémie COVID-19. Une présentation des diverses approches philosophiques, avec un accent sur la philosophie de la mort, l'écopsychanalyse, et un appel aux philosophies de Sigmund Freud et Albert Camus. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.35853.36328 .
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  25. Dimensions sociales des pandémies.Sfetcu Nicolae - manuscript
    Les virus coexistent pendant env. 300 millions d'années avec les humains. Parfois, les virus peuvent infecter les gens à grande échelle. Mais comment la pandémie actuelle a-t-elle été possible ? Le réchauffement climatique est à l'origine d'événements météorologiques extrêmes qui ont conduit à une augmentation des maladies infectieuses. Le nouveau climat peut soutenir les vecteurs épidémiologiques pendant de plus longues périodes, créant des conditions plus favorables à la réplication et à l'émergence de nouveaux vecteurs. Dans le cas des maladies infectieuses (...)
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  26. Through the pandemic, towards a new communism?Sfetcu Nicolae - manuscript
    Following the declaration of the COVID-19 pandemic, Slavoj Žižek published a book called "Pandemic!: COVID-19 Shakes the World", which triggered a wave of reactions. In the book, he presents how the media ruthlessly exploited this subject, accentuating the panic. Many major studies have predicted the emergence of such a pandemic, but have been ignored by all governments, declaring them to be exaggerated. Žižek believes that the current pandemic has led to the bankruptcy of the current "barbaric" capitalism, wondering if the (...)
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  27. Biopolitica în pandemia COVID-19.Sfetcu Nicolae - manuscript
    Bioputerea face referire la practica statelor naționale moderne prin o explozie de numeroase și diverse tehnici pentru realizarea subjugării corpurilor și controlul populațiilor. Foucault a folosit termenul pentru a se referi în mod specific la practicile de sănătate publică, printre alte mecanisme de reglementare. Biopolitica este un concept care ia în considerare administrarea vieții și a populațiilor unei regiuni guvernate. Biopolitica produce o societate disciplinară generalizată și controale de reglementare prin biopolitica populației. Giorgio Agamben afirmă că ceea ce se manifestă (...)
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  28. Ontologia virusului: lucru, ființă, proces, sau informație?Sfetcu Nicolae - manuscript
    Studiul virușilor ridică întrebări conceptuale și filozofice presante despre natura lor, clasificarea lor, și locul lor în lumea biologică. Un set major de probleme se referă la individualitatea și identitatea diacronică a unui virus: ce anume este virusul, particula virală (virionul) sau întregul ciclu viral? Identificarea corectă a virusului are consecințe ontologice semnificative, legate și de locul și momentul în care încep și se termină entitățile biologice. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.29715.09760.
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  29. Coronavirus Ethics (أخلاقيات كورونا).Salah Osman - manuscript
    لا تُخبرني عن الوقت في غرفة مليئة بالساعات! حسنًا، لكن ماذا لو كنت في هذه الغرفة وأنت عاجزٌ عن معرفة الوقت، أو كنت تعرفه لكنك لا تستطيع استثماره؟ تاريخٌ طويل لأخلاقيات البيولوجيا، وأخلاقيات الطب، وأخلاقيات المهنة، أصبح اليوم على المحك؛ آلاف المؤتمرات واللجان والمنشورات بدت وكأنها بلا نفع أو تأثير يُذكر اليوم! ففي خضم الأزمة الدولية الخانقة لفيروس كورونا أدرك كثيرون أن ثمة فرقًا هائلاً بين أن تقوم بالتنظير الأخلاقي وأن تلتمس تطبيقه؛ وأن لأخلاقيات الدول والحروب – أيًا كانت طبيعتها (...)
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  30. Coronavirus Pandemic: Philosophers in Lockdown جائحة كورونا ... فلاسفة في العُزلة.Salah Osman - manuscript
    كان يمشي في الأرض مرحًا، مُصعرًا خده للطبيعة، ومُنتشيًا برفاهيات حضاراته؛ أو يخطو فوق أديمها مهمومًا بضنك العيش، يعتصره ألم البحث عن قوت يومه، قبل أن يُفاجئه الفيروس التاجي ليقلب حياته رأسًا على عقب. إنه الإنسان، ذلك المجهول لنفسه، الجاهل بعلمه، المغرور بعقله، الضعيف بقوته، المتناقض مع ذاته، الفقير بثرواته الضخمة! فجأة باتت تعتمل بداخله مشاعر الحيرة والخوف والقلق، تؤرقه تساؤلات تسخر من عجزه الصارخ عن الإجابة عنها: ما أصل هذا الفيروس؟ هل هو نبتٌ طبيعي أم مؤامرة من بني جلدته؟ (...)
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  31. Coronavirus Pandemic and the Naked Globalization (جائحة كورونا والعولمة العارية).Salah Osman - manuscript
    حتى لو لم يكن لدينا الآن ما نفعله إزاء عالمٍ يُواجه قسرًا تفكيك بنيته الأيديولوجية والاقتصادية، فلا أقل من أن نسعى لفهمه، لعلنا بالفهم نُسهم في إعادة بنائه. قال أحدهم ذات يومٍ: لا عاصم اليوم من طوفان العولمة، فلنكن إذن على ظهر السفينة وإن كنا نجهل وجهتها، وقال آخر: بل هي أكذوبة القوي على الضعيف، تحملنا إلى ساحاتٍ تتماهى فيها الحدود والقوميات والثقافات وفق أنموذجٍ أوحد للتعايش، وهل ثمة ما يدعو للاغتباط أكثر من رؤية البشر وقد خرجوا من كهوف الهوية (...)
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  32. فيروس كورونا: عندما تكون مواجهة المرض أسوأ من المرض.Salah Osman - manuscript
    كان من الطبيعي أن ينصب اهتمام العالم خلال الشهور الأخيرة على فيروس كورونا وكيفية تجاوز جائحته بأقل خسائر مُمكنة، فقد بلغ عدد قتلاه حتى اليوم (2 يونيو 2020) 380.265 شخص، وبات الاقتصاد في حالة فوضى يُرثى لها، وتقلصت حياة البشر وخُطتهم اليومية والمستقبلية بشكلٍ شبه كامل، وتعثرت الدراسة بالمدارس والجامعات، واضطرب الأداء الحكومي في أغلب بلدان العالم، ... إلخ. لكن تركيز الجميع على مشكلةٍ بعينها في عالمٍ يعج بالمشكلات من شأنه أن يُقوض كافة الجهود التي بُذلت أو تُبذل من أجل (...)
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  33. Coronavirus: The Creep of Elegant Dictatorship (فيروس كورونا: زحف الدكتاتورية الأنيقة).Salah Osman - manuscript
    زُرت الصين في أوائل ديسمبر الماضي (2019) للمشاركة في مؤتمرٍ علمي، وقضيت بضعة أيام في مقاطعة ووهان قبل أقل من شهرٍ تقريبًا من اندلاع أزمة كورونا. حملت معي (كعادتي في كل رحلة خارج الوطن) دفتر يومياتي لأدون ملاحظاتي عن بلدٍ أزوره لأول مرة، مدفوعًا بشغف المقارنة بين بلدين يجمعهما دفء الاقتصاد وتُفرقهما برودة السياسة؛ الأولى هي الصين بكل ما لها من ثقل تجاري وتاريخٍ قمعي، والثانية هي اليابان (التي زرتها منذ بضعة سنوات لإلقاء محاضرة عامة) بكل ما بها من ارتقاءٍ (...)
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  34. A Crisis of Confidence (أزمة ثقة).Salah Osman - manuscript
    لا تأخذ الأمر على محملٍ شخصي؛ فحين يتعلق الأمر بالمرض والموت، يتلاشى الاهتمام بما إذا كنت صديقي أو قريبي أو جاري أو شخصًا غريبًا عني؛ لا تعنيني الآن هويتك أو علمك أو سياستك، ولا يشغلني أين أو ماذا تعمل، أو ما إذا كنت تعمل أصلاً، ولا يختلف الأمر عندي سواء أكنت ترتدي قناعًا أو تحمل مسدسًا أو تُمسك قلمًا! في الوقت الحالي، أنا لا أثق بك؛ فأنت بالنسبة لي حاملٌ محتملٌ لفيروس قاتل!
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  35. The Coronavirus Crisis and Religious Approaches (أزمة كورونا والمقاربات الدينية).Salah Osman - manuscript
    في كتابهما المُشترك «الطاعون الأبيض» سنة 1952، وصف عالما الاجتماع «رينيه جول دوبو» وزوجته «جين بورتر دوبو» الأمراض بالديناميات التي قسَّمت عصور التاريخ البشري. ولا غرو، ففي سنة 327 قبل الميلاد أدى مرض الملاريا إلى فشل حملة الإسكندر الأكبر على الهند، ومع هذا الفشل تغير مسار التاريخ في المجتمعات الشرقية والغربية؛ وفي سنة 541 م عمل طاعون جستنيان (وهو وباء طاعون دملي) على تقويض أسس الإمبراطورية البيزنطية؛ كذلك ساهم طاعون مُسلم بن قتيبة (وهو اسم أول من مات به) سنة 748 (...)
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  36. Basic Reproduction Number: why is Social Isolation Necessary (رقم التكاثر: لماذا أصبح العزل الاجتماعي ضروريًا؟).Salah Osman - manuscript
    في علم الأوبئة، يمثل رقم التكاثر الأساسي عدد الحالات التي تُنتجها حالة واحدة مُصابة خلال فترة العدوى بين مجموعة غير مُصابة،. وبصفة عامة، إذا كان رقم التكاثر أقل من (1)، فإن فرصة العدوى ستتضاءل حتى يختفي المرض تمامًا، أما إن كان أكبر من (1)، فإن كل شخص مُصاب سوف ينقل العدوى إلى شخصٍ آخر على الأقل، مع الوضع في الاعتبار عدم تجانس المجتمعات من حيث نمط الحياة. وتتراوح التقديرات الحالية لعدد التكاثر الأساسي لفيروس كورونا المستجد (أو كوفيد-19) بين 2 و3، (...)
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  37. Coronavirus and Conspiracy Theory (فيروس كورونا: نظرية المؤامرة.Salah Osman - manuscript
    لا أحبذ عادةً نظرية المؤامرة في معالجة أية ظاهرة طارئة أو حدث مؤثر، لكن الحُجج التي تسوقها النظرية فيما يتعلق بجائحة كورونا جديرة بالقراءة المتأنية والتأمل والنقاش، أو على الأقل جديرة بالمعرفة، لاسيما وأن من يتبناها كتابٌ كبار مثل البريطانيين «ديفيد آيك»، و«فيرنون كولمان» (الأول له أكثر من عشرين كتابًا في نظريات التلاعب بالعقول، والثاني له أكثر من مائة كتاب في الصحة العامة والسياسة وحقوق الحيوان). مؤدي النظرية باختصار أن فيروس كورونا جزءٌ من خطة تحويها أجندة سياسية – اقتصادية دولية (...)
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  38. مزرعة البشر ... أزمة كورونا من السيمياء إلى عصر العبيد الرقمي.Salah Osman - manuscript
    وفقًا لأحدث التقارير، هناك أكثر من مائة وأربعين تركيبة كيميائية تخضع الآن للتجارب على مستويات مختلفة، كما استثمرت الحكومات والمؤسسات الكبرى مثل مؤسسة «بيل وميليندا جيتس» مليارات الدولارات لتمويل البحث عن «الرصاصة الفضية» Silver Bullet السحرية التي من شأنها القضاء على الفيروس العنيف والمُراوغ. وما زالت كثرة من البروتوكولات المتعلقة بتطوير اللقاح المُنتظر – ونتائج تجاربها على البشر – مُحاطة بالسرية في ظل التنافس المحموم على أخذ زمام المبادرة.
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  39. The Message of Coronavirus: Playing a Tight String between Science and Ploitics رسالة كورونا: عزفٌ على الوتر المشدود بين العلم والسياسة.Salah Osman - manuscript
    على مدى سنواتٍ طويلة، شغلتني إشكالية العلاقة بين العلم والسياسة، قراءةً وبحثًا وإشرافًا على أطروحات تُعالج هذه العلاقة وتأثيراتها على الكوكب المُثقل بنا وبما كسبت أيدينا. قد تبدو هذه العلاقة للوهلة الأولى علاقة اعتماد متبادل؛ فالبحوث والكشوف العلمية في حاجةٍ إلى تمويل، والتمويل يأتي من قبل الحكومات، أو من قبل أرباب رؤوس الأموال الذين يُهيمنون على سياسات الدول والحكومات؛ كما أن الدول والحكومات في حاجة إلى البحوث والكشوف العلمية لتنفيذ برامجها التنموية والانتصار لأيديولوجياتها. يُمكننا تمثيل هذه العلاقة بين العلم والسياسة (...)
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  40. Coronavirus (COVID-19): Philosophical Reflections (1) كوفيد-19 ... مقاربات فلسفية.Salah Osman - manuscript
    تأملات فلسفية حول تفشي فيروس كورونا (كوفيد-19) وأبعاده الاجتماعية والسياسية والدينية والعلمية.
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  41. الحياة المرنة: فن التعايش مع الخطر.Salah Osman - manuscript
    الأمن في الغالب خرافة؛ فلا وجود له في الطبيعة، ولا ينعم به بنو البشر ككل. تجنب الخطر ليس أكثر أمانًا على المدى الطويل من التعرض المباشر له، الحياة إما مغامرة جريئة، أو لا شيء»! مقولة للأديبة الأمريكية «هيلين كيلر»، تُقتبس عادةً في سياقات برامج التنمية البشرية؛ فلأن تُواجه الخطر وأنت حُر ٌخيرٌ لك من أن تلتمس الأمن وأنت ترزح تحت وطأة العبودية؛ ولأن تتجاوز مخاوفك التي تُحذرك من الخطر أكرم لك من أن تستسلم لحياتك البائسة عاجزًا! لكن المقولة – كغيرها (...)
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  42. Vaccinating without complete willingness against COVID‐19: Personal and social aspects of Israeli nursing students and faculty members.Linoy Biton, Rachel Shvartsur, Keren Grinberg, Ilya Kagan, Irena Linetsky, Ofra Halperin, Abed N. Azab & Odeya Cohen - forthcoming - Nursing Inquiry:e12601.
    Soon after the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) pandemic outbreak, it became clear that vaccination will be the most useful tool to combat the disease. Despite the apparent safety and efficacy of the developed anti‐COVID‐19 vaccines, relatively high percentages of the population worldwide refused to get vaccinated, including many health workers and health students. The present cross‐sectional study examined the motives, attitudes, and personal characteristics of those who did not get vaccinated against COVID‐19 or vaccinated without complete willingness among nursing students (...)
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  43. The discourse of delivering person‐centred nursing care before, and during, the COVID‐19 pandemic: Care as collateral damage.Amy-Louise Byrne, Clare Harvey & Adele Baldwin - forthcoming - Nursing Inquiry:e12593.
    The global COVID‐19 pandemic challenged the world—how it functions, how people move in the social worlds and how government/government services and people interact. Health services, operating under the principles of new public management, have undertaken rapid changes to service delivery and models of care. What has become apparent is the mechanisms within which contemporary health services operate and how services are not prioritising the person at the centre of care. Person‐centred care (PCC) is the philosophical premise upon which models of (...)
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  44. Institutional Responsibility is Prior to Personal Responsibility in a Pandemic.Ben Davies & Julian Savulescu - forthcoming - Journal of Value Inquiry:1-20.
    On 26 January 2021, while announcing that the country had reached the mark of 100,000 deaths within 28 days of COVID-19, UK Prime Minister Boris Johnson said that he took “full responsibility for everything that the Government has done” as part of British efforts to tackle the pandemic. The force of this statement was undermined, however, by what followed: -/- What I can tell you is that we truly did everything we could, and continue to do everything that we can, (...)
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  45. Reflections on epistemological aspects of artificial intelligence during the COVID-19 pandemic.Angela A. R. de Sá, Jairo D. Carvalho & Eduardo L. M. Naves - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-8.
    Artificial intelligence plays an important role and has been used by several countries as a health strategy in an attempt to understand, control and find a cure for the disease caused by Coronavirus. These intelligent systems can assist in accelerating the process of developing antivirals for Coronavirus and in predicting new variants of this virus. For this reason, much research on COVID-19 has been developed with the aim of contributing to new discoveries about the Coronavirus. However, there are some epistemological (...)
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  46. The Case for Human Challenge Trials in COVID-19.George P. Drewett - forthcoming - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry:1-15.
    The COVID-19 pandemic has necessitated rapid research to aid in the understanding of the disease and the development of novel therapeutics. One option is to conduct controlled human infection trials (CHITs). In this article I examine the history of deliberate human infection and CHITs and their utilization prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, key ethical considerations of CHITs in the COVID-19 setting, an analysis of the World Health Organization’s (WHO) Key criteria for the ethical acceptability of COVID-19 human challenge studies, and (...)
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  47. An ethical analysis of vaccinating children against COVID-19: benefits, risks, and issues of global health equity [version 2; peer review: 1 approved, 1 approved with reservations].Rachel Gur-Arie, Steven R. Kraaijeveld & Euzebiusz Jamrozik - forthcoming - Wellcome Open Research.
    COVID-19 vaccination of children has begun in various high-income countries with regulatory approval and general public support, but largely without careful ethical consideration. This trend is expected to extend to other COVID-19 vaccines and lower ages as clinical trials progress. This paper provides an ethical analysis of COVID-19 vaccination of healthy children. Specifically, we argue that it is currently unclear whether routine COVID-19 vaccination of healthy children is ethically justified in most contexts, given the minimal direct benefit that COVID-19 vaccination (...)
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  48. Vaccine ethics: an ethical framework for global distribution of COVID-19 vaccines.Nancy S. Jecker, Aaron G. Wightman & Douglas S. Diekema - forthcoming - Journal of Medical Ethics.
    This paper addresses the just distribution of vaccines against the SARS-CoV-2 virus and sets forth an ethical framework that prioritises frontline and essential workers, people at high risk of severe disease or death, and people at high risk of infection. Section I makes the case that vaccine distribution should occur at a global level in order to accelerate development and fair, efficient vaccine allocation. Section II puts forth ethical values to guide vaccine distribution including helping people with the greatest need, (...)
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  49. Natural language processing analysis applied to COVID-19 open-text opinions using a distilBERT model for sentiment categorization.Mario Jojoa, Parvin Eftekhar, Behdin Nowrouzi-Kia & Begonya Garcia-Zapirain - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-8.
    COVID-19 is a disease that affects the quality of life in all aspects. However, the government policy applied in 2020 impacted the lifestyle of the whole world. In this sense, the study of sentiments of people in different countries is a very important task to face future challenges related to lockdown caused by a virus. To contribute to this objective, we have proposed a natural language processing model with the aim to detect positive and negative feelings in open-text answers obtained (...)
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  50. Ethical challenges in clinical practice during the COVID-19 pandemic in an academic healthcare institution in Malaysia: A qualitative study.Sharon Kaur, Mark Tan Kiak Min, Shu Hui Ng & Chirk Jenn Ng - forthcoming - Clinical Ethics:147775092211344.
    Background Healthcare professionals face a myriad of ethical challenges during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. However, there is limited literature examining the ethical challenges faced by HCPs in low- and medium-income countries. The research was designed to explore the ethical challenges experienced by HCPs in a Malaysian hospital setting during the pandemic. Methods Semistructured interviews were conducted via video calls with 10 Malaysian HCPs across different clinical disciplines involved in managing patients diagnosed with COVID-19 infections. The calls were audio-recorded, transcribed (...)
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