Absolute nothing is the absence of our universe and its laws. Without these rules, nothingness has infinite potential. This implies that within the infinite probability of nothing, infinity can emerge. This would be expressed through infinite universes like our own. Infinite of these universes will differ by several particles, appearing and disappearing for no reason other than fulfilling every possibility. This universe is the product of a greater realisation of infinity and we can test this theory via the measurement of (...) our universe’s most fundamental particles appearing and disappearing for no discernible internal reason (random to our perspective). (shrink)
What guides, in fact, the spirit of the writer, a consciousness in the training of his sense of humanity and inhumanity of others, or just entertains readers who see life as uninteresting, as a "thing" that does not deserve to be lived only by the playful side of things and people? Yes, what commands the author’s conscience? The Id, the Ego? God? Does he accept a Voice, which though bothering him, gives him advice for free, dismissing the psychiatrist and then (...) shedding, further and further his verve, pleasant or unpleasant as the bile of many media? What bothers and commands you is the mob, the disorderly crowd of bodies and voices, of touches and insults, delinquency, injustice in the face of those who defend valid ideals.... Like the Depeche Mode song, "Suffer well...". (shrink)
Portuguese Discoveries and Erasure's theme "Ship of Fouls", navigating in an age of loneliness and excelera<ting public cerimonies of hapyness, seeking for social recognition and professional realizations for question os status or just simply competition , on the realm of danger and street violence, between normality and pathology, what is norm?, could be mental ilness just a process of individual salvation to ta better way of being?
Tolerance is not a virtue or a moral species in and of itself, rather tolerance exists with its contrary of intolerance. If we reduce tolerance and intolerance to its bare acts, we find that tolerance involves an act of indifference, and intolerance involves an act of intervention. Some may find that it is problematic with associating tolerance with indifference, but for it to be practiced as a virtue as such, those are the acts that must be performed. Additionally, not only (...) must acts of indifference and intervention be involved for tolerance in general to be a moral virtue, the level of indifference and intervention must be appropriate for the circumstance as its relevant guiding cardinal virtue dictates. Lastly, as all things good, there exists an evil form of tolerance and intolerance known as virtue signaling which meets the criteria of false prudence and should not be tolerated. -/- . (shrink)
This is a draft and much shortened version of one of my most abstract and ambition works hitherto. It is deeply theoretical and extremely influenced by Wittgenstein. It is named after his Tractatus as a tribute. -/- In the parts of the work in this draft I attempt to map out the meanings of social propositions and how the social world and metasociology itself forms out of them. I also briefly introduce my Wittgensteinian Equivalence Theory in this work, but the (...) the version presented herein is simplified as it was applied only to the nature of social propositions. -/- Much of this work is liable to significant change in the future, and I do not expect to finish it until much later into my 20s. (shrink)
I distinguish arguments and arguing and I explain some important logical features of arguments. I then explain how philosophers have been misled, apparently by Euclid, into giving seriously mistaken accounts of arguing. I give a few examples. I then offer a seven-step guide on how to argue. After that, I conclude.
David Miller propounds a theory of objective knowledge from which he mistakenly derives some consequences about question-begging and persuasion that appear to be false. He makes a further claim about persuasion that also seems false. I argue that Miller’s account of objective knowledge is explanatorily weak unless supplemented with an account of subjective knowledge and that the latter enables us to extricate Miller’s theory from the falsehoods he associates with it.
Abstract: The understanding our own mind seems to be an interesting topic in philosophy. I recall reading Kant, he ran far away in the metaphysical space when chalanged complex problems. He used the “intuition” as a mean to justify things, much before the awareness of scientific genetics and such things that made it feasible for such a use. Not much else he could do, the 18th century access to scientific knowledge was just very limited. My view of instinct and intuition (...) are quite simple, perhaps a foolish view of such a complex and interesting phenomena. (shrink)
A reconstruction of Kant’s Copernican Revolution is given using the linguistic version of conceptual schemes together with mathematical tools from Model Theory. In response to Davidson’s criticisms against conceptual relativism, untranslatable conceptual schemes are shown to exist. Arguments from the Tractatus are used to formulate the conditions required for an isomorphism between a representation and the structure of reality. It is argued that the scientific accuracy of a representation does not require a structural isomorphism with reality. Finally, a conception of (...) the in-itself is articulated using the Yoneda embedding from Category Theory. (shrink)
The New Testament Writings and the Septuagint were possibly compiled in Hellenism’s greatest period of influence. It is reasonable to say that the writings were influenced by Hellenism because they were written in the language of Hellenism. This study examines how the hegemony of Hellenism, the worldviews of Hellenists, and the current of anti-Semitism impacted the New Testament Writers and influenced why they wrote how they wrote.
Richard Rorty’s liberal utopia offers an interesting model for those who wish to explore the emancipatory potential of a post-foundational account of politics, specifically liberalism. What Rorty proposes is a form of liberalism that is divorced from its Kantian metaphysical foundations. This paper will focus on the gulf that appears between Rorty’s liberal utopia in theory, the political form that it must ultimately manifest itself in, and the consequences this has for debates on pluralism, diversity, and identity, within liberal political (...) thought. -/- The strength of Rorty’s liberal utopia, in his analysis, lies in the fact that with the rejection of philosophy and metaphysics, we can simply get on with the job of reducing cruelty through experimental tinkering with the liberal political system. Instead of trying to develop intellectually sophisticated justifications for why we act, we should just act. Political action, for Rorty, does not require a philosophical or metaphysical justification. However, upon closer critical examination, we can see that whatever potential Rorty’s liberal utopia may have in theory, this is negated by the fact that at the level of political praxis, his re-description of liberalism leaves us with a conception of liberalism that is essentially unchanged. Whilst Rorty has re-situated liberalism from the philosophical to the political, his solution fails to address any internal problems. (shrink)
Abstract In diesem Text geht es zunächst um eine Zurückweisung eines indologischen Interpretationsmusters, nach dem in Nagarjunas Philosophie den Dingen eine fehlende Existenz zugeschrieben wird. Das halte ich für einen Versuch, den Buddhismus auf die Stufe eines Aberglaubens herabzustufen. Weiterhin geht es um das zwischen den Dingen Liegende und um den Begriff der Abhängigkeit und um zahlreiche ganz ähnliche Begriffe, die der Philosoph A. N. Whitehead verwendet, um ein Prinzip zum Ausdruck zu bringen, das von ihm auch als die Verflochtenheit (...) der Dinge bezeichnet wird. Ein viel früherer Hinweis auf das zwischen den Dingen Liegende stammt von dem indischen Philosophen Nagarjuna. Bei beiden Philosophen gibt es Dutzende von Begriffen und Bildern, die sich vom Denken an ein Objekt lösen, um sich mehr auf das zu konzentrieren, was zwischen den Dingen passiert, auf Zwischenräume und Zwischenzustände. Mein eigenes Beispiel dafür ist ein Vogelschwarm, der weder verklumpt noch auseinanderfällt. Solch ein Zwischenzustand lässt sich nicht auf einen einzigen Begriff festnageln, der die Vielfalt der Beziehungen zum Ausdruck bringen könnte. (shrink)
Abstract: This is necessarily an evolutionary work in progress. Its purpose and goal is enabling real progress of science, mathematics, society, and civilization. Thus, to accomplish the mission, upgrading the current sociocultural paradigm is essential. That makes holistic ontology and optimal epistemics essential to ongoing work and to further development of new theory and metatheory. Hence, the current listings of key terms, definitions, and explanations presented here provide some core concepts and supporting theorems, metatheorems, equations, and examples. That enables remedial (...) revision of relevant domains of thought and discourse. The project is also intended to inspire collaborative extension and ongoing refinement of the work. The appendices provide additional perspective. ~ A preprint draft, v.2e, for review and comment only. (shrink)
Long Range and short range, guns and violence, everyday life in cities and streets, between social and group identity and faith and religious belief, the vision to the "things of the world that cannot be seen" (Heróis do Mar).
Times of Existential Discomfort are these, where man is still seeking for a spiritual path, between sacred and profane. What's the role of philosophy in this search, does she require some means that are in others hands? In th hands of powered people, between economic powershi and aesthetic extravaganza?
A logic path between moral principles of social organization of religious rules and the economiy of belief in industrial societies. I argue that some lifes may be like currency, a Good and a Bad Side, due to the dilema betwee profit and spiritual reasons.
في سنة 2015، ذهب قرابة عشرين شخصًا من سُكان بلدة «ياهابا» (وهي بلدة صغيرة تابعة لولاية «إيواتي» شمال شرق اليابان) إلى مبنى البلدية الخاص بهم للمشاركة في تجربة فريدة من نوعها. كان هدف التجربة هو تصميم سياسات من شأنها تشكيل مستقبل بلدتهم، ما يعني طرح الأسئلة المُخصصة للسياسيين ومحاولة الإجابة عنها: هل من الأفضل أن نستثمر في البنية التحتية أم في رعاية الأطفال؟ وهل يجب أن نُشجع الطاقة المُتجددة أم الزراعة الاصطناعية؟ وهل نعمل وفق خُطط قصيرة الأجل تُحقق مصالح الجيل (...) الحالي، أم وفق خُطط بعيدة الأجل تنظر بعين الاهتمام لحاجات الأجيال التالية؟ وللإجابة عن هذه التساؤلات وفق رؤية مستقبلية تم تقسيم المشاركين إلى مجموعتين؛ الأولى ظل أعضاؤها بملابسهم وهيئاتهم المعتادة كممثلين للجيل الحالي، والثانية ارتدى أعضاؤها معاطف احتفالية رمزية صفراء وطُلب منهم أن يتخيلوا أنهم يعيشون في سنة 2060، أي أنهم يُمثلون مصالح جيل من أجيال المستقبل خلال التجربة. (shrink)
على الأرجح لا يوجد إله ... الآن، دع القلق واستمتع بالحياة ... إنه شعار الملحدين الجُدد! لا أعني بذلك أولئك الرويبضات الذين يُظهرون غير ما يبطنون، ويتخذون من تطورات العلم وقشور الفلسفة أداةً براقة لجذب الشباب وإغوائهم بالإلحاد، ويعمدون إلى الصلاة في معابد الشيطان من أجل النفس التواقة إلى إشباع شهواتها بغير ضابط ولا رابط. هؤلاء تجدهم وأتباعهم في الغرب إفرازًا طبيعيًا للخواء الروحي وهيمنة رأس المال، وتجدهم ومريديهم في الشرق نبتًا عفنًا للاستبداد السياسي والتفسخ الاجتماعي والمظهرية الحضارية الكاذبة بكافة (...) أشكالها، لاسيما الدينية منها! إنما أعنى بالأحرى نفرًا من الفلاسفة والعلماء الذين يُشكلون منذ سنة 2006 تقريبًا ما اصطلح على تسميتها «النزعة الإلحادية الجديدة»، من أمثال البيولوجي الإنجليزي «كلينتون ريتشارد داوكينز»، والفيلسوف وعالم الأعصاب الأمريكي «صمويل بنيامين سام هاريس»، والصحافي والكاتب والناقد الديني الأمريكي «كريستوفر إريك هيتشنز»، وفيلسوف العلم الأمريكي، وقد سُمي هؤلاء الأربعة «الفرسان الأربعة» (في مقابل فرسان رؤيا يوحنا الأربعة في الكتاب المقدس المسيحي)، بعد لقائهم في الثلاثين من سبتمبر سنة 2007 في مقر إقامة «هيتشنز» في العاصمة الأمريكية واشنطن. فما هذه النزعة؟ وما أهم أفكارها؟ . (shrink)
Questi appunti si concentrano sul ruolo del Potere e sulla sociologia del Potere. L’analisi classica sul Potere è sempre basata sulla definizione a posteriori del Potere. “La storia di tutta la società, svoltasi fin qua, è storia di lotta di classe” sono le affermazioni che rappresentano il Potere come un effetto di un predeterminato rapporto fra gruppi costituiti. -/- Questi appunti invece vogliono partire dal Potere come un concetto di più alto livello nell’analisi sociologica. -/- Dopo il manifesto dell' Archelogia, (...) disciplina che cerca di sistematizzare il Potere come disciplina, si passa a dare una definizione del Potere e delle sue linee di analisi. -/- Si arriva ad un approccio semiotico (come segno) della verità e si tenta di iniziare dei ragionamenti sulla teoria del valore sotto il profilo dei segni. -/- These notes focus on the role of Power and the sociology of Power. -/- The classic analysis of Power is always based on the a posteriori definition of Power. "The history of the whole society, which has taken place this far, is the history of class struggle" are the statements that represent Power as an effect of a predetermined relationship between constituted groups. -/- These notes instead want to start from Power as a higher level concept in sociological analysis. After the manifesto of Archelogy, a discipline that seeks to systematize Power as a discipline, we move on to give a definition of Power and its lines of analysis. We arrive at a semiotic approach (as a sign) of truth and we try to start reasoning on the theory of value from the point of view of signs. (shrink)
The Aristotelian notion of friendship is a relatively under-discussed aspect of Aristotle's body of work. This particular concept involves the classification of the types of friendships, which carries some ethical implications. The aim of this article is to meticulously and appropriately expand upon the classification system proposed by Aristotle in order to include all other kinds of relationships. Thus, the Aristotelian concept of friendship will be thoroughly examined and expanded upon in this paper. The present discourse initiates with a discussion (...) on the necessary and sufficient conditions required to qualify a social state as a relation. Aristotle's initial categories of friendship are clarified and validated onto relationships. The classification of a relation is established upon the foundational emotion, thereby enabling the identification of three distinct classes of relations. The amalgamation of each class with each type of relation culminates in a total of nine feasible relations. Ergo, a relationship can be ascribed as a composite of these nine relations. We shall delve into the substantiating argument for the assertion that any relationship can be exhaustively described as a composite of the nine relations. The discourse thoroughly examines and explicates the levels of relations and levels of its subjects, which significantly facilitate the identification and classification of the nature of any given relationship. Thus, this paper is a case for an Aristotelian ontology of relationships. (shrink)
Glossary of Syncriticism (in Slovak: Glosar synkriticizmu) is a list of key explained terms of original Slovak philosophical conception of three philosophy parts: 1. philosophy of man (syncritical anthropology), 2. philosophy of love (syncritical agapology) and 3. philosophy of timelessness (perichronosophy).
I tried to describe Infinity as a major natural conundrum known to man. The booklet also contains answers to some eternal questions, such as the meaning of life, faith, etc. I am especially proud of my Morality section.
Purpose: This article attempts to deal with the events that took place during the advent (reappearance) of Imam Mahdi, the Savior of all the worlds. In fact, in this article, we will discuss the forces that will join him when the Imam of the time appears, and above all, with Imam Hussein and how globalization can pave the way for Imam Mahdi's world revolution. Also, this research was conducted to answer and clarify three questions that stated in the Introduction section. (...) Methods: We performed our methods in 4 stages: Identifying studies, Selection of Studies, Collating Studies, Reporting results. Results: One of the reasons why the Imam of the Age (Imam Mahdi) rises is because of the killing of Imam Hussein, and God has made a firm promise that he will take revenge on any of the perpetrators who led this incident by Imam Mahdi. Imam Hussein also states that the basis of his rising was inviting people to the Quran and the Prophet's Sunnah. Conclusion: God helps Imam Mahdi and Jesus Christ to establish divine government on earth, and this is accepted by Muslims and Christians. Dread and terror, as part of Imam Mahdi's power, will move in advance of his soldiers. Imam Mahdi will appear with the aim of reforming humanity and spreading justice in the world. We hope this article will take an important step in acquainting people with Imam Mahdi and Jesus Christ and paving the ground for their reappearance. (shrink)