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Summary Philosophy of pregnancy may engage or occur within a number of areas of philosophical research: metaphysics, philosophy of biology, bioethics and philosophy of medicine, feminist philosophy, history of philosophy, phenomenology, and political philosophy. As such, pregnancy is a topic or a theme in philosophy, rather than a cohesive area of research, although in many cases it lies at some intersection of the aforementioned areas. Discussions about pregnancy may regard questions about what pregnancy is (the criteria for pregnancy or for gestation) or when pregnancy starts (i.e., about whether fertilization or implantation marks the start of pregnancy); they may regard questions about pregnancy as a challenge to the presumed individuality or numerical identity of pregnant organisms, humans, or persons, with upshots for questions about biological individuality, units of selection, humanity, and personhood; they may regard empirical questions about the evolution or nature of pregnancy as a reproductive mode, and about medical considerations and clinical findings about pregnancy such as regard contraception, abortion, pregnancy loss, developmental processes, or teratogens; they may regard bioethical questions about pregnancy having to do with patient autonomy, conflicts of interest between the mother and fetus, altruistic or commercial surrogacy, ectogenesis, or medical surveillance and criminalization during pregnancy; they may regard feminist questions about sex, gender, and pregnancy, for instance, questions about pregnancy discrimination within and without the law, or the role of pregnancy in women's discrimination, oppression, or exploitation; they may regard pregnancy as a metaphor, or the appropriation of pregnancy as a metaphor; they may regard questions about the history of pregnancy and how women's or other female mammals' reproductive role has historically been understood; they may regard questions about the phenomenology of pregnancy; and they may regard questions about the politics of pregnancy, for instance, its role in social reproduction.
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  1. Pregnant Women with Fetal Abnormalities: The Forgotten People in the Abortion Debate.L. De Crespigny & Savulescu, J. - manuscript
    of (from Oxford Uehiro Centre for Practical Ethics) Medical Journal of Australia, 188 (2) 100 - 102.
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  2. Pregnancy, Parthood and Proper Overlap: A Critique of Kingma.Alexander Geddes - forthcoming - Philosophical Quarterly.
    Elselijn Kingma argues that, in cases of mammalian placental pregnancy, the foster is part of the gravida. But she does not consider the possibility of proper overlap. I show that this generates a number of serious problems for her argument and trace the oversight to a quite general issue within the literature on biological individuality. Doing so provides an opportunity to pull apart and clarify the relations between some importantly distinct questions concerning organismality and organismic parthood, and to identify the (...)
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  3. Toward a Philosophical Theology of Pregnancy Loss.Amber L. Griffioen - forthcoming - In Mikolaj Slawkowski-Rode (ed.), Meanings of Mourning: Perspectives on Death, Loss and Grief. Lanham, MD 20706, USA:
    Issues surrounding pregnancy loss are rarely addressed in Christian philosophy. Yet a modest estimate based on the empirical and medical literature places the rate of pregnancy loss between fertilization and term at somewhere between 40–60%. If miscarriage really is as common as the research gives us to believe, then it would seem a pressing topic for a Christian philosophy of the future to address. This paper attempts to begin this work by showing how thinking more closely about pregnancy loss understood (...)
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  4. Biological Individuality and the Foetus Problem.William Morgan - forthcoming - Erkenntnis:1-18.
    The Problem of Biological Individuality is the problem of how to count organisms. Whilst counting organisms may seem easy, the biological world is full of difficult cases such as colonial siphonophores and aspen tree groves. One of the main solutions to the Problem of Biological Individuality is the Physiological Approach. Drawing on an argument made by Eric Olson in the personal identity debate, I argue that the Physiological Approach faces a metaphysical problem - the ‘Foetus Problem’. This paper illustrates how (...)
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  5. Biological Individuality and the Foetus Problem.William Morgan - forthcoming - Erkenntnis:1-18.
    The Problem of Biological Individuality is the problem of how to count organisms. Whilst counting organisms may seem easy, the biological world is full of difficult cases such as colonial siphonophores and aspen tree groves. One of the main solutions to the Problem of Biological Individuality is the Physiological Approach. Drawing on an argument made by Eric Olson in the personal identity debate, I argue that the Physiological Approach faces a metaphysical problem - the ‘Foetus Problem’. This paper illustrates how (...)
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  6. Update on Selected Ethical Questions: New Methods of Handling Ectopic Pregnancies.Ectopic Pregnancies - forthcoming - Communicating the Catholic Vision of Life: Proceedings of the Twelfth Bishops' Workshop, Dallas, Texas.
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  7. Twin Pregnancy Reduction is Not an ‘All or Nothing’ Problem: A Response to Räsänen.Dunja Begović, Elizabeth Chloe Romanis & E. J. Verweij - 2022 - Journal of Medical Ethics 48 (2):139-141.
    In his paper, ‘Twin pregnancy, fetal reduction and the ‘all or nothing problem’, Räsänen sets out to apply Horton’s ‘all or nothing’ problem to the ethics of multifetal pregnancy reduction from a twin to a singleton pregnancy. Horton’s problem involves the following scenario: imagine that two children are about to be crushed by a collapsing building. An observer would have three options: do nothing, save one child by allowing their arms to be crushed, or save both by allowing their arms (...)
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  8. Can Routine Screening for Alcohol Consumption in Pregnancy Be Ethically and Legally Justified?Rebecca Bennett & Catherine Bowden - 2022 - Journal of Medical Ethics 48 (8):512-516.
    In the UK, it has been proposed that alongside the current advice to abstain from alcohol completely in pregnancy, there should be increased screening of pregnant women for alcohol consumption in order to prevent instances of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. The Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network published guidelines in 2019 recommending that standardised screening questionnaires and associated use of biomarkers should be considered to identify alcohol exposure in pregnancy. This was followed in 2020 by the National Institute for Health and Care (...)
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  9. A Pregnant Pause: Pregnancy, Miscarriage, and Suspended Time.Victoria Browne - 2022 - Hypatia 37 (2):447-468.
    This article takes the rupturing of normative, linear, reproductive time that occurs in the event of miscarriage as a potentially generative philosophical moment—a catalyst to rethink pregnancy aside from the expectation of child-production. Pregnant time is usually imagined as a linear passage toward birth. Accordingly, the one who “miscarries” appears as suspended within an arrested journey that never arrived at its destination, or indeed, as ejected from pregnant time altogether. But here I propose to rethink both pregnancy and miscarriage through (...)
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  10. Persons and Women, Not Womb‐Givers: Reflections on Gestational Surrogacy and Uterus Transplantation.Giulia Cavaliere - 2022 - Bioethics 36 (9):989-996.
    Bioethics, Volume 36, Issue 9, Page 989-996, November 2022.
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  11. Agency, Pregnancy and Persons: Essays in Defense of Human Life.Nicholas Colgrove, Bruce P. Blackshaw & Daniel Rodger (eds.) - 2022 - Oxford, UK: Routledge.
    This book provides extensive and critical engagement with some of the most recent and compelling arguments favoring abortion choice. It features original essays from leading and emerging philosophers, bioethicists and medical professionals that present philosophically sophisticated and novel arguments against abortion choice. The chapters in this book are divided into three thematic sections. The first set of essays focuses primarily on unborn human individuals--zygotes, embryos and fetuses. In these chapters it is argued, for example, that human organisms begin to exist (...)
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  12. Being and Becoming Pregnant: Valuing Risks.Inmaculada de Melo-Martín - 2022 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 65 (2):327-336.
    Pregnant women are insistently urged to limit or eliminate risks to their fetuses. This is done even when the risks to fetuses are only theoretical or minimal, and the health and well-being of the pregnant woman is at stake. When using reproductive and reprogenetic technologies, however, evaluations about what risks are acceptable to impose on embryos change radically. In the context of these technologies, women are not only allowed to impose risks on embryos, but actively encouraged to do so-insofar as (...)
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  13. Shackling Pregnant Women: US Prisons, Anti-Blackness, and the Unfinished Project of American Abolition.Brady Heiner - 2022 - Philosophia 12 (1-2):1-35.
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  14. Shackling Pregnant Women.Brady Heiner - 2022 - philoSOPHIA: A Journal of Continental Feminism 12 (1-2):1-35.
    This article analyzes the pervasive practice in US carceral institutions of shackling incarcerated pregnant women during childbirth and postpartum. After a review of bioethical, civil, and human rights norms, which widely condemn the practice, I advance an interpretation of the social meaning of shackling imprisoned pregnant women and its persistence despite widespread normative consensus in favor of its abolition. Two arguments regarding the persistence of the practice are considered: that it stems from the unthinking exportation of prison rules to a (...)
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  15. ‘Not Birth, Marriage or Death, but Gastrulation’: The Life of a Quotation in Biology.Nick Hopwood - 2022 - British Journal for the History of Science 55 (1):1-26.
    This history of a statement attributed to the developmental biologist Lewis Wolpert exemplifies the making and uses of quotations in recent science. Wolpert's dictum, ‘It is not birth, marriage or death, but gastrulation which is truly the most important time in your life’, was produced in a series of international shifts of medium and scale. It originated in his vivid declaration in conversation with a non-specialist at a workshop dinner, gained its canonical form in a colleague's monograph, and was amplified (...)
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  16. ‘Experimental pregnancy’ revisited.Anne Drapkin Lyerly - 2022 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 43 (4):253-266.
    In this paper, I reflect on an important article by Bob Veatch in the inaugural issue of the Hastings Center Report, entitled “Experimental Pregnancy.” It is a report and elegant analysis of the Goldzieher Study, in which nearly 400 women were randomized to receive hormonal contraception or placebo absent consent or disclosure about placebo use, resulting in several pregnancies. Noting the study’s limited notoriety, I first consider the narratives that have instead dominated bioethics’ approach to pregnancy and research: thalidomide and (...)
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  17. One or two? A Process View of pregnancy.Anne Sophie Meincke - 2022 - Philosophical Studies 179 (5):1495-1521.
    How many individuals are present where we see a pregnant individual? Within a substance ontological framework, there are exactly two possible answers to this question. The standard answer—two individuals—is typically championed by scholars endorsing the predominant Containment View of pregnancy, according to which the foetus resides in the gestating organism like in a container. The alternative answer—one individual—has recently found support in the Parthood View, according to which the foetus is a part of the gestating organism. Here I propose a (...)
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  18. The Pregnancy Compensation Hypothesis, Not the Staying Alive Theory, Accounts for Disparate Autoimmune Functioning of Women Around the World.Erin M. O'Mara Kunz, Jackson A. Goodnight & Melissa A. Wilson - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    The pregnancy compensation hypothesis provides a mechanistic explanation for the evolution of sex differences in immune system functioning, the excess of women experiencing autoimmune disease, and why this is observed only in industrialized nations; none of which can be explained by the staying alive theory, as proposed by the authors of the target article.
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  19. Twin Pregnancy, Fetal Reduction and the 'All or Nothing Problem’.Joona Räsänen - 2022 - Journal of Medical Ethics 48 (2):101-105.
    Fetal reduction is the practice of reducing the number of fetuses in a multiple pregnancy, such as quadruplets, to a twin or singleton pregnancy. Use of assisted reproductive technologies increases the likelihood of multiple pregnancies, and many fetal reductions are done after in vitro fertilisation and embryo transfer, either because of social or health-related reasons. In this paper, I apply Joe Horton’s all or nothing problem to the ethics of fetal reduction in the case of a twin pregnancy. I argue (...)
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  20. Your Mother Should Know: Pregnancy, the Ethics of Abortion and Knowledge Through Acquaintance of Moral Value.Fiona Woollard - 2022 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 103 (3):471-492.
    An important strand in the debate on abortion focuses on the moral status of fetuses. Knowledge of the moral value of fetuses is needed to assess fetuses’ moral status. As Errol Lord argues, acquaintance plays a key role in moral and aesthetic knowledge. Many pregnant persons have acquaintance with their fetus that provides privileged access to knowledge about that fetus’ moral value. This knowledge is (a) very difficult to acquire without being pregnant and (b) relevant for assessing the moral status (...)
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  21. Impact of Ectogenesis on the Medicalisation of Pregnancy and Childbirth.Victoria Adkins - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 47 (4):239-243.
    The medicalisation of pregnancy and childbirth has been encouraged by the continuing growth of technology that can be applied to the reproductive journey. Technology now has the potential to fully separate reproduction from the human body with the prospect of ectogenesis—the gestation of a fetus outside of the human body. This paper considers the issues that have been caused by the general medicalisation of pregnancy and childbirth and the impact that ectogenesis may have on these existing issues. The medicalisation of (...)
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  22. Is Pregnancy Really a Good Samaritan Act?Bruce P. Blackshaw - 2021 - Christian Bioethics 27 (2):158–168.
    One of the most influential philosophical arguments in favour of the permissibility of abortion is Judith Jarvis Thomson’s violinist analogy, presented in ‘A Defense of Abortion’. Its appeal for pro-choice advocates lies in Thomson’s granting that the fetus is a person with equivalent moral status to any other human being, and yet demonstrating—to those who accept her reasoning—that abortion is still permissible. In her argument, Thomson draws heavily on the parable of the Good Samaritan, arguing that gestating a fetus in (...)
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  23. Methodology for the Metaphysics of Pregnancy.Suki Finn - 2021 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 11 (3):1-19.
    One of the central questions in the metaphysics of pregnancy is this: Is the foetus a part of the mother? In this paper I aim not to answer this question, but rather to raise methodological concerns regarding how to approach answering it. I will outline how various areas attempt to answer whether the foetus is a part of the mother so as to demonstrate the methodological problems that each faces. My positive suggestion will be to adopt a method of reflective (...)
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  24. Harming One to Benefit Another: The Paradox of Autonomy and Consent in Maternity Care.Elselijn Kingma - 2021 - Bioethics 35 (5):456-464.
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  25. In Defence of Gestatelings: Response to Colgrove.Elselijn Kingma - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 47 (5):355-356.
    Ectogestation—that is, ‘artificial’ or extramammalian pregnancy—may soon be within technological reach. This confronts us with questions about the correct moral and legal attitude towards the subjects of this technology, which are called ‘gestatelings’. Colgrove argues that gestatelings are a kind of newborn, and consequently should have the same moral and legal protections as newborns. This paper responds that both claims are unsupported by his arguments, which equivocate on two understandings of the term ‘newborn’. Questions about the appropriate moral and legal (...)
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  26. Pregnant Females as Historical Individuals: An Insight From the Philosophy of Evo-Devo.Laura Nuño de la Rosa, Mihaela Pavličev & Arantza Etxeberria - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
    Criticisms of the “container” model of pregnancy picturing female and embryo as separate entities multiply in various philosophical and scientific contexts during the last decades. In this paper, we examine how this model underlies received views of pregnancy in evolutionary biology, in the characterization of the transition from oviparity to viviparity in mammals and in the selectionist explanations of pregnancy as an evolutionary strategy. In contrast, recent evo-devo studies on eutherian reproduction, including the role of inflammation and new maternal cell (...)
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  27. Access to Prenatal Testing and Ethically Informed Counselling in Germany, Poland and Russia.Marcin Orzechowski, Cristian Timmermann, Katarzyna Woniak, Oxana Kosenko, Galina Lvovna Mikirtichan, Alexandr Zinovievich Lichtshangof & Florian Steger - 2021 - Journal of Personalized Medicine 11 (9):937.
    The development of new methods in the field of prenatal testing leads to an expansion of information that needs to be provided to expectant mothers. The aim of this research is to explore opinions and attitudes of gynecologists in Germany, Poland and Russia towards access to prenatal testing and diagnostics in these countries. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with n = 18 gynecologists in Germany, Poland and Russia. The interviews were analyzed using the methods of content analysis and thematic analysis. Visible (...)
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  28. Pregnant Pause: The Maternal Placeholder in Levinas.Nimrod Reitman - 2021 - Angelaki 26 (6):49-67.
    Despite the fact that Levinas has often been accused of having little or no room for the maternal in his writing, his rhetoric nonetheless applies maternal tendencies that complicate his ethical st...
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  29. An Ethical Exploration of Pregnancy Related mHealth: Does It Deliver?Seppe Segers, Heidi Mertes & Guido Pennings - 2021 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 24 (4):677-685.
    Many pregnant women use pregnancy related mHealth applications, encompassing a variety of pregnancy apps and wearables. These are mostly directed at supporting a healthier fetal development. In this article we argue that the increasing dominance of PRmHealth stands in want of empirical knowledge affirming its beneficence in terms of improved pregnancy outcomes. This is a crucial ethical issue, especially in the light of concerns about increasing pressures and growing responsibilities ascribed to pregnant women, which may, in turn, be reinforced by (...)
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  30. The Process of Pregnancy: Paradoxical Temporalities of Prenatal Entities.Laura Völkle & Nico Wettmann - 2021 - Human Studies 44 (4):595-614.
    In this article, we reflect on the particular temporal structure of pregnancies and prenatal entities with the aim to contribute to the field of the sociology of pregnancy. Medical models and technology shape today’s notion of pregnancy as a linear, nine-month developmental process that leads to the birth of a child. Through ultrasound technology and prenatal examinations, prenatal entities have thus historically gained a present ‘being’ as a developing, unborn child. While these ideas undoubtedly greatly influence the participants’ interpretations, a (...)
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  31. Mother Knows Best: Pregnancy, Applied Ethics, and Epistemically Transformative Experiences.Fiona Woollard - 2021 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 38 (1):155-171.
    L.A. Paul argues that interesting issues for rational choice theory are raised by epistemically transformative experiences: experiences which provide access to knowledge that could not be known without the experience. Consideration of the epistemic effects of pregnancy has important implications for our understanding of epistemically transformative experiences and for debate about the ethics of abortion and applied ethics more generally. Pregnancy is epistemically transformative both in Paul’s narrow sense and in a wider sense: those who have not been pregnant face (...)
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  32. The Pregnant Body and the Birth of the Other: Arendt’s Contribution to Original Ethics.Jennifer Gaffney - 2020 - Research in Phenomenology 50 (2):199-215.
    This paper examines Hannah Arendt’s contribution to recent debate concerning the urgency of Martin Heidegger’s original ethics. To this end, I turn to Arendt’s existential interpretation of birth as this takes shape in her discourse on the miracle. Though recent commentators have criticized Arendt’s emphasis on the miracle, I argue that she deepens a conversation about birth that Dennis Schmidt, following Jacques Derrida, has set in motion in his efforts to contribute to a more original ethics. Whereas Schmidt prioritizes the (...)
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  33. How Many Organisms During a Pregnancy?Jonathan Grose - 2020 - Philosophy of Science 87 (5):1049-1060.
    Mammalian placental pregnancy is a neglected problem case for theories of organismality. This example is closer to home than those typically discussed within philosophy of biology. I apply evolutio...
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  34. “She Starts Breakdancing, I Swear!”: Metaphor, Framing, and Digital Pregnancy Discussions.Janet Ho - 2020 - Metaphor and Symbol 35 (3):171-187.
    In health communication metaphor studies, mental and terminal diseases are often the center of attention. Yet, one of the most important life stages especially for many women, pregnancy, has receiv...
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  35. Pregnant People, Inseminators and Tissues of Human Origin: How Ectogenesis Challenges the Concept of Abortion.Evie Kendal - 2020 - Monash Bioethics Review 38 (2):197-204.
    The potential benefits of an alternative to physical gestation are numerous. These include providing reproductive options for prospective parents who are unable to establish or maintain a physiological pregnancy, and saving the lives of some infants born prematurely. Ectogenesis could also promote sexual equality in reproduction, and represents a necessary option for women experiencing an unwanted pregnancy who are morally opposed to abortion. Despite these broad, and in some cases unique benefits, one major ethical concern is the potential impact of (...)
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  36. Nine Months.Elselijn Kingma - 2020 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 45 (3):371-386.
    When did we begin to exist? Barry Smith and Berit Brogaard argue that a new human organism comes into existence neither earlier nor later than the moment of gastrulation: 16 days after conception. Several critics have responded that the onset of the organism must happen earlier; closer to conception. This article makes a radically different claim: if we accept Smith and Brogaard’s ontological commitments, then human organisms start, on average, roughly nine months after conception. The main point of contention is (...)
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  37. Biological Individuality, Pregnancy, and (Mammalian) Reproduction.Elselijn Kingma - 2020 - Philosophy of Science 87 (5):1037-1048.
    Mammals are usually considered unproblematic as biological individuals. This article contends the opposite. Once we consider pregnancy, criteria for biological individuality are not easily applicab...
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  38. Neonatal Incubator or Artificial Womb? Distinguishing Ectogestation and Ectogenesis Using the Metaphysics of Pregnancy.Elselijn Kingma & Suki Finn - 2020 - Bioethics 34 (4):354-363.
    A 2017 Nature report was widely touted as hailing the arrival of the artificial womb. But the scientists involved claim their technology is merely an improvement in neonatal care. This raises an under-considered question: what differentiates neonatal incubation from artificial womb technology? Considering the nature of gestation—or metaphysics of pregnancy—(a) identifies more profound differences between fetuses and neonates/babies than their location (in or outside the maternal body) alone: fetuses and neonates have different physiological and physical characteristics; (b) characterizes birth as (...)
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  39. Pregnancy Accompanied by Palliative Care.Jennifer S. Linebarger - 2020 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 63 (3):535-538.
    A woman, perhaps a couple, learn they are pregnant. Perhaps she is elated for this desired news. Perhaps she is also overwhelmed or scared by the daunting task of parenthood ahead. Then, a prenatal screening reveals something worrisome about the fetus. A tumbling series of appointments and exams confirm the concerning findings. As Pope Francis notes, this news “changes the experience of pregnancy.” In place of optimistic wonderment for the future, parents now have new worries about whether their baby will (...)
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  40. Corrigendum: A Close and Supportive Interparental Bond During Pregnancy Predicts Greater Decline in Sexual Activity From Pregnancy to Postpartum: Applying an Evolutionary Perspective.Tierney K. Lorenz, Erin L. Ramsdell & Rebecca L. Brock - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
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  41. A Close and Supportive Interparental Bond During Pregnancy Predicts Greater Decline in Sexual Activity From Pregnancy to Postpartum: Applying an Evolutionary Perspective.Tierney K. Lorenz, Erin L. Ramsdell & Rebecca L. Brock - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
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  42. From the Density of Sense to the Density of the Sensible. The Emergenceof Aesthetic Pregnancy From the Spirit of Hermeneutics.Alessandro Nannini - 2020 - Archiv für Begriffsgeschichte 60:163-186.
    Although pregnancy as a semantic and perceptual density is a central notion of aesthetics, scholarship has not yet conducted a genealogical inquiry into its early-modern roots. It is the aim of this investigation to make a contribu-tion in this direction. My thesis is, that the idea of aesthetic pregnancy emerges in Alexander G. Baumgarten’s philoso-phy as the outcome of the convergence between Leibnizian assumptions and a series of hermeneutical categories, which have hitherto been overlooked. After analyzing the role of pregnancy (...)
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  43. Pregnant Agencies: Movement and Participation in Maternal–Fetal Interactions.Alejandra Martínez Quintero & Hanne De Jaegher - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
    Pregnancy presents some interesting challenges for the philosophy of embodied cognition. Mother and fetus are generally considered to be passive during pregnancy, both individually and in their relation. In this paper, we use the enactive operational concepts of autonomy, agency, individuation, and participation to examine the relation between mother and fetus in utero. Based on biological, physiological, and phenomenological research, we explore the emergence of agentive capacities in embryo and fetus, as well as how maternal agency changes as pregnancy advances. (...)
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  44. Mental Health of Pregnant and Postpartum Women During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pandemic: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.Haohao Yan, Yudan Ding & Wenbin Guo - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
    Background: Prenatal and postnatal mental disorders can exert severe adverse influences on mothers, fetuses, and children. However, the effect of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic on the mental health of pregnant and postpartum women remains unclear.Methods: Relevant studies that were published from January 1, 2019 to September 19, 2020 were identified through the systematic search of the PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science databases. Quality assessment of included studies, random-effects meta-analysis, sensitivity analysis, and planned subgroup analysis were performed.Results: A total (...)
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  45. Pregnant Women Can Finally Expect Better.Angela Ballantyne - 2019 - Hastings Center Report 49 (1):10-11.
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  46. Policing Women to Protect Fetuses: Coercive Interventions During Pregnancy.Debra A. DeBruin & Mary Faith Marshall - 2019 - In Wanda Teays (ed.), Analyzing Violence Against Women. Springer. pp. 95-111.
    Women are routinely subjected to penetrating surveillance during pregnancy. On the surface, this may appear to flow from a cultural commitment to protect babies – a cultural practice of “better safe than sorry” that is particularly vigilant given the vulnerability of fetuses and babies. In reality, pregnancy occasions incursions against human rights and well-being that would be anathema in other contexts. Our cultural practices concerning risk in pregnancy are infused with oppressive norms about women’s responsibility for pregnancy outcomes and the (...)
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  47. Placental Beginnings: Reconfiguring Placental Development and Pregnancy Loss in Feminist Theory.Sara DiCaglio - 2019 - Feminist Theory 20 (3):283-298.
    The placenta has played an important role in feminist theories of subjectivity; however, the placenta of feminist theory has been the fully functional placenta of what is considered a successful full-term pregnancy. Pregnancy loss, a topic that has been generally overlooked within feminist scholarship, is absent from feminist theories of the placenta. This article uses early placental development, particularly development that takes place before the placenta becomes fully functional as an organ for hormone production and interchange, as a space through (...)
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  48. The Moral Imperative to Approve Pregnant Women’s Participation in Randomized Clinical Trials for Pregnancy and Newborn Complications.Dan Kabonge Kaye - 2019 - Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 14 (1):1-11.
    Background There is longstanding consensus on the need to include pregnant women in research. The goal of clinical research is to find highly regulated, carefully controlled, morally responsible ways to generate evidence about how to effectively and safely prevent illness or treat sick people. This manuscripts present a conceptual analysis of the ethicality of clinical trials in 3 scenarios: where the pregnant is involved in clinical trials as a participant during pregnancy for data that addresses pregnancy complications, where the pregnant (...)
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  49. Were You a Part of Your Mother?Elselijn Kingma - 2019 - Mind 128 (511):609-646.
    Is the mammalian embryo/fetus a part of the organism that gestates it? According to the containment view, the fetus is not a part of, but merely contained within or surrounded by, the gestating organism. According to the parthood view, the fetus is a part of the gestating organism. This paper proceeds in two stages. First, I argue that the containment view is the received view; that it is generally assumed without good reason; and that it needs substantial support if it (...)
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  50. Greater Loss of Female Embryos During Human Pregnancy: A Novel Mechanism.John F. Mulley - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (11):1900063.
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