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  1. The Form in Formal Thought Disorder: A Model of Dyssyntax in Semantic Networking.Farshad Badie & Luis M. Augusto - 2022 - MDPI AI 3:353–370.
    Formal thought disorder (FTD) is a clinical mental condition that is typically diagnosable by the speech productions of patients. However, this has been a vexing condition for the clinical community, as it is not at all easy to determine what “formal” means in the plethora of symptoms exhibited. We present a logic-based model for the syntax–semantics interface in semantic networking that can not only explain, but also diagnose, FTD. Our model is based on description logic (DL), which is well known (...)
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  2. Stuttering: A Disorder of Energy Supply to Neurons?Per A. Alm - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Stuttering is a disorder characterized by intermittent loss of volitional control of speech movements. This hypothesis and theory article focuses on the proposal that stuttering may be related to an impairment of the energy supply to neurons. Findings from electroencephalography, brain imaging, genetics, and biochemistry are reviewed: Analyses of the EEG spectra at rest have repeatedly reported reduced power in the beta band, which is compatible with indications of reduced metabolism. Studies of the absolute level of regional cerebral blood flow (...)
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  3. Beyond the Senses: How Self-Directed Speech and Word Meaning Structure Impact Executive Functioning and Theory of Mind in Individuals With Hearing and Language Problems.Thomas F. Camminga, Daan Hermans, Eliane Segers & Constance T. W. M. Vissers - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    Many individuals with developmental language disorder and individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing have social–emotional problems, such as social difficulties, and show signs of aggression, depression, and anxiety. These problems can be partly associated with their executive functions and theory of mind. The difficulties of both groups in EF and ToM may in turn be related to self-directed speech. Self-directed speech is thought to allow for the construction of non-sensory representations. Such non-sensory representations allow individuals to overcome the (...)
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  4. Assessing Abstract Thought and its Relation to Language with a New Nonverbal Paradigm: Evidence From Aphasia.Peter Langland-Hassan, Frank R. Faries, Maxwell Gatyas, Aimee Dietz & Michael J. Richardson - 2021 - Cognition 211:104622.
    In recent years, language has been shown to play a number of important cognitive roles over and above the communication of thoughts. One hypothesis gaining support is that language facilitates thought about abstract categories, such as democracy or prediction. To test this proposal, a novel set of semantic memory task trials, designed for assessing abstract thought non-linguistically, were normed for levels of abstractness. The trials were rated as more or less abstract to the degree that answering them required the participant (...)
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  5. The Role of Inner Speech in Executive Functioning Tasks: Schizophrenia With Auditory Verbal Hallucinations and Autistic Spectrum Conditions as Case Studies.Valentina Petrolini, Marta Jorba & Agustín Vicente - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
    Several theories propose that one of the core functions of inner speech (IS) is to support subjects in the completion of cognitively effortful tasks, especially those involving executive functions (EF). In this paper we focus on two populations who notoriously encounter difficulties in performing EF tasks, namely, people diagnosed with schizophrenia who experience auditory verbal hallucinations (Sz-AVH) and people within the Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC). We focus on these two populations because they represent two different ways in which IS can (...)
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  6. Українське усне мовлення сучасної молоді України та зарубіжжя: нестійкі норми вимови.Maria Druzhynets - 2017 - Language: Classic – Modern – Postmodern 3:219-227.
    Статтю присвячено українському усному мовленню на синхронному рівні, зокрема ви-мовним особливостям української мови. На основі соцопитування зроблено спробу виявлення, аналізу та опису девіацій, що виникають у результаті порушення нестійких норм орфоепії, зокрема вимови шиплячих перед свистячим і навпаки, а також передньоязикового [д] перед ними залежно від сфери діяльності респондентів, країни проживання (Україна, Канада, Молдова, Придністровська Молдавська Республіка). Виокремлено стійкі та слабкі норми вимови, вказано важливі вимовні проблеми та їх органічність, що засвідчена історією.
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  7. Metacognitive Deficits in Categorization Tasks in a Population with Impaired Inner Speech.Peter Langland-Hassan, Christopher Gauker, Michael J. Richardson, Aimee Deitz & Frank F. Faries - 2017 - Acta Psychologica 181:62-74.
    This study examines the relation of language use to a person’s ability to perform categorization tasks and to assess their own abilities in those categorization tasks. A silent rhyming task was used to confirm that a group of people with post-stroke aphasia (PWA) had corresponding covert language production (or “inner speech”) impairments. The performance of the PWA was then compared to that of age- and education-matched healthy controls on three kinds of categorization tasks and on metacognitive self-assessments of their performance (...)
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  8. Life as Normative Activity and Self-realization: Debate surrounding the Concept of Biological Normativity in Goldstein and Canguilhem.Agustin Ostachuk - 2015 - História, Ciências, Saúde - Manguinhos 22 (4):1199-1214.
    The influence of Kurt Goldstein on the thinking of Georges Canguilhem extended throughout his entire work. This paper seeks to examine this relationship in order to conduct a study of the norm as a nexus or connection between the concept and life. Consequently, this work will be a reflection on the approach to life as a normative activity and self-realization. For this, it will be necessary to redefine the concepts of health and disease, and make a crossover between the two. (...)
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  9. Proposing a Clinical Quantification Framework of Macro-Linguistic Structures in Aphasic Narratives.Reres Adam, Kong Anthony Pak Hin & Whiteside Janet D. - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
    Background Analysis of aphasic narratives can be a challenge for clinicians. Previous studies have mainly employed measures that categorized speech samples at the word level. They included quantification of the use and misuse of different word classes, presence and absence of narrative contents and errors, paraphasias, and perseverations, as well as morphological structures and errors within a narrative. In other words, a great amount of research has been conducted in the aphasiology literature focusing on micro-linguistic structures of oral narratives. Aspects (...)
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  10. The Role of Broca's Area in Regular Past-Tense Morphology.Timothy Justus, Jary Larsen, Jennifer Yang, Paul de Mornay Davies, Nina Dronkers & Diane Swick - 2011 - Neuropsychologia 49 (1):1–18.
    It has been suggested that damage to anterior regions of the left hemisphere results in a dissociation in the perception and lexical activation of past-tense forms. Specifically, in a lexical-decision task in which past-tense primes immediately precede present-tense targets, such patients demonstrate significant priming for irregular verbs (spoke–speak), but, unlike control participants, fail to do so for regular verbs (looked–look). Here, this behavioral dissociation was first confirmed in a group of eleven patients with damage to the pars opercularis (BA 44) (...)
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  11. Philosophy of Psychiatry.Dominic Murphy - 2010 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  12. Speaking Without Interpreting: A Reply to Bouma on Autism and Davidsonian Interpretation.Kristin Andrews & Ljiljana Radenovic - 2006 - Philosophical Psychology 19 (5):663 – 678.
    We clarify some points previously made by Andrews, and defend the claim that Davidson's account of belief can be and is challenged by the existence of some people with autism. We argue that both Bouma and Andrews (Philosophical Psychology, 15) blurred the subtle distinctions between the psychological concepts of theory of mind and joint attention and the Davidsonian concepts of interpretation and triangulation. And we accept that appeal to control group studies is not the appropriate place to look for an (...)
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  13. Reduced Phonological Similarity Effects in Patients with Damage to the Cerebellum.Timothy Justus, Susan Ravizza, Julie Fiez & Richard Ivry - 2005 - Brain and Language 95 (2):304–318.
    Ten cerebellar patients were compared to 10 control subjects on a verbal working memory task in which the phonological similarity of the words to be remembered and their modality of presentation were manipulated. Cerebellar patients demonstrated a reduction of the phonological similarity effect relative to controls. Further, this reduction did not depend systematically upon the presentation modality. These results first document that qualitative differences in verbal working memory may be observed following cerebellar damage, indicating altered cognitive processing, even though behavioral (...)
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  14. The Cerebellum and English Grammatical Morphology.Timothy Justus - 2004 - Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 16 (7):1115–1130.
    Three neuropsychological experiments on a group of 16 cerebellar patients and 16 age- and education-matched controls investigated the effects of damage to the cerebellum on English grammatical morphology across production, comprehension, and grammaticality judgment tasks. In Experiment 1, participants described a series of pictures previously used in studies of cortical aphasic patients. The cerebellar patients did not differ significantly from the controls in the total number of words produced or in the proportion of closed-class words. They did differ to a (...)
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  15. Science Without Grammar: Scientific Reasoning in Severe Agrammatic Aphasia.Rosemary Varley - 2002 - In Peter Carruthers, Stephen P. Stich & Michael Siegal (eds.), The Cognitive Basis of Science. Cambridge University Press. pp. 99.
  16. Developing a Distributed Language Network.Timothy Justus - 2001 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 5 (10):451-452.
    In this book review essay, Timothy Justus discusses Human Language and Our Reptilian Brain: The Subcortical Bases of Speech, Syntax, and Thought (2000) by Philip Lieberman. While the review agrees that a variety of cortical and subcortical regions (such as the basal ganglia) contribute to language, it also suggests that the book has confounded questions of brain localization with developmental constraint, domain specificity, and evolutionary adaptation, drawing upon works by Chomsky (1975), Fodor (1983), Pinker (1994), Bloom (2000), and Calvin and (...)
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  17. The Cognitive Neuropsychology of the Cerebellum.Timothy Justus & Richard Ivry - 2001 - International Review of Psychiatry 13 (4):276–282.
    We review evidence from neuropsychological studies of patients with damage to the cerebellum that suggests cerebellar involvement in four general categories of cognition: (1) speech and language; (2) temporal processing; (3) implicit learning and memory; (4) visuospatial processing and attention. A relatively strong case can be made for cerebellar contributions to language (including speech perception, lexical retrieval, and working memory) and to temporal processing. However, the evidence concerning cerebellar involvement in non-motor implicit learning and visuospatial processing is more equivocal. We (...)
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  18. Alien Control: From Phenomenology to Cognitive Neurobiology.Sean A. Spence - 2001 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 8 (2-3):163-172.
    People experiencing alien control report that their thoughts, movements, actions, and emotions have been replaced by those of an "other." The latter is commonly a perceived persecutor of the patient. Here I describe the clinical phenomenology of alien control, mechanistic models that have been used to explain it, problems inherent in these models, the brain deficits and functional abnormalities associated with this symptom, and the means by which disordered agency may be examined in this perplexing condition. Our current state of (...)
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  19. Does a Philosophy of the Brain Tell Us Anything New About Psychomotor Disorders?Sean A. Spence - 1999 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 6 (3):227-229.
  20. Commentary on" Suicide, Language, and Clinical Practice".John Z. Sadler - 1998 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 5 (2):175-177.