Technology Ethics

Edited by Hector MacIntyre (University of Lethbridge)
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  1. Without a Trace: Why Did Corona Apps Fail?Lucie White & Philippe van Basshuysen - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 47 (12):83-83.
    At the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, high hopes were put on digital contact tracing, using mobile phone apps to record and immediately notify contacts when a user reports as infected. Such apps can now be downloaded in many countries, but as second waves of COVID-19 are raging, these apps are playing a less important role than anticipated. We argue that this is because most countries have opted for app configurations that cannot provide a means of rapidly informing users of (...)
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  2. Modeling Ethics: Approaches to Data Creep in Higher Education.Madisson Whitman - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (6):1-18.
    Though rapid collection of big data is ubiquitous across domains, from industry settings to academic contexts, the ethics of big data collection and research are contested. A nexus of data ethics issues is the concept of creep, or repurposing of data for other applications or research beyond the conditions of original collection. Data creep has proven controversial and has prompted concerns about the scope of ethical oversight. Institutional review boards offer little guidance regarding big data, and problematic research can still (...)
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  3. A Value Sensitive Scenario Planning Method for Adaptation to Uncertain Future Sea Level Rise.Anna Wedin & Per Wikman–Svahn - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (6):1-21.
    Value sensitive design aims at creating better technology based on social and ethical values. However, VSD has not been applied to long-term and uncertain future developments, such as societal planning for climate change. This paper describes a new method that combines elements from VSD with scenario planning. The method was developed for and applied to a case study of adaptation to sea level rise in southern Sweden in a series of workshops. The participants of the workshops found that the method (...)
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  4. Combating Disinformation with AI: Epistemic and Ethical Challenges.Benjamin Lange & Ted Lechterman - forthcoming - IEEE International Symposium on Ethics in Engineering, Science and Technology (ETHICS):1-6.
    AI-supported methods for identifying and combating disinformation are progressing in their development and application. However, these methods face a litany of epistemic and ethical challenges. These include (1) robustly defining disinformation, (2) reliably classifying data according to this definition, and (3) navigating ethical risks in the deployment of countermeasures, which involve a mixture of harms and benefits. This paper seeks to expose and offer preliminary analysis of these challenges.
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  5. Achieving a ‘Good AI Society’: Comparing the Aims and Progress of the EU and the US.Huw Roberts, Josh Cowls, Emmie Hine, Francesca Mazzi, Andreas Tsamados, Mariarosaria Taddeo & Luciano Floridi - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (6):1-25.
    Over the past few years, there has been a proliferation of artificial intelligence strategies, released by governments around the world, that seek to maximise the benefits of AI and minimise potential harms. This article provides a comparative analysis of the European Union and the United States’ AI strategies and considers the visions of a ‘Good AI Society’ that are forwarded in key policy documents and their opportunity costs, the extent to which the implementation of each vision is living up to (...)
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  6. The Case for Compulsory Surgical Smoke Evacuation Systems in the Operating Theatre.Daniel Rodger - forthcoming - Clinical Ethics.
    Perioperative staff are frequently exposed to surgical smoke created by using heat-generating devices like diathermy and lasers. This is a concern due to mounting evidence that this exposure can be harmful with no safe level of exposure yet identified. First, I briefly summarise the problem posed by surgical smoke exposure and highlight that many healthcare organisations are not sufficiently satisfying their legal and ethical responsibilities to protect their staff from potential harm. Second, I explore the ethical case for compulsory smoke (...)
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  7. Big Tech Corporations and AI: A Social License to Operate and Multi-Stakeholder Partnerships in the Digital Age.Marianna Capasso & Steven Umbrello - manuscript
    The pervasiveness of AI-empowered technologies across multiple sectors has led to drastic changes concerning traditional social practices and how we relate to one another. Moreover, market-driven Big Tech corporations are now entering public domains, and concerns have been raised that they may even influence public agenda and research. Therefore, this chapter focuses on assessing and evaluating what kind of business model is desirable to incentivise the AI for Social Good (AI4SG) factors. In particular, the chapter explores the implications of this (...)
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  8. Book Review of Assessment of Responsible Innovation: Methods and Practices. Edited by E. Yaghmaei and I. van de Poel: Routledge, London/new York, 2021, 394 p, ISBN: 9780367279752. [REVIEW]Auke Pols - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (6):1-5.
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  9. Research Ethical Norms, Guidance and the Internet.Håkan Salwén - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (6):1-14.
    The internet, either as a tool or as an area of research, adds moral worries to an already complicated research ethical backdrop. Agencies, professional associations and philosophers have formulated research ethical norms designed to help scientists to arrive at responsible solutions to the problems. Yet, many criticize this reliance on norms. Somewhat more precisely, many claim that research ethical norms do not offer guidance. In the literature at least three arguments to that effect can be found. First, the research ethical (...)
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  10. Cultivating Moral Attention: a Virtue-Oriented Approach to Responsible Data Science in Healthcare.Emanuele Ratti & Mark Graves - forthcoming - Philosophy and Technology:1-28.
    In the past few years, the ethical ramifications of AI technologies have been at the center of intense debates. Considerable attention has been devoted to understanding how a morally responsible practice of data science can be promoted and which values have to shape it. In this context, ethics and moral responsibility have been mainly conceptualized as compliance to widely shared principles. However, several scholars have highlighted the limitations of such a principled approach. Drawing from microethics and the virtue theory tradition, (...)
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  11. AI Systems and Respect for Human Autonomy.Arto Laitinen & Otto Sahlgren - 2021 - Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence.
    This study concerns the sociotechnical bases of human autonomy. Drawing on recent literature on AI ethics, philosophical literature on dimensions of autonomy, and on independent philosophical scrutiny, we first propose a multi-dimensional model of human autonomy and then discuss how AI systems can support or hinder human autonomy. What emerges is a philosophically motivated picture of autonomy and of the normative requirements personal autonomy poses in the context of algorithmic systems. Ranging from consent to data collection and processing, to computational (...)
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  12. Correctness and Completeness of Programming Instructions for Traffic Circulation.Daniela Glavaničová & Matteo Pascucci - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (6):1-16.
    In the present article we exploit the logical notions of correctness and completeness to provide an analysis of some fundamental problems that can be encountered by a software developer when transforming norms for traffic circulation into programming instructions. Relying on this analysis, we then introduce a question and answer procedure that can be helpful, in case of an accident, to clarify which components of an existing framework should be revised and to what extent software developers can be held responsible.
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  13. Human Embryo Genetic Editing: Hope or Pipe Dream?Inmaculada de Melo-Martin & Zev Rosenwaks - 2021 - Fertility and Sterility 116 (1):25-26.
    Ethically sound analyses of embryo genetic editing require more than simple assessments of safety considerations. After all, we as humans care deeply not only about our health, but also care profoundly about the kinds of societies we construct, the injustices that our actions produce, the responsibilities that we have toward others and ourselves, our self-understanding, the characters that we develop, our family relationships, and the world that we leave to our children and grandchildren.
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  14. Primum Non Nocere: Should Gene Therapy Be Used to Prevent Potentially Fatal Disease but Enable Potentially Destructive Behavior?Inmaculada de Melo-Martin & Ronald G. Crystal - 2021 - Human Gene Therapy 32 (11-12):529-534.
    Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) deficiency constitutes one of the most common hereditary enzyme deficiencies, affecting 35% to 40% of East Asians and 8% of the world population. It causes the well-known Asian Alcohol Flush Syndrome, characterized by facial flushing, palpitation, tachycardia, nausea, and other unpleasant feelings when alcohol is consumed. It is also associated with a marked increase in the risk of a variety of serious disorders, including esophageal cancer and osteoporosis. Our recent studies with murine models have demonstrated that (...)
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  15. Correction to: Biobanks and Individual Health Related Findings: from an Obstacle to an Incentive.Jurate Lekstutiene, Søren Holm & Eugenijus Gefenas - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (6):1-2.
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  16. Utility, Progress, and Technology: Proceedings of the 15th Conference of the International Society for Utilitarian Studies.Michael Schefczyk & Christoph Schmidt-Petri (eds.) - 2021 - Karlsruhe: KIT Scientific Publishing.
    This volume collects selected papers delivered at the 15th Conference of the International Society for Utilitarian Studies, which was held at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology in July 2018. It includes papers dealing with the past, present, and future of utilitarianism – the theory that human happiness is the fundamental moral value – as well as on its applications to animal ethics, population ethics, and the future of humanity, among other topics.
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  17. Public Trust, Institutional Legitimacy, and the Use of Algorithms in Criminal Justice.Duncan Purves & Jeremy Davis - forthcoming - Public Affairs Quarterly.
    A common criticism of the use of algorithms in criminal justice is that algorithms and their determinations are in some sense ‘opaque’—that is, difficult or impossible to understand, whether because of their complexity or because of intellectual property protections. Scholars have noted some key problems with opacity, including that opacity can mask unfair treatment and threaten public accountability. In this paper, we explore a different but related concern with algorithmic opacity, which centers on the role of public trust in grounding (...)
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  18. Five Ethical Challenges for Data-Driven Policing.Jeremy Davis, Duncan Purves, Juan Gilbert & Schuyler Sturm - forthcoming - AI and Ethics.
    This paper synthesizes scholarship from several academic disciplines to identify and analyze five major ethical challenges facing data-driven policing. Because the term “data-driven policing” emcompasses a broad swath of technologies, we first outline several data-driven policing initiatives currently in use in the United States. We then lay out the five ethical challenges. Certain of these challenges have received considerable attention already, while others have been largely overlooked. In many cases, the challenges have been articulated in the context of related discussions, (...)
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  19. Future Value Change: Identifying Realistic Possibilities and Risks.Jeroen Hopster - forthcoming - Prometheus.
    The co-shaping of technology and values is a topic of increasing interest among philosophers of technology. Part of this interest pertains to anticipating future value change, or what Danaher (2021) calls the investigation of “axiological futurism”. However, this investigation faces a challenge: “axiological possibility space” is vast, and we currently lack a clear account of how this space should be demarcated. It stands to reason that speculations about how values might change over time should exclude farfetched possibilities and be restricted (...)
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  20. The Ethics of Disruptive Technologies: Towards a General Framework.Jeroen Hopster - forthcoming - In J. F. de Paz Santana & D. H. de la Iglesia (eds.), New Trends in Disruptive Technologies, Tech Ethics and Artificial Intelligence.
    Disruptive technologies can be conceptualized in different ways. Depending on how they are conceptualized, different ethical issues come into play. This article contributes to a general framework to navigate the ethics of disruptive technologies. It proposes three basic distinctions to be included in such a framework. First, emerging technologies may instigate localized “first-order” disruptions, or systemic “second-order” disruptions. The ethical significance of these disruptions differs: first-order disruptions tend to be of modest ethical significance, whereas second-order disruptions are highly significant. Secondly, (...)
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  21. Mutual Affordances: The Dynamics Between Social Media and Populism.Jeroen Hopster - 2021 - Media, Culture and Society 43 (3):551-560.
    In a recent contribution to this journal Paolo Gerbaudo has argued that an ‘elective affinity’ exists between social media and populism. The present article expands on Gerbaudo’s argument and examines various dimensions of this affinity in further detail. It argues that it is helpful to conceptually reframe the proposed affinity in terms of affordances. Four affordances are identified which make the social media ecology relatively favourable to both-right as well as left-wing populism, compared to the pre-social media ecology. These affordances (...)
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  22. How to Teach Engineering Ethics?: A Retrospective and Prospective Sketch of TU Delft’s Approach to Engineering Ethics Education.J. B. van Grunsven, L. Marin, T. W. Stone, S. Roeser & N. Doorn - 2021 - Advances in Engineering Education 9 (4).
    This paper provides a retrospective and prospective overview of TU Delft’s approach to engineering ethics education. For over twenty years, the Ethics and Philosophy of Technology Section at TU Delft has been at the forefront of engineering ethics education, offering education to a wide range of engineering and design students. The approach developed at TU Delft is deeply informed by the research of the Section, which is centered around Responsible Research and Innovation, Design for Values, and Risk Ethics. These theoretical (...)
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  23. Why and Where to Fund Carbon Capture and Storage.Kian Mintz-Woo & Joe Lane - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (6):70.
    This paper puts forward two claims about funding carbon capture and storage. The first claim is that there are moral justifications supporting strategic investment into CO2 storage from global and regional perspectives. One argument draws on the empirical evidence which suggests carbon capture and storage would play a significant role in a portfolio of global solutions to climate change; the other draws on Rawls' notion of legitimate expectations and Moellendorf's Anti-Poverty principle. The second claim is that where to pursue this (...)
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  24. Touching at a Distance: Digital Intimacies, Haptic Platforms, and the Ethics of Consent.Madelaine Ley & Nathan Rambukkana - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (5):1-17.
    The last decade has seen rise in technologies that allow humans to send and receive intimate touch across long distances. Drawing together platform studies, digital intimacy studies, phenomenology of touch, and ethics of technology, we argue that these new haptic communication devices require specific ethical consideration of consent. The paper describes several technologies, including Kiiroo teledildonics, the Kissenger, the Apple Watch, and Hey Bracelet, highlighting how the sense of touch is used in marketing to evoke a feeling of connection within (...)
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  25. The Problem is Not Monsters: The FRANKENCON Panel on Science and Ethics.Michael M. Chemers - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (5):1-20.
    In November of 2019, the University of California Santa Cruz hosted a 3-day interdisciplinary conference to commemorate the 200th anniversary of the publication of Frankenstein, by Mary Shelley. A panel of senior researchers convened to discuss the impact of the novel on modern discussions of scientific ethics. The panel featured Nandini Bhattacharya, George Blumenthal, Michael M. Chemers, David Haussler, and Jenny Reardon. In the process, the panelists acted as the Institutional Review Board for a proposal from Victor Frankenstein himself.
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  26. Responsible Nudging for Social Good: New Healthcare Skills for AI-Driven Digital Personal Assistants.Marianna Capasso & Steven Umbrello - forthcoming - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy:1-12.
    Traditional medical practices and relationships are changing given the widespread adoption of AI-driven technologies across the various domains of health and healthcare. In many cases, these new technologies are not specific to the field of healthcare. Still, they are existent, ubiquitous, and commercially available systems upskilled to integrate these novel care practices. Given the widespread adoption, coupled with the dramatic changes in practices, new ethical and social issues emerge due to how these systems nudge users into making decisions and changing (...)
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  27. Regulations Matter: Epistemic Monopoly, Domination, Patents, and the Public Interest.Zahra Meghani - 2021 - Philosophy and Technology (tba):1-26.
    This paper argues that regulatory agencies have a responsibility to further the public interest when they determine the conditions under which new technological products may be commercialized. As a case study, this paper analyzes the US 9th Circuit Court’s ruling on the efforts of the US Environmental Protection Agency to regulate an herbicide meant for use with seed that are genetically modified to be tolerant of the chemical. Using that case, it is argued that when regulatory agencies evaluate new technological (...)
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  28. Citizenship as the Exception to the Rule: An Addendum.Tyler L. Jaynes - 2021 - AI and Society 36 (3):911-930.
    This addendum expands upon the arguments made in the author’s 2020 essay, “Legal Personhood for Artificial Intelligence: Citizenship as the Exception to the Rule”, in an effort to display the significance human augmentation technologies will have on (feasibly) inadvertently providing legal protections to artificial intelligence systems (AIS)—a topic only briefly addressed in that work. It will also further discuss the impacts popular media have on imprinting notions of computerised behaviour and its subsequent consequences on the attribution of legal protections to (...)
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  29. The Ethics of Virtual Sexual Assault.John Danaher - forthcoming - In Oxford Handbook of Digital Ethics. Oxford University Press.
    This chapter addresses the growing problem of unwanted sexual interactions in virtual environments. It reviews the available evidence regarding the prevalence and severity of this problem. It then argues that due to the potential harms of such interactions, as well as their nonconsensual nature, there is a good prima facie argument for viewing them as serious moral wrongs. Does this prima facie argument hold up to scrutiny? After considering three major objections – the ‘it’s not real’ objection; the ‘it’s just (...)
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  30. The Future for Fixing.Sean F. Johnston - 2020 - In Techno-Fixers: Origins and Implications of Technological Faith. Montreal, QC, Canada:
    This concluding chapter of _Techno-Fixers: Origins and Implications of Technological Faith_ examines the widespread overconfidence in present-day and proposed 'technological fixes', and provides guidelines - social, ethical and technical - for soberly assessing candidate technological solutions for societal problems.
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  31. The Goods of Design: Professional Ethics for Designers.Ariel Guersenzvaig - 2021 - London - New York: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    What ends should designers pursue? To what extent should they care about the societal and environmental impact of their work? And why should they care at all? Given the key influence design has on the way people live their lives, designing is fraught with ethical issues. Yet, unlike education or nursing, it lacks widespread professional principles for addressing these issues. -/- Rooted in a communitarian view of design practice, this lively and accessible book examines design through the lens of professions, (...)
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  32. A Value Sensitive Design Toolkit for Agile Project Management.Steven Umbrello & Olivia Gambelin - manuscript
    Since the early 1990's the value sensitive design (VSD) approach has been a continually burgeoning design methodology for technological innovation. VSD is commonly described as a "principled approach" to technology design, given that it is explicitly orientated towards designing technologies for human values, rather than sidelining them to ad hoc and/or ex post facto design. However, in much of its near three-decades-long development, the VSD approach has mostly been adopted as a conceptual framework to assess existing technologies and to explore (...)
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  33. Engineering Ethics for a Sustainable Future.Kory P. Schaff - forthcoming - Dubuque, IA, USA: Kendall Hunt.
    The book is intended for use in professional ethics, engineering ethics, environmental studies, computer sciences, and technology studies. Our rationale for developing it is two-fold. First, to create an excellent and accessible textbook for students at all levels of learning. Second, to include recent developments in ethics on topics such as gender, race and inequality, while providing updated case studies of interest to students, teachers, and professionals in these areas. The approach that we take is committed to a pluralist and (...)
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  34. Why ESG Investing Needs to Be Updated for the AI Economy.James Brusseau - 2021 - Journal of Sustainable Finance and Investment (TBD):TBD.
    An updated excerpt from the larger paper AI Human Impact. Excerpt explains why ESG investing requires Updating for the AI economy.
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  35. Mit Kontaktdaten gegen die Pandemie: Zur Ethik von Corona Warn-Apps.Philippe van Basshuysen & Lucie White - 2021 - Ethik in der Medizin 33 (3):387-400.
    Zu Beginn der Pandemie im Frühjahr 2020, und nach einem weitreichenden Lockdown, ruhten große Erwartungen auf Corona-Warn-Apps, um einen erneuten Lockdown zu verhindern. Diese Erwartungen haben sich nicht erfüllt; stattdessen wurden in Deutschland als Reaktion auf erneute Wellen von COVID-19 weitere Kontaktbeschränkungen verordnet. Wie hätte die digitale Kontaktverfolgung wirksamer gestaltet werden können? Wir argumentieren, dass es ein Spannungsfeld zwischen der Datensparsamkeit und einer wirksamen Bekämpfung der Pandemie besteht. Im Gegensatz zur deutschen Corona-Warn-App wäre eine Variante der App, in der pseudonymisierte (...)
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  36. A Multi-level Review of Engineering Ethics Education: Towards a Socio-technical Orientation of Engineering Education for Ethics.Diana Adela Martin, Eddie Conlon & Brian Bowe - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (5):1-38.
    This paper aims to review the empirical and theoretical research on engineering ethics education, by focusing on the challenges reported in the literature. The analysis is conducted at four levels of the engineering education system. First, the individual level is dedicated to findings about teaching practices reported by instructors. Second, the institutional level brings together findings about the implementation and presence of ethics within engineering programmes. Third, the level of policy situates findings about engineering ethics education in the context of (...)
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  37. Technological Answerability and the Severance Problem: Staying Connected by Demanding Answers.Daniel W. Tigard - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (5):1-20.
    Artificial intelligence and robotic technologies have become nearly ubiquitous. In some ways, the developments have likely helped us, but in other ways sophisticated technologies set back our interests. Among the latter sort is what has been dubbed the ‘severance problem’—the idea that technologies sever our connection to the world, a connection which is necessary for us to flourish and live meaningful lives. I grant that the severance problem is a threat we should mitigate and I ask: how can we stave (...)
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  38. Towards a Value Sensitive Design Framework for Attaining Meaningful Human Control Over Autonomous Weapons Systems.Steven Umbrello - 2021 - Dissertation, Consortium FINO
    The international debate on the ethics and legality of autonomous weapon systems (AWS) as well as the call for a ban are primarily focused on the nebulous concept of fully autonomous AWS. More specifically, on AWS that are capable of target selection and engagement without human supervision or control. This thesis argues that such a conception of autonomy is divorced both from military planning and decision-making operations as well as the design requirements that govern AWS engineering and subsequently the tracking (...)
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  39. Autonomous Driving and Public Reason: A Rawlsian Approach.Claudia Brändle & Michael W. Schmidt - forthcoming - Philosophy and Technology:1-25.
    In this paper, we argue that solutions to normative challenges associated with autonomous driving, such as real-world trolley cases or distributions of risk in mundane driving situations, face the problem of reasonable pluralism: Reasonable pluralism refers to the fact that there exists a plurality of reasonable yet incompatible comprehensive moral doctrines within liberal democracies. The corresponding problem is that a politically acceptable solution cannot refer to only one of these comprehensive doctrines. Yet a politically adequate solution to the normative challenges (...)
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  40. Materializing Systemic Racism, Materializing Health Disparities.Vanessa Carbonell & Shen-yi Liao - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics 21 (9):16-18.
    The purpose of cultural competence education for medical professionals is to ensure respectful care and reduce health disparities. Yet as Berger and Miller (2021) show, the cultural competence framework is dated, confused, and self-defeating. They argue that the framework ignores the primary driver of health disparities—systemic racism—and is apt to exacerbate rather than mitigate bias and ethnocentrism. They propose replacing cultural competence with a framework that attends to two social aspects of structural inequality: health and social policy, and institutional-system activity; (...)
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  41. Angewandte Ethik für öffentliche Sicherheit: Versuch der Bestimmung einer Bereichsethik.Sebastian Weydner-Volkmann - 2014 - In Hans Helmuth Gander & Giesela Riescher (eds.), Sicherheit und offene Gesellschaft. Herausforderungen, Methoden und Praxis einer gesellschaftspolitischen Sicherheitsforschung. Bearbeitet von Sebastian Volkmann und Stefan Weidemann. Baden-Baden, Deutschland: pp. 13-41.
    Der Beitrag geht davon aus, dass es die immer stärkere Ausweitung von Maßnahmen zur Gewährleistung öffentlicher Sicherheit durch den Staat notwendig macht, sich innerhalb der philosophischen Ethik dezidiert mit dem Feld der öffentlichen Sicherheit zu befassen. Von der Zielvorstellung her, wissenschaftliche Politikberatung leisten und gesellschaftliche Debatten strukturierend unterstützen zu können, entwickelt Volkmann dabei in seinem Aufsatz eine Reihe von bereichsbezogenen sowie anwendungsbezogenen Anforderungen, die eine solche angewandte Ethik für öffentliche Sicherheit inhaltlich und methodisch einlösen können muss.
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  42. What Do Trollies Teach Us About Responsible Innovation?Steven Umbrello - forthcoming - In Death And Anti-Death, Volume 19: One Year After Judith Jarvis Thomson (1929-2020). Ria University Press.
    Since its inception, the trolley problem has sparked a rich debate both within and beyond moral philosophy. Often used as a primer for students to begin thinking about moral intuitions as well as how to distinguish between different forms of moral reasoning, the trolley problem is not without its uses in very practical, applied field like engineering. Often thought of as unrealistic by technically-oriented engineers, trolley cases in fact, help us to think about moral responsibility in a high tech world. (...)
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  43. Biobanks and Individual Health Related Findings: from an Obstacle to an Incentive.Jurate Lekstutiene, Søren Holm & Eugenijus Gefenas - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (4):1-16.
    Despite the benefits biobanks are expected to bring, there have recently been concerns raised that the public and private non-profit biobanks still prevailing in Europe often fail to reach their initial objectives due to a variety of reasons, including a shortage of funding and insufficient utilization of collections. The necessity to find new ways to manage biobanks has been clearly recognized and one way to do this is to follow the success of some commercial direct-to-consumer genetic testing companies in the (...)
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  44. Attention, Technology, and Creativity.Carolyn Dicey Jennings & Shadab Tabatabaeian - manuscript
    An important topic in the ethics of technology is the extent to which recent digital technologies undermine user autonomy. Supporting evidence includes the fact that recent digital technologies are known to have an impact on attention, which balances "bottom-up" and "top-down" influences on cognition. As described in numerous papers, these technologies manipulate bottom-up influences through cognitive fluency, intermittent variable rewards, and other techniques, making them more attractive to the user. We further reason that recent digital technologies reduce the user’s ability (...)
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  45. Correction to: Medical Students’ Acquaintance with Core Concepts, Institutions and Guidelines on Good Scientific Practice: A Pre- and Post-questionnaire Survey.Katharina Fuerholzer, Maximilian Schochow, Richard Peter & Florian Steger - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (4):1-2.
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  46. The Moral Consideration of Artificial Entities: A Literature Review.Jamie Harris & Jacy Reese Anthis - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (4):1-95.
    Ethicists, policy-makers, and the general public have questioned whether artificial entities such as robots warrant rights or other forms of moral consideration. There is little synthesis of the research on this topic so far. We identify 294 relevant research or discussion items in our literature review of this topic. There is widespread agreement among scholars that some artificial entities could warrant moral consideration in the future, if not also the present. The reasoning varies, such as concern for the effects on (...)
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  47. Big Data Ethics.Mark Ryan & Ana Fernandez Inguanzo - 2021 - Encyclopedia of Business and Professional Ethics.
    Big Data ethics3 informs about how data can be used ethically and gives principles and values to decide how to use it. The values and norms proposed within this area of research aim to influence laws and guide the use of data. The field of Big Data ethics is expanding with new digital technologies and applications, such as the creation of smart cities, robots, or biometric technology, where data fuels their development and innovation. Thus, this field relates to other ethics’ (...)
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  48. Ethische TA als Kartographie situativer Wertungskonflikte. Moralpragmatische Perspektiven zum Neutralitätsproblem.Sebastian Weydner-Volkmann - 2019 - TATuP – Zeitschrift Für Technikfolgenabschätzung in Theorie Und Praxis 28 (1):39-44.
    Der Artikel beschreibt, welches Angebot über einen moralpragmatischen Ansatz in der Technikfolgenabschätzung (TA) konkret gemacht werden kann. Ethisch argumentierende TA, so die These, lässt sich mit John Dewey als eine Kartografie situativer Wertungskonflikte begreifen. Die entstehenden „moralischen Landkarten“ zu konkreten technischen Entscheidungssituationen zielen darauf ab, den Bedarf an wissenschaftsgestützter, möglichst neutraler Beratung für den öffentlich-politischen Prozess zu ermitteln. Pragmatisch kann „Neutralität“ allerdings nicht als normative Abstinenz verstanden werden. Vielmehr soll der Ausgang von einer Rekonstruktion der normativen Konflikte genommen werden, wobei (...)
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  49. Sicherheitsfragen in der Mensch-Maschine-Interaktion.Sebastian Weydner-Volkmann - 2019 - In Kevin Liggieri & Oliver Müller (eds.), Mensch-Maschine-Interaktion. Handbuch zur Geschichte – Kultur – Ethik. Stuttgart, Deutschland: J.B. Metzler Verlag. pp. 332-337.
    Sicherheitsfragen spielen für die Gestaltung technischer Innovation und Entwicklung sowie für deren gesellschaftliche Implementierung eine zentrale Rolle. Wonach hierbei im Einzelfall konkret gefragt wird, ist aber keinesfalls eindeutig. Vielmehr verweist der Sicherheitsbegriff immer auf ein komplexes Gefüge von Urteils- und Wertungszusammenhängen, die es im situativen Kontext von Mensch-Maschine-Interaktionen zu explizieren gilt.
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  50. Vertrauensstiftende Videoüberwachung?Sebastian Weydner-Volkmann & Linus Feiten - 2019 - Digma 19 (4):218-221.
    Um berechtigten Bedenken gegenüber Videoüberwachung zu begegnen, wird ein soziotechnisches Konzept vorgeschlagen, das eine reversible Anonymisierung von Bilddaten mit einer (möglichst zivil eingesetzten) Kontrollinstanz kombiniert, um so technische und interpersonelle Vertrauenskonzepte stimmig zu vermitteln.
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