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  1. Les mégadonnées dans la recherche.Sfetcu Nicolae - manuscript
    L'éthique des mégadonnées implique l'adhésion aux concepts de bons et mauvais comportements concernant les données, en particulier les données personnelles. L'éthique des mégadonnées se concentre sur les collecteurs et diffuseurs des données structurés ou non structurés. L'éthique des mégadonnées est soutenue, au niveau de l'UE, par une documentation complète, qui cherche à trouver des solutions concrètes pour maximiser la valeur des mégadonnées sans sacrifier les droits humains fondamentaux. Le Contrôleur européen de la protection des données (CEPD) soutient le droit à (...)
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  2. Navigating Conflicts of Justice in the Use of Race and Ethnicity in Precision Medicine.G. Owen Schaefer, Tai E. Shyong & Shirley Hsiao-Li Sun - forthcoming - Bioethics (Early View).
    Given the sordid history of injustices linking genetics to race and ethnicity, considerations of justice are central to ensuring the responsible development of precision medicine programmes around the world. While considerations of justice may be in tension with other areas of concern, such as scientific value or privacy, there are also be tensions between different aspects of justice. This paper focuses on three particular aspects of justice relevant to this context: social justice, distributive justice and human rights. The implications of (...)
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  3. An Ethical Framework for Presenting Scientific Results to Policy-Makers.S. Andrew Schroeder - forthcoming - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal.
    Scientists have the ability to influence policy in important ways through how they present their results. Surprisingly, existing codes of scientific ethics have little to say about such choices. I propose that we can arrive at a set of ethical guidelines to govern scientists’ presentation of information to policymakers by looking to bioethics: roughly, just as a clinician should aim to promote informed decision-making by patients, a scientist should aim to promote informed decision-making by policymakers. Though this may sound like (...)
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  4. Thinking About Values in Science: Ethical Versus Political Approaches.S. Andrew Schroeder - forthcoming - Canadian Journal of Philosophy:1-10.
    Philosophers of science now broadly agree that doing good science involves making non-epistemic value judgments. I call attention to two very different normative standards which can be used to evaluate such judgments: standards grounded in ethics and standards grounded in political philosophy. Though this distinction has not previously been highlighted, I show that the values in science literature contain arguments of each type. I conclude by explaining why this distinction is important. Seeking to determine whether some value-laden determination meets substantive (...)
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  5. E-Cigarettes and the Multiple Responsibilities of the FDA.Larisa Svirsky, Dana Howard & Micah L. Berman - forthcoming - American Journal of Bioethics:1-10.
    This paper considers the responsibilities of the FDA with regard to disseminating information about the benefits and harms of e-cigarettes. Tobacco harm reduction advocates claim that the FDA has been overcautious and has violated ethical obligations by failing to clearly communicate to the public that e-cigarettes are far less harmful than cigarettes. We argue, by contrast, that the FDA’s obligations in this arena are more complex than they may appear at first blush. Though the FDA is accountable for informing the (...)
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  6. Public Trust in Science: Exploring the Idiosyncrasy-Free Ideal.Marion Boulicault & S. Andrew Schroeder - 2021 - In Kevin Vallier & Michael Weber (eds.), Social Trust. Routledge.
    What makes science trustworthy to the public? This chapter examines one proposed answer: the trustworthiness of science is based at least in part on its independence from the idiosyncratic values, interests, and ideas of individual scientists. That is, science is trustworthy to the extent that following the scientific process would result in the same conclusions, regardless of the particular scientists involved. We analyze this "idiosyncrasy-free ideal" for science by looking at philosophical debates about inductive risk, focusing on two recent proposals (...)
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  7. Ethical Challenges in the COVID-19 Research Context: A Toolkit for Supporting Analysis and Resolution.Clara Calia, Corinne Reid, Cristóbal Guerra, Abdul-Gafar Oshodi, Charles Marley, Action Amos, Paulina Barrera & Liz Grant - 2021 - Ethics and Behavior 31 (1):60-75.
    ABSTRACTCOVID-19 is compromising all aspects of society, with devastating impacts on health, political, social, economic and educational spheres. A premium is being placed on scientific research as the source of possible solutions, with a situational imperative to carry out investigations at an accelerated rate. There is a major challenge not to neglect ethical standards, in a context where doing so may mean the difference between life and death. In this paper we offer a rubric for considering the ethical challenges in (...)
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  8. Expert Communication and the Self-Defeating Codes of Scientific Ethics.Hugh Desmond - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics 21 (1):24-26.
    Codes of ethics currently offer no guidance to scientists acting in capacity of expert. Yet communicating their expertise is one of the most important activities of scientists. Here I argue that expert communication has a specifically ethical dimension, and that experts must face a fundamental trade-off between "actionability" and "transparency" when communicating. Some recommendations for expert communication are suggested.
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  9. Precision Medicine, Data, and the Anthropology of Social Status.Hugh Desmond - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics 21 (4):80-83.
    The success of precision medicine depends on obtaining large amounts of information about at-risk populations. However, getting consent is often difficult. Why? In this commentary I point to the differentials in social status involved. These differentials are inevitable once personal information is surrendered, but are particularly intense when the studied populations are socioeconomically or socioculturally disadvantaged and/or ethnically stigmatized groups. I suggest how the deep distrust of the latter groups can be partially justified as a lack of confidence that their (...)
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  10. Research Integrity Codes of Conduct in Europe: Understanding the Divergences.Hugh Desmond & Kris Dierickx - 2021 - Bioethics 35 (5):414-428.
    In the past decade, policy-makers in science have been concerned with harmonizing research integrity standards across Europe. These standards are encapsulated in the European Code of Conduct for Research Integrity. Yet, almost every European country today has its own national-level code of conduct for research integrity. In this study we document in detail how national-level codes diverge on almost all aspects concerning research integrity – except for what constitutes egregious misconduct. Besides allowing for potentially unfair responses to joint misconduct by (...)
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  11. Trust and Professionalism in Science: Medical Codes as a Model for Scientific Negligence?Hugh Desmond & Kris Dierickx - 2021 - BMC Medical Ethics 22 (1):1-11.
    Background Professional communities such as the medical community are acutely concerned with negligence: the category of misconduct where a professional does not live up to the standards expected of a professional of similar qualifications. Since science is currently strengthening its structures of self-regulation in parallel to the professions, this raises the question to what extent the scientific community is concerned with negligence, and if not, whether it should be. By means of comparative analysis of medical and scientific codes of conduct, (...)
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  12. The Use of Confidentiality and Anonymity Protections as a Cover for Fraudulent Fieldwork Data.M. V. Dougherty - 2021 - Research Ethics 17 (4):480-500.
    Qualitative fieldwork research on sensitive topics sometimes requires that interviewees be granted confidentiality and anonymity. When qualitative researchers later publish their findings, they must ensure that any statements obtained during fieldwork interviews cannot be traced back to the interviewees. Given these protections to interviewees, the integrity of the published findings cannot usually be verified or replicated by third parties, and the scholarly community must trust the word of qualitative researchers when they publish their results. This trust is fundamentally abused, however, (...)
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  13. Governing AI-Driven Health Research: Are IRBs Up to the Task?Phoebe Friesen, Rachel Douglas-Jones, Mason Marks, Robin Pierce, Katherine Fletcher, Abhishek Mishra, Jessica Lorimer, Carissa Véliz, Nina Hallowell, Mackenzie Graham, Mei Sum Chan, Huw Davies & Taj Sallamuddin - 2021 - Ethics and Human Research 2 (43):35-42.
    Many are calling for concrete mechanisms of oversight for health research involving artificial intelligence (AI). In response, institutional review boards (IRBs) are being turned to as a familiar model of governance. Here, we examine the IRB model as a form of ethics oversight for health research that uses AI. We consider the model's origins, analyze the challenges IRBs are facing in the contexts of both industry and academia, and offer concrete recommendations for how these committees might be adapted in order (...)
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  14. Ethics of Contributor Role Ontologies and Taxonomies.Mohammad Hosseini - 2021 - Dissertation, Dublin City University
    First introduced in 2015, Contributor Role Ontologies and Taxonomies are the most recent innovation developed to address ethical issues of scholarly authorship. By providing a standard list of roles to specify individual contributions to publications, CROTs enhance transparency and consistency about the reporting of conducted tasks, and accordingly, improve the attribution of credit and responsibilities. Although various parties such as academic journals and universities are increasingly adopting CROTs, thus far no study has evaluated them from an ethical perspective. To fill (...)
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  15. Well-Ordered Science and Public Trust in Science.Gürol Irzik & Faik Kurtulmus - 2021 - Synthese 198 (Suppl 19):4731-4748.
    Building, restoring and maintaining well-placed trust between scientists and the public is a difficult yet crucial social task requiring the successful cooperation of various social actors and institutions. Kitcher’s takes up this challenge in the context of liberal democratic societies by extending his ideal model of “well-ordered science” that he had originally formulated in his. However, Kitcher nowhere offers an explicit account of what it means for the public to invest epistemic trust in science. Yet in order to understand how (...)
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  16. A Scoping Review of the Literature Featuring Research Ethics and Research Integrity Cases.Péter Kakuk, Soren Holm, János Kristóf Bodnár, Mohammad Hosseini, Jonathan Lewis, Bert Gordijn & Anna Catharina Vieira Armond - 2021 - BMC Medical Ethics 22 (1):1-14.
    BackgroundThe areas of Research Ethics and Research Integrity are rapidly evolving. Cases of research misconduct, other transgressions related to RE and RI, and forms of ethically questionable behaviors have been frequently published. The objective of this scoping review was to collect RE and RI cases, analyze their main characteristics, and discuss how these cases are represented in the scientific literature.MethodsThe search included cases involving a violation of, or misbehavior, poor judgment, or detrimental research practice in relation to a normative framework. (...)
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  17. Bridging the Gap: Ethical Considerations of Providing Psychological Assessment Results in Research Studies.Alexandra C. Kirsch, Michael J. Zaccariello, Jennifer B. McCormick, Richard R. Sharp, Randall P. Flick & David O. Warner - 2021 - Ethics and Behavior 31 (6):381-394.
    ABSTRACT There is limited guidance about whether and how to provide psychological assessment results to research participants. This paper considers several ethical challenges associated with offering individual research results in psychological assessment research. Additionally, the process used to return individual results within a study examining neurodevelopmental effects of anesthesia exposure in children and adolescents is described. Almost all participants requested to know if results were concerning; however, only around a third of those with concerning findings sought additional feedback. Ongoing research (...)
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  18. Reconsidering the Ethics of Exclusion Criteria in Research on Digital Mental Health Interventions.Hugh C. McCall, Heather D. Hadjistavropoulos & Lynn Loutzenhiser - 2021 - Ethics and Behavior 31 (3):171-180.
    ABSTRACT Digital mental health interventions have emerged as a promising means of expanding access to mental healthcare. Prospective participants reporting severe symptoms or suicidal ideation are often excluded from DMHI trials and may struggle to access alternative treatments. However, evidence suggests that DMHIs are efficacious for people reporting these characteristics. We suggest that there are risks to both including and excluding people from DMHI trials, and we urge researchers to ensure that their eligibility criteria are designed in an evidence-based and (...)
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  19. Normative Framework of Informed Consent in Clinical Research in Germany, Poland, and Russia.Marcin Orzechowski, Katarzyna Woniak, Cristian Timmermann & Florian Steger - 2021 - BMC Medical Ethics 22 (1):1-10.
    Background: Biomedical research nowadays is increasingly carried out in multinational and multicenter settings. Due to disparate national regulations on various ethical aspects, such as informed consent, there is the risk of ethical compromises when involving human subjects in research. Although the Declaration of Helsinki is the point of reference for ethical conduct of research on humans, national normative requirements may diverge from its provisions. The aim of this research is to examine requirements on informed consent in biomedical research in Germany, (...)
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  20. Improving the Ethical Review of Health Policy and Systems Research: Some Suggestions.Govind Persad - 2021 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 49 (1):123-125.
    Consistent and well-designed frameworks for ethical oversight enable socially valuable research while forestalling harmful or poorly designed studies. I suggest some alterations that might strengthen the valuable checklist Rattani & Hyder propose for the ethical review of health policy and systems research (HPSR), or prompt future work in the area.
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  21. Astrobiologins filosofi - Några frågor rörande praktisk filosofi.Erik Persson - 2021 - Filosofiska Notiser 8 (2):25-38.
    Denna artikel är den andra i en serie om två artiklar som introducerar astrobiologins filosofi. Detta är ett förhållandevis nytt och i Sverige nästan okänt forskningsfält som dock befinner sig i snabb tillväxt internationellt. Ämnet presenteras här i form av exempel på några centrala frågeställningar inom området. I den här artikeln presenteras några frågeställningar hemmahörande i praktisk filosofi.
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  22. Should Acknowledgments in Published Academic Articles Include Gratitude for Reviewers Who Reviewed for Journals That Rejected Those Articles?Joona Räsänen & Pekka Louhiala - 2021 - Theoria 87 (3):713-728.
    It is a common practice for authors of an academic work to thank the anonymous reviewers at the journal that is publishing it. Allegedly, scholars thank the reviewers because their comments improved the paper and thanking them is a proper way to show gratitude to them. Yet often, a paper that is eventually accepted by one journal is first rejected by other journals, and even though those journals’ reviewers also supply comments that improve the quality of the work, those reviewers (...)
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  23. Psychiatric Research Ethics.Dominic Sisti & William R. Smith - 2021 - In Ana S. Iltis & Douglas MacKay (eds.), Oxford Handbook of Research Ethics. Oxford University Press.
    Psychiatric research often poses special ethical concerns. This chapter first provides historical context, including scandals that stoked public concern about psychiatric research and led to the promulgation of canonical documents and bioethics scholarship, and then explores issues related to the decision-making capacity and safety of participants—including the use of placebos and washout periods, the design of suicide prevention studies, and research in emergency psychiatry. The chapter then describes how shifting models of psychiatric nosology have precipitated conflicts in the determination of (...)
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  24. Conducting Epigenetics Research with Refugees and Asylum Seekers: Attending to the Ethical Challenges.Faten Taki & Inmaculada de Melo-Martin - 2021 - Clinical Epigenetics 13 (1):105-.
    An increase in global violence has forced the displacement of more than 70 million people, including 26 million refugees and 3.5 asylum seekers. Refugees and asylum seekers face serious socioeconomic and healthcare barriers and are therefore particularly vulnerable to physical and mental health risks, which are sometimes exacerbated by immigration policies and local social discriminations. Calls for a strong evidence base for humanitarian action have encouraged conducting research to address the barriers and needs of refugees and asylum seekers. Given the (...)
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  25. Against the Precautionary Approach to Moral Status: The Case of Surrogates for Living Human Brains.Tomasz Żuradzki - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics 21 (1):53-56.
    My paper builds on the conceptual tools from three interrelated philosophical debates that—as I believe—may help structure important if chaotic discussions about surrogates for living human brains and resolve some practical issues related to regulatory matters. In particular, I refer to the discussions about the “moral precautionary principle” in research ethics (Koplin and Wilkinson 2019); about normative uncertainty in ethics (MacAskill, Bykvist, and Ord 2020), and about the inductive risk problem for animal welfare scientists (Birch 2018). I elucidate upon the (...)
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  26. Public Interest in Health Data Research: Laying Out the Conceptual Groundwork.Angela Ballantyne & G. Owen Schaefer - 2020 - Journal of Medical Ethics 46 (9):610-616.
    The future of health research will be characterised by three continuing trends: rising demand for health data; increasing impracticability of obtaining specific consent for secondary research; and decreasing capacity to effectively anonymise data. In this context, governments, clinicians and the research community must demonstrate that they can be responsible stewards of health data. IRBs and RECs sit at heart of this process because in many jurisdictions they have the capacity to grant consent waivers when research is judged to be of (...)
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  27. Whether to Waive Parental Permission in HIV Prevention Research Among Adolescents: Ethical and Legal Considerations.Laurie J. Bauman, Claude Ann Mellins & Robert Klitzman - 2020 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 48 (1):188-201.
    Critical ethical questions arise concerning whether studies among adolescents of new behavioral and biomedical HIV preventive interventions such as Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis should obtain parental permission. This paper examines the relevant regulations and ethical guidance concerning waivers of parental permission, and arguments for and against such waivers. Opponents of such waivers may argue that adolescent decision-making is “too immature” and that parents always have rights to decide how to protect their children. Yet requiring parental permission may put adolescents at risk, and/or (...)
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  28. Principles of Animal Research Ethics.Tom L. Beauchamp & David DeGrazia - 2020 - Oup Usa.
    This volume presents a framework of general principles for animal research ethics together with an analysis of the principles' meaning and moral requirements. Tom L. Beauchamp and David DeGrazia's comprehensive framework addresses ethical requirements pertaining to societal benefit and features a thorough, ethically defensible program of animal welfare. The book also features commentaries on the framework of principles by eminent figures in animal research ethics from an array of relevant disciplines: veterinary medicine, biomedical research, biology, zoology, comparative psychology, primatology, law, (...)
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  29. “They Know What They Are Getting Into:” Researchers Confront the Benefits and Challenges of Online Recruitment for HIV Research.Elise Bragard, Celia B. Fisher & Brenda L. Curtis - 2020 - Ethics and Behavior 30 (7):481-495.
    ABSTRACT Online research has become a critical recruitment modality for understanding and reducing health disparities among hidden populations most at risk for HIV infection. There is a lack of consensus and guidelines for the responsible conduct of online recruitment for HIV risk populations. Using semi-structured phone interviews, this study drew on the experiences of principal investigators engaged in online HIV research to illuminate scientific and ethical benefits and challenges of social media recruitment. Using Thematic Analysis five major themes emerged: sampling (...)
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  30. Diversity and Inclusion in Unregulated mHealth Research: Addressing the Risks.Shawneequa Callier & Stephanie M. Fullerton - 2020 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 48 (S1):115-121.
    mHealth devices and applications, with their wide accessibility and ease of use, have the potential to address persistent inequities in biomedical research participation. Yet, while mHealth technologies may facilitate more inclusive research participation, negative features of some unregulated use in research — misleading enrollment practices, the promotion of secondary mHealth applications, discriminatory profiling, and poorer quality feedback due to dependencies on biased data and algorithms — may threaten the trust and engagement of underrepresented individuals and communities. To maximize the participation (...)
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  31. Embryo Experimentation: Is There a Case for Moving Beyond the ‘14-Day Rule’.Grant Castelyn - 2020 - Monash Bioethics Review 38 (2):181-196.
    Recent scientific advances have indicated that it may be technically feasible to sustain human embryos in vitro beyond 14 days. Research beyond this stage is currently restricted by a guideline known as the 14-day rule. Since the advances in embryo culturing there have been calls to extend the current limit. Much of the current debate concerning an extension has regarded the 14-day rule as a political compromise and has, therefore, focused on policy concerns rather than assessing the philosophical foundations of (...)
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  32. Retraction of Published Research.David Celiberti & Frank Cicero - 2020 - Science in Autism Treatment 17 (11):1-4.
    retraction NOUN 1. the action of drawing something back or back in. “The pilot retracted the airplane’s landing gear.” 2. a withdrawal of a statement, accusation, or undertaking. “The hospital retracted its job offer after learning that the applicant never graduated medical school.”.
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  33. Preventing Ethics Dumping: The Challenges for Kenyan Research Ethics Committees.Kate Chatfield, Doris Schroeder, Anastasia Guantai, Kirana Bhatt, Elizabeth Bukusi, Joyce Adhiambo Odhiambo, Julie Cook & Joshua Kimani - 2020 - Research Ethics 17 (1):23-44.
    Ethics dumping is the practice of undertaking research in a low- or middle-income setting which would not be permitted, or would be severely restricted, in a high-income setting. Whilst Kenya operates a sophisticated research governance system, resource constraints and the relatively low number of accredited research ethics committees limit the capacity for ensuring ethical compliance. As a result, Kenya has been experiencing cases of ethics dumping. This article presents 11 challenges in the context of preventing ethics dumping in Kenya, namely (...)
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  34. Extrapolating From Laboratory Behavioral Research on Nonhuman Primates Is Unjustified.Parker Crutchfield - 2020 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 37 (4):628-645.
    Conducting research on animals is supposed to be valuable because it provides information on how human mechanisms work. But for the use of animal models to be ethically justified, it must be epistemically justified. The inference from an observation about an animal model to a conclusion about humans must be warranted for the use of animals to be moral. When researchers infer from animals to humans, it’s an extrapolation. Often non-human primates are used as animal models in laboratory behavioral research. (...)
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  35. Fair Trade in Building Digital Knowledge Repositories: The Knowledge Economy as If Researchers Mattered.Giovanni De Grandis - 2020 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 23 (4):549-563.
    Both a significant body of literature and the case study presented here show that digital knowledge repositories struggle to attract the needed level of data and knowledge contribution that they need to be successful. This happens also to high profile and prestigious initiatives. The paper argues that the reluctance of researchers to contribute can only be understood in light of the highly competitive context in which research careers need to be built nowadays and how this affects researchers’ quality of life. (...)
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  36. Professionalism in Science: Competence, Autonomy, and Service.Hugh Desmond - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (3):1287-1313.
    Some of the most significant policy responses to cases of fraudulent and questionable conduct by scientists have been to strengthen professionalism among scientists, whether by codes of conduct, integrity boards, or mandatory research integrity training programs. Yet there has been little systematic discussion about what professionalism in scientific research should mean. In this paper I draw on the sociology of the professions and on data comparing codes of conduct in science to those in the professions, in order to examine what (...)
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  37. Disguised Academic Plagiarism: A Typology and Case Studies for Researchers and Editors.M. V. Dougherty - 2020 - Springer.
    This volume is the first book-length study of disguised forms of plagiarism that mar the body of published research in humanities disciplines. As a contribution to applied research ethics, this practical guide offers a typology of the principal forms of disguised plagiarism. It provides detailed analyses, in-depth case studies, and useful flow charts to assist researchers, editors, and publishers in protecting the integrity of the body of published research literature. Disguised plagiarism is more subtle than copy-and-paste plagiarism; all its varieties (...)
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  38. Plagiarism in the Sacred Sciences.Michael V. Dougherty - 2020 - Philosophy and Theology 32 (1-2):27-61.
    This article diagnoses the problem of plagiarism in academic books and articles in the disciplines of philosophy and theology. It identifies three impediments to institutional reform. They are: (1) a misplaced desire to preserve personal and institutional reputations; (2) a failure to recognize that attribution in academic writing admits of degrees; and (3) a disproportionate emphasis on the socalled “intention to plagiarize.” A detailed case study provides an illustration of the need for institutional reform in the post-publication processes in the (...)
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  39. The Perils of Parity: Should Citizen Science and Traditional Research Follow the Same Ethical and Privacy Principles?Barbara J. Evans - 2020 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 48 (S1):74-81.
    The individual right of access to one’s own data is a crucial privacy protection long recognized in U.S. federal privacy laws. Mobile health devices and research software used in citizen science often fall outside the HIPAA Privacy Rule, leaving participants without HIPAA’s right of access to one’s own data. Absent state laws requiring access, the law of contract, as reflected in end-user agreements and terms of service, governs individuals’ ability to find out how much data is being stored and how (...)
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  40. The Legal Consequences of Research Misconduct: False Investigators and Grant Proposals.Eric A. Fong, Allen W. Wilhite, Charles Hickman & Yeolan Lee - 2020 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 48 (2):331-339.
    In a survey on research misconduct, roughly 20% of the respondents admitted that they have submitted federal grant proposals that include scholars as research participants even though those scholars were not expected to contribute to the research effort. This manuscript argues that adding such false investigators is illegal, violating multiple federal statutes including the False Statements Act, the False Claims Act, and False, Fictitious, or Fraudulent Claims. Moreover, it is not only the offending academics and the false investigators that face (...)
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  41. Social Science as an Inherently Moral Endeavor.Blaine J. Fowers - 2020 - Journal of Moral Education:1-12.
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  42. Entwined Processes: Rescripting Consent and Strengthening Governance in Genomics Research with Indigenous Communities.Nanibaa’ A. Garrison, Stephanie Russo Carroll & Maui Hudson - 2020 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 48 (1):218-220.
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  43. GAMPANIN NG WIKANG FILIPINO SA PAGPAPALAGANAP NG IMPORMASYON BILANG TUGON SA COVID-19 SA LUNGSOD QUEZON.Jerrylen Giva, Charise Fortich & Sheila Mae Paet - 2020 - GAMPANIN NG WIKANG FILIPINO SA PAGPAPALAGANAP NG IMPORMASYON BILANG TUGON SA COVID-19 SA LUNGSOD QUEZON 1 (1):1-10.
    Taong 2019 nang magsimula ang paglaganap ng COVID-19 sa Pilipinas, kaya samu’t saring mga impormasyon ang ipinakalat sa bansa upang maiwasan ang pagkalat ng virus lalo na sa mga lugar na matataas ang bilang ng nag positibo, gaya na lamang sa Lungsod ng Quezon. Hinggil rito, ang saliksik na ito na naglalayong malaman at maitala ang Gampanin ng Wikang Filipino sa pag papalaganap ng impormasyon patungkol sa COVID-19. Upang matugunan ang mga hinihingi sa pananaliksik, ito ay gagwin sa deskriptibong paraan, (...)
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  44. The Termination Risks of Simulation Science.Preston Greene - 2020 - Erkenntnis 85 (2):489-509.
    Historically, the hypothesis that our world is a computer simulation has struck many as just another improbable-but-possible “skeptical hypothesis” about the nature of reality. Recently, however, the simulation hypothesis has received significant attention from philosophers, physicists, and the popular press. This is due to the discovery of an epistemic dependency: If we believe that our civilization will one day run many simulations concerning its ancestry, then we should believe that we are probably in an ancestor simulation right now. This essay (...)
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  45. Dataset: Feedback on the Path2Integrity Learning Cards for Research Integrity.Lisa Häberlein & Oliver Claas - 2020 - Research Ideas and Outcomes 6.
    This dataset lists feedback given by participants and educators of lessons based on the Path2Integrity learning cards for research integrity. The feedback recorded both positive and negative teaching experiences, what worked well and which difficulties the educators encountered. It is deemed relevant for the further improvement of the learning cards.
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  46. Equal Co‑Authorship Practices: Review and Recommendations.Mohammad Hosseini - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (3):1133-1148.
    There has been an increase in the number of journal articles that are co-authored by researchers who claim to have made equal contributions. This growth has sparked discussions in the literature, especially within medical journals. To extend the debate beyond medical disciplines and support journal editors in forming an opinion, the current review collates and explores published viewpoints about so-called Equal Co-authorship practices. The Web of Science core database was used to identify publications that mention and discuss EC. Within the (...)
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  47. A Review of the Literature on Ethical Issues Related to Scientific Authorship.Mohammad Hosseini & Bert Gordijn - 2020 - Accountability in Research 27 (5).
    The article at hand presents the results of a literature review on the ethical issues related to scientific authorship. These issues are understood as questions and/or concerns about obligations, values or virtues in relation to reporting, authorship and publication of research results. For this purpose, the Web of Science core collection was searched for English resources published between 1945 and 2018, and a total of 324 items were analyzed. Based on the review of the documents, ten ethical themes have been (...)
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  48. The Norms of Authorship Credit: Challenging the Definition of Authorship in the European Code of Conduct for Research Integrity.Mohammad Hosseini & Jonathan Lewis - 2020 - Accountability in Research 27 (2):80-98.
    The practice of assigning authorship for a scientific publication tends to raise two normative questions: 1) ‘who should be credited as an author?’; 2) ‘who should not be credited as an author but should still be acknowledged?’. With the publication of the revised version of The European Code of Conduct for Research Integrity (ECCRI), standard answers to these questions have been called into question. This article examines the ways in which the ECCRI approaches these two questions and compares these approaches (...)
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  49. A Moral Obligation to Proper Experimentation: Research Ethics as Epistemic Filter in the Aftermath of World War II.Noortje Jacobs - 2020 - Isis 111 (4):759-780.
  50. Political Activism and Research Ethics.Ben Jones - 2020 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 37 (2):233-248.
    Those who care about and engage in politics frequently fall victim to cognitive bias. Concerns that such bias impacts scholarship recently have prompted debates—notably, in philosophy and psychology—on the proper relationship between research and politics. One proposal emerging from these debates is that researchers studying politics have a professional duty to avoid political activism because it risks biasing their work. While sympathetic to the motivations behind this proposal, I suggest several reasons to reject a blanket duty to avoid activism: (1) (...)
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