Neuroethics

Edited by L. Syd M Johnson (SUNY Upstate Medical University)
About this topic
Summary Neuroethics is a nascent subdiscipline that has emerged out of bioethics and neuroscience to consider the ethical issued raised by developments in neuroscience, particularly recent developments in neuroetechnologies. The scope of neuroethics is broad and heterogeneous. In her seminal 2002 paper, philosopher and neuroscientist Adina Roskies bisected the field of neuroethics into two broad sectors: the ethics of neuroscience, and the neuroscience of ethics. The ethics of neuroscience overlaps significantly with traditional issues in biomedical ethics, including the ethics of neuroscientific research, and the ethical, legal, and social implications of new developments and discoveries in neuroscience. The “neuroscience of ethics”  engages with traditional ethical questions, and (controversially) overlaps with neurophilosophical, metaphysical inquiries concerning free will and personal identity as they inform and interact with important ethical and social issues. Specific areas of neuroethical interest include: cognitive enhancement, disorders of consciousness and neurological impairment, psychiatric disorders, brain imaging, free will/moral responsibility, and addiction, and the neuroscientific study of morality and decision-making.
Key works The broad scope of neuroethics defies a concise bibliography. Moreover, while there is overlap in some foci of neuroethics, there are also regions that stand apart. This article reflects neuroethics' origins as a subdiscipline of bioethics by examining ethical issues in clinical neuroscience (Glannon 2011). The moral significance of consciousness (Kahane & Savulescu 2009), and the role of neuroscience in illuminating the "problem of other minds" with respect to brain damage, and nonhuman animals (Farah 2008) is a subject with an extensive literature. Works on issues related to control, responsibility, freedom, and addiction include Hall 2003 and Glannon 2012Persson & Savulescu 2008 proposes both cognitive and moral enhancement. The neuroscience of ethics overlaps considerably with the work of experimental philosophers, e.g. Knobe 2003Greene unknown, and Appiah 2008.
Introductions For a general introductions to neuroethics, see Illes & Sahakian 2011 and Levy 2009 and Roskies 2002.
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  1. Neurorights – Do We Need New Human Rights? A Reconsideration of the Right to Freedom of Thought.Nora Hertz - 2022 - Neuroethics 16 (1):1-15.
    Progress in neurotechnology and Artificial Intelligence (AI) provides unprecedented insights into the human brain. There are increasing possibilities to influence and measure brain activity. These developments raise multifaceted ethical and legal questions. The proponents of neurorights argue in favour of introducing new human rights to protect mental processes and brain data. This article discusses the necessity and advantages of introducing new human rights focusing on the proposed new human right to mental self-determination and the right to freedom of thought as (...)
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  2. The Moral Epistemology of Intuitionism: Neuroethics and Seeming States.Hossein A. Dabbagh - 2022 - New York: Bloomsbury Academic.
    Covering moral intuition, self-evidence, non-inferentiality, moral emotion and seeming states, Hossein Dabbagh defends the epistemology of moral intuitionism. His line of analysis resists the empirical challenges derived from empirical moral psychology and reveals the seeming-based account of moral intuitionism as the most tenable one. The Moral Epistemology of Intuitionism combines epistemological intuitionism with work in neuroethics to develop an account of the role that moral intuition and emotion play in moral judgment. The book culminates in a convincing argument about the (...)
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  3. Neurorehabilitation of Offenders, Consent and Consequentialist Ethics.Francisco Lara - 2022 - Neuroethics 16 (1):1-15.
    The new biotechnology raises expectations for modifying human behaviour through its use. This article focuses on the ethical analysis of the not so remote possibility of rehabilitating criminals by means of neurotechnological techniques. The analysis is carried out from a synthetic position of, on the one hand, the consequentialist conception of what is right and, on the other hand, the emphasis on individual liberties. As a result, firstly, the ethical appropriateness of adopting a general predisposition for allowing the neurorehabilitation of (...)
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  4. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) in Pediatric Populations—– Voices from Typically Developing Children and Adolescents and their Parents.Anna Sierawska, Maike Splittgerber, Vera Moliadze, Michael Siniatchkin & Alena Buyx - 2022 - Neuroethics 16 (1):1-17.
    Transcranial direct current stimulation is a brain stimulation technique currently being researched as an alternative or complimentary treatment for various neurological disorders. There is little knowledge about experiences of the participants of tDCS clinical research, especially from pediatric studies. An interview study with typically developing minors participating in a tDCS study, and their parents was conducted to explore their views and experiences and inform the ethical analysis. Children and adolescents reported good experiences with the stimulation. Next to financial incentives, main (...)
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  5. Revisiting Neuroethics Through the Lens of Buddhist Theory: A Call for Integration.Yingcheng Elaine Xu, Puneet Sahota & Basant Pradhan - 2022 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 13 (4):267-269.
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  6. Buddhism and Neuroethics Research: On Catching a Snake.C. Dalrymple-Fraser - 2022 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 13 (4):257-259.
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  7. Beyond “Ensuring Understanding”: Toward a Patient-Partnered Neuroethics of Brain Device Research.Meghan C. Halley, Tracy Dixon-Salazar & Anna Wexler - 2022 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 13 (4):241-244.
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  8. AJOB-Neuroscience Top Abstract Award Winners From the 2021 International Neuroethics Society Annual Meeting.Coates McCall - 2022 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 13 (4):287-306.
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  9. Neuroethics, Consciousness and Death: Where Objective Knowledge Meets Subjective Experience.Alberto Molina-Pérez & Anne Dalle Ave - 2022 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 13 (4):259-261.
    Laura Specker Sullivan (2022) makes a fairly compelling case for the value of the perspectives of Buddhist practitioners in neuroethics. In this study, Tibetan Buddhist monks have been asked, among other things, whether consciousness, in brain-injured patients in a minimally conscious state, entails a duty to preserve life. In our view, some of the participants’ responses could be used to inform the bioethical debate on death determination.
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  10. Mistaken Compassion and Mistaken Application: The Challenge of Buddhist Neuroethics in Clinical Practice.Rachel Asher & Alexandria Longworth - 2022 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 13 (4):264-267.
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  11. Mistaken Compassion: Tibetan Buddhist Perspectives on Neuroethics.Laura Specker Sullivan - 2022 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 13 (4):245-256.
  12. Present and Emerging Ethical Issues with tDCS Use: A Summary and Review.Parker Day, Jack Twiddy & Veljko Dubljević - 2022 - Neuroethics 16 (1):1-25.
    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a brain stimulation technique known for its relative safety and minimal invasiveness. tDCS has demonstrated efficacy as a potential treatment for certain neurological disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease, and has been shown to enhance a range of cognitive abilities under certain contexts. As a result, this technique has captured the interest of both the research community and the public at large. However, efforts to gather information about the effects of tDCS on the brain are (...)
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  13. The Conditions for Ethical Chemical Restraints.Parker Crutchfield & Michael Redinger - forthcoming - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience:1-14.
    The practice of medicine frequently involves the unconsented restriction of liberty. The reasons for unilateral liberty restrictions are typically that being confined, strapped down, or sedated are necessary to prevent the person from harming themselves or others. In this paper, we target the ethics of chemical restraints, which are medications that are used to intentionally restrict the mental states associated with the unwanted behaviors, and are typically not specifically indicated for the condition for which the patient is being treated. Specifically, (...)
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  14. Opportunity Cost or Opportunity Lost: An Empirical Assessment of Ethical Concerns and Attitudes of EEG Neurofeedback Users.Louiza Kalokairinou, Rebekah Choi, Ashwini Nagappan & Anna Wexler - 2022 - Neuroethics 15 (3):1-13.
    Electroencephalography neurofeedback is a type of biofeedback that purportedly teaches users how to control their brainwaves. Although neurofeedback is currently offered by thousands of providers worldwide, its provision is contested, as its effectiveness beyond a placebo effect is unproven. While scholars have voiced numerous ethical concerns about neurofeedback—regarding opportunity cost, physical and psychological harms, financial cost, and informed consent—to date these concerns have remained theoretical. This pilot study aimed to provide insights on whether these issues were supported by empirical data (...)
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  15. Is The Stimulation of Moral Competence with KMDD® Well-Suited for Our Brain? A Perspective From Neuroethics.Małgorzata Steć - unknown
    This article is an attempt to show that the KMDD® method is the best for both our brain and our moral functioning, which undoubtedly has its basis in the brain. At the same time, it is an attempt to draw attention to the importance of planning interventions which stimulate moral development in accordance with the psychological and neurobiological functioning of an individual. The paper briefly presents the neuropsychological context of moral functioning, and then a series of arguments in support of (...)
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  16. Societal Collapse and Intergenerational Disparities in Suffering.Parker Crutchfield - 2022 - Neuroethics 15 (3):1-12.
    The collapse of society is inevitable, even if it is in the distant future. When it collapses, it is likely to do so within the lifetimes of some people. These people will have matured in pre-collapse society, experience collapse, and then live the remainder of their lives in the post-collapse world. I argue that this group of people—the transitional generation—will be the worst off from societal collapse, far worse than subsequent generations. As the transitional generation, they will suffer disparately. This (...)
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  17. Testing Design Bioethics Methods: Comparing a Digital Game with a Vignette Survey for Neuroethics Research with Young People.David M. Lyreskog, Gabriela Pavarini, Edward Jacobs, Vanessa Bennett, Geoffrey Mawdsley & Ilina Singh - forthcoming - AJOB Empirical Bioethics:1-10.
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  18. The Unintended Consequences of Chile’s Neurorights Constitutional Reform: Moving beyond Negative Rights to Capabilities.Joseph J. Fins - 2022 - Neuroethics 15 (3):1-11.
    As scholars envision a new regulatory or statutory neurorights schema it is important to imagine unintended consequences if reforms are implemented before their implications are fully understood. This paper critically evaluates provisions proposed for a new Chilean Constitution and evaluates this movement against efforts to improve the diagnosis of, and treatment for, individuals with disorders of consciousness within the broader context of disability law, international human rights, and a capabilities approach to health justice as advanced by Amartya Sen and Martha (...)
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  19. Ethical Commitments, Principles, and Practices Guiding Intracranial Neuroscientific Research in Humans.Ashley Feinsinger & Nader Pouratian - 2022 - Neuron 110 (2):188-194.
    Leveraging firsthand experience, BRAIN-funded investigators conducting intracranial human neuroscience research propose two fundamental ethical commitments: (1) maintaining the integrity of clinical care and (2) ensuring voluntariness. Principles, practices, and uncertainties related to these commitments are offered for future investigation.
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  20. Informal Caregivers of Patients with Disorders of Consciousness: a Qualitative Study of Communication Experiences and Information Needs with Physicians.Karoline Boegle, Marta Bassi, Angela Comanducci, Katja Kuehlmeyer, Philipp Oehl, Theresa Raiser, Martin Rosenfelder, Jaco Diego Sitt, Chiara Valota, Lina Willacker, Andreas Bender & Eva Grill - 2022 - Neuroethics 15 (3):1-19.
    Due to improvements in medicine, the figures of patients with disorders of consciousness are increasing. Diagnostics of DoC and prognostication of rehabilitation outcome is challenging but necessary to evaluate recovery potential and to decide on treatment options. Such decisions should be made by doctors and patients’ surrogates based on medico-ethical principles. Meeting information needs and communicating effectively with caregivers as the patients´ most common surrogate-decision makers is crucial, and challenging when novel tech-nologies are introduced. This qualitative study aims to explore (...)
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  21. The Impossibility of a Moral Right to Privacy.Ingmar Persson & Julian Savulescu - 2022 - Neuroethics 15 (2):1-5.
    This paper clarifies and defends against criticism our argument in _Unfit for the Future_ that there is no moral right to privacy. A right to privacy is conceived as a right that others do not acquire information about us that we reserve for ourselves and selected others. Information acquisition itself is distinguished from the means used to acquire it and the uses to which the information is put. To acquire information is not an action; it is to be caused to (...)
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  22. The Principle of Autonomy in Biomedical- and Neuroethics.Barend W. Florijn - 2022 - American Journal of Bioethics 22 (10):9-11.
    With appreciation toward those who commented and provided insight on “From reciprocity to autonomy in physician assisted death: an ethical analysis of the Dutch Supreme Court ruling in the Albert H...
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  23. Against Aggression? Revisiting an Overlooked Contender for Moral Bioenhancement.Cohen Marcus Lionel Brown - 2022 - Neuroethics 15 (2):1-15.
    In moral bioenhancement (MBE) discourse, aggression has been identified as one potential target of biomedical intervention. Early suggestions that aggression might be modulated to improve moral outcomes were met with strong opposition from those claiming it is impossible to modulate aggression without harming traits of distinct social and agential value. If we are to preclude (or endorse) particular paths to moral enhancement then we ought to establish sound reasons for doing so. However, in paying due consideration to contemporary aggression studies (...)
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  24. Identifying the Presence of Ethics Concepts in Chronic Pain Research: A Scoping Review of Neuroscience Journals.Rajita Sharma, Samuel A. Dale, Sapna Wadhawan, Melanie Anderson & Daniel Z. Buchman - 2022 - Neuroethics 15 (2):1-17.
    Background Chronic pain is a pervasive and invisible condition which affects people in a myriad of ways including but not limited to their quality of life, autonomy, mental and physical health, social mobility, and productivity. There are many ethical implications of neuroscience research on chronic pain, given its potential to reduce suffering and improve the lived experience of people in pain. While a growing body of research studies the etiology, neurophysiology, and management of chronic pain, it is unknown to what (...)
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  25. Patient Autonomy, Clinical Decision Making, and the Phenomenological Reduction.Jonathan Lewis & Søren Holm - 2022 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 25 (4):615-627.
    Phenomenology gives rise to certain ontological considerations that have far-reaching implications for standard conceptions of patient autonomy in medical ethics, and, as a result, the obligations of and to patients in clinical decision-making contexts. One such consideration is the phenomenological reduction in classical phenomenology, a core feature of which is the characterisation of our primary experiences as immediately and inherently meaningful. This paper builds on and extends the analyses of the phenomenological reduction in the works of Husserl, Heidegger, and Merleau-Ponty (...)
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  26. Sport-Related Neurotrauma and Neuroprotection: Are Return-to-Play Protocols Justified by Paternalism?L. Syd M. Johnson - 2015 - Neuroethics 1 (8):15-26.
    Sport-related neurotrauma annually affects millions of athletes worldwide. The return-to-play protocol (RTP) is the dominant strategy adopted by sports leagues and organizations to manage one type of sport-related neurotrauma: concussions. RTPs establish guidelines for when athletes with concussions are to be removed from competition or practice, and when they can return. RTPs are intended to be neuroprotective, and to protect athletes from some of the harms of sport-related concussions, but there is athlete resistance to and noncompliance with RTPs. This prompts (...)
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  27. Towards a Governance Framework for Brain Data.Marcello Ienca, Joseph J. Fins, Ralf J. Jox, Fabrice Jotterand, Silja Voeneky, Roberto Andorno, Tonio Ball, Claude Castelluccia, Ricardo Chavarriaga, Hervé Chneiweiss, Agata Ferretti, Orsolya Friedrich, Samia Hurst, Grischa Merkel, Fruzsina Molnár-Gábor, Jean-Marc Rickli, James Scheibner, Effy Vayena, Rafael Yuste & Philipp Kellmeyer - 2022 - Neuroethics 15 (2):1-14.
    The increasing availability of brain data within and outside the biomedical field, combined with the application of artificial intelligence (AI) to brain data analysis, poses a challenge for ethics and governance. We identify distinctive ethical implications of brain data acquisition and processing, and outline a multi-level governance framework. This framework is aimed at maximizing the benefits of facilitated brain data collection and further processing for science and medicine whilst minimizing risks and preventing harmful use. The framework consists of four primary (...)
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  28. Pattern Theory of Self and Situating Moral Aspects: The Need to Include Authenticity, Autonomy and Responsibility in Understanding the Effects of Deep Brain Stimulation.Przemysław Zawadzki - 2022 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 21 (3):559-582.
    The aims of this paper are to: (1) identify the best framework for comprehending multidimensional impact of deep brain stimulation on the self; (2) identify weaknesses of this framework; (3) propose refinements to it; (4) in pursuing (3), show why and how this framework should be extended with additional moral aspects and demonstrate their interrelations; (5) define how moral aspects relate to the framework; (6) show the potential consequences of including moral aspects on evaluating DBS’s impact on patients’ selves. Regarding (...)
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  29. Trust and Psychedelic Moral Enhancement.Emma C. Gordon - 2022 - Neuroethics 15 (2):1-14.
    Moral enhancement proposals struggle to be both plausible and ethically defensible while nevertheless interestingly distinct from both cognitive enhancement as well as (mere) moral education. Brian Earp (_Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement_ 83:415–439, 12 ) suggests that a promising middle ground lies in focusing on the (suitably qualified) use of psychedelics as _adjuncts_ to moral development. But what would such an adjunctive use of psychedelics look like in practice? In this paper, I draw on literature from three areas where techniques (...)
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  30. Review of Walter Glannon’s The Neuroethics of Memory: From Total Recall to Oblivion, Cambridge University Press, 2019. [REVIEW]Eric Racine - 2022 - Neuroethics 15 (2):1-3.
  31. The Business of Liberty: Freedom and Information in Ethics, Politics, and Law.Boudewijn de Bruin - 2022 - Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    What makes political freedom valuable to us? Two well-known arguments are that freedom contributes to our desire satisfaction and to our personal responsibility. Here, Boudewijn de Bruin argues that freedom is valuable when it is accompanied by knowledge. He offers an original and systematic account of the relationship between freedom and knowledge and defends two original normative ideals of known freedom and acknowledged freedom. -/- By combining psychological perspectives on choice and philosophical views on the value of knowledge, he shows (...)
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  32. Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson’s Disease: Why Earlier Use Makes Shared Decision Making Important.Jaime Montemayor, Harini Sarva, Karen Kelly-Blake & Laura Y. Cabrera - 2022 - Neuroethics 15 (2):1-11.
    Introduction As deep brain stimulation (DBS) has shifted to being used earlier during Parkinson’s disease (PD), data is lacking regarding patient specific attitudes, preferences, and factors which may influence the timing of and decision to proceed with DBS in the United States. This study aims to identify and compare attitudes and preferences regarding the earlier use of DBS in Parkinson’s patients who have and have not undergone DBS. Methods We developed an online survey concerning attitudes about DBS and its timing (...)
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  33. Proceedings of the Ninth Annual Deep Brain Stimulation Think Tank: Advances in Cutting Edge Technologies, Artificial Intelligence, Neuromodulation, Neuroethics, Pain, Interventional Psychiatry, Epilepsy, and Traumatic Brain Injury.Joshua K. Wong, Günther Deuschl, Robin Wolke, Hagai Bergman, Muthuraman Muthuraman, Sergiu Groppa, Sameer A. Sheth, Helen M. Bronte-Stewart, Kevin B. Wilkins, Matthew N. Petrucci, Emilia Lambert, Yasmine Kehnemouyi, Philip A. Starr, Simon Little, Juan Anso, Ro’ee Gilron, Lawrence Poree, Giridhar P. Kalamangalam, Gregory A. Worrell, Kai J. Miller, Nicholas D. Schiff, Christopher R. Butson, Jaimie M. Henderson, Jack W. Judy, Adolfo Ramirez-Zamora, Kelly D. Foote, Peter A. Silburn, Luming Li, Genko Oyama, Hikaru Kamo, Satoko Sekimoto, Nobutaka Hattori, James J. Giordano, Diane DiEuliis, John R. Shook, Darin D. Doughtery, Alik S. Widge, Helen S. Mayberg, Jungho Cha, Kisueng Choi, Stephen Heisig, Mosadolu Obatusin, Enrico Opri, Scott B. Kaufman, Prasad Shirvalkar, Christopher J. Rozell, Sankaraleengam Alagapan, Robert S. Raike, Hemant Bokil, David Green & Michael S. Okun - 2022 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 16.
    DBS Think Tank IX was held on August 25–27, 2021 in Orlando FL with US based participants largely in person and overseas participants joining by video conferencing technology. The DBS Think Tank was founded in 2012 and provides an open platform where clinicians, engineers and researchers can freely discuss current and emerging deep brain stimulation technologies as well as the logistical and ethical issues facing the field. The consensus among the DBS Think Tank IX speakers was that DBS expanded in (...)
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  34. Mapping Out the Trajectory of Islamic Perspectives on Neuroethics.Noorina Noorfuad - 2022 - Asian Bioethics Review 14 (3):217-223.
    The advancements of medical technology incited multi-disciplinary discussions with regard to its ethical implications. Within the neuroscientific domain, the term ‘neuroethics’ has gained prominence over recent years. However, the contributions of religious perspectives in the nascent field of neuroethics are particularly few. The scarce literature on Islamic perspectives on neuroethics merely questioned its importance and introduced a sharia-based framework that can be implemented. Building upon this, the possible trajectories of Islamic perspectives on neuroethics can be mapped out by tapping into (...)
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  35. Toward Responsible Public Engagement in Neuroethics.J. Lomax Boyd & Jeremy Sugarman - 2022 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 13 (2):103-106.
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  36. The Illusion of Agency in Human–Computer Interaction.Michael Madary - 2022 - Neuroethics 15 (1):1-15.
    This article makes the case that our digital devices create illusions of agency. There are times when users feel as if they are in control when in fact they are merely responding to stimuli on the screen in predictable ways. After the introduction, the second section of the article offers examples of illusions of agency that do not involve human–computer interaction in order to show that such illusions are possible and not terribly uncommon. The third and fourth sections of the (...)
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  37. Epistemic Challenges of Digital Twins & Virtual Brains : Perspectives From Fundamental Neuroethics.Kathinka Evers & Arleen Salles - 2021 - SCIO: Revista de Filosofía 21.
    In this article, we present and analyse the concept of Digital Twin linked to distinct types of objects and examine the challenges involved in creating them from a fundamental neuroethics approach that emphasises conceptual analyses. We begin by providing a brief description of DTs and their initial development as models of artefacts and physical inanimate objects, identifying core challenges in building these tools and noting their intended benefits. Next, we describe attempts to build DTs of model living entities, such as (...)
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  38. Donation, Control and the Ownership of Conscious Things.Søren Holm & Jonathan Lewis - 2022 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 13 (2):106-108.
  39. The Case of Hannah Capes: How Much Does Consciousness Matter?Lois Shepherd, C. William Pike, Jesse B. Persily & Mary Faith Marshall - 2022 - Neuroethics 15 (1):1-16.
    A recent legal case involving an ambiguous diagnosis in a woman with a severe disorder of consciousness raises pressing questions about treatment withdrawal in a time when much of what experts know about disorders of consciousness is undergoing revision and refinement. How much should diagnostic certainty about consciousness matter? For the judge who refused to allow withdrawal of artificial nutrition and hydration, it was dispositive. Rather than relying on substituted judgment or best interests to determine treatment decisions, he ruled that (...)
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  40. Blame Without Punishment for Addicts.Prabhpal Singh - 2022 - Philosophia 50 (1):257-267.
    On the moral model of addiction, addicts are morally responsible and blameworthy for their addictive behaviours. The model is sometimes resisted on the grounds that blaming addicts is incompatible with treating addiction in a compassionate and non-punitive way. I argue the moral model is consistent with addressing addiction compassionately and non-punitively and better accounts for both the role of addicts’ agency in the recovery process. If an addict is responsible for their addictive behaviours, and that behaviour is in some way (...)
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  41. Unlocking the Voices of Patients with Severe Brain Injury.Andrew Peterson, Kevin Mintz & Adrian M. Owen - 2022 - Neuroethics 15 (1):1-15.
    This paper critically examines whether patients with severe brain injury, who can only communicate through assistive neuroimaging technologies, may permissibly participate in medical decisions. We examine this issue in the context of a unique case study from the Brain and Mind Institute at the University of Western Ontario. First, we describe how the standard approach to medical decision making might problematically exclude patients with communication impairments secondary to severe brain injury. Second, we present a modified approach to medical decision making. (...)
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  42. Novel Neurorights: From Nonsense to Substance.Jan Christoph Bublitz - 2022 - Neuroethics 15 (1):1-15.
    This paper analyses recent calls for so called “neurorights”, suggested novel human rights whose adoption is allegedly required because of advances in neuroscience, exemplified by a proposal of the Neurorights Initiative. Advances in neuroscience and technology are indeed impressive and pose a range of challenges for the law, and some novel applications give grounds for human rights concerns. But whether addressing these concerns requires adopting novel human rights, and whether the proposed neurorights are suitable candidates, are a different matter. This (...)
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  43. Concerns About Psychiatric Neurosurgery and How They Can Be Overcome: Recommendations for Responsible Research.Sabine Müller, Ansel van Oosterhout, Chris Bervoets, Markus Christen, Roberto Martínez-Álvarez & Merlin Bittlinger - 2022 - Neuroethics 15 (1):1-26.
    BackgroundPsychiatric neurosurgery is experiencing a revival. Beside deep brain stimulation, several ablative neurosurgical procedures are currently in use. Each approach has a different profile of advantages and disadvantages. However, many psychiatrists, ethicists, and laypeople are sceptical about psychiatric neurosurgery.MethodsWe identify the main concerns against psychiatric neurosurgery, and discuss the extent to which they are justified and how they might be overcome. We review the evidence for the effectiveness, efficacy and safety of each approach, and discuss how this could be improved. (...)
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  44. Human Brain Organoids and Consciousness.Takuya Niikawa, Yoshiyuki Hayashi, Joshua Shepherd & Tsutomu Sawai - 2022 - Neuroethics 15 (1):1-16.
    This article proposes a methodological schema for engaging in a productive discussion of ethical issues regarding human brain organoids, which are three-dimensional cortical neural tissues created using human pluripotent stem cells. Although moral consideration of HBOs significantly involves the possibility that they have consciousness, there is no widely accepted procedure to determine whether HBOs are conscious. Given that this is the case, it has been argued that we should adopt a precautionary principle about consciousness according to which, if we are (...)
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  45. Neither the “Devil’s Lettuce” nor a “Miracle Cure:” The Use of Medical Cannabis in the Care of Children and Youth.Margot Gunning, Ari Rotenberg, James Anderson, Lynda G. Balneaves, Tracy Brace, Bruce Crooks, Wayne Hall, Lauren E. Kelly, S. Rod Rassekh, Michael Rieder, Alice Virani, Mark A. Ware, Zina Zaslawski, Harold Siden & Judy Illes - 2022 - Neuroethics 15 (1):1-8.
    Lack of guidance and regulation for authorizing medical cannabis for conditions involving the health and neurodevelopment of children is ethically problematic as it promulgates access inequities, risk-benefit inconsistencies, and inadequate consent mechanisms. In two virtual sessions using participatory action research and consensus-building methods, we obtained perspectives of stakeholders on ethics and medical cannabis for children and youth. The sessions focused on the scientific and regulatory landscape of medical cannabis, surrogate decision-making and assent, and the social and political culture of medical (...)
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  46. On the Contribution of Neuroethics to the Ethics and Regulation of Artificial Intelligence.Michele Farisco, Kathinka Evers & Arleen Salles - 2022 - Neuroethics 15 (1):1-12.
    Contemporary ethical analysis of Artificial Intelligence is growing rapidly. One of its most recognizable outcomes is the publication of a number of ethics guidelines that, intended to guide governmental policy, address issues raised by AI design, development, and implementation and generally present a set of recommendations. Here we propose two things: first, regarding content, since some of the applied issues raised by AI are related to fundamental questions about topics like intelligence, consciousness, and the ontological and ethical status of humans, (...)
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  47. Exculpation and Stigma in Tourette Syndrome: An Experimental Philosophy Study.Jo Bervoets, Jarl K. Kampen & Kristien Hens - 2022 - Neuroethics 15 (1):1-16.
    Purpose: There is a widespread recognition that biomedical explanations offer benefits to those diagnosed with a mental disorder. Recent research points out that such explanations may nevertheless have stigmatizing effects. In this study, this ‘mixed blessing’ account of biomedical explanations is investigated in a case of philosophical interest: Tourette Syndrome. Method: We conducted a vignette survey with 221 participants in which we first assessed quantitative attributions of blame as well as the desire for social distance for behavior associated with Tourette (...)
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  48. Cognitive Diminishments and Crime Prevention: “Too Smart for the Rest of Us”?Sebastian Jon Holmen - 2022 - Neuroethics 15 (1):1-13.
    In this paper, I discuss whether it is ever morally permissible to diminish the cognitive abilities or capacities of some cognitively gifted offenders whose ability to commit their crimes successfully relies on them possessing these abilities or capacities. I suggest that, given such cognitive diminishments may prevent such offenders from re-offending and causing others considerable harm, this provides us with at least one good moral reason in favour of employing them. After setting out more clearly what cognitive diminishment may consist (...)
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  49. Preserving Narrative Identity for Dementia Patients: Embodiment, Active Environments, and Distributed Memory.Richard Heersmink - 2022 - Neuroethics 15 (8):1-16.
    One goal of this paper is to argue that autobiographical memories are extended and distributed across embodied brains and environmental resources. This is important because such distributed memories play a constitutive role in our narrative identity. So, some of the building blocks of our narrative identity are not brain-bound but extended and distributed. Recognising the distributed nature of memory and narrative identity, invites us to find treatments and strategies focusing on the environment in which dementia patients are situated. A second (...)
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  50. Neuromedia, Cognitive Offloading, and Intellectual Perseverance.Cody Turner - 2022 - Synthese 200 (1):1-26.
    This paper engages in what might be called anticipatory virtue epistemology, as it anticipates some virtue epistemological risks related to a near-future version of brain-computer interface technology that Michael Lynch (2014) calls 'neuromedia.' I analyze how neuromedia is poised to negatively affect the intellectual character of agents, focusing specifically on the virtue of intellectual perseverance, which involves a disposition to mentally persist in the face of challenges towards the realization of one’s intellectual goals. First, I present and motivate what I (...)
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