About this topic
Summary Conceptions of Race: General Problems

If our recent history has taught us anything, race seems to be extremely important in determining issues such as the likelihood of being incarcerated, getting a quality education, access to healthcare, and adequate housing, just to name a few.  So what race we are taken to be seems to be an incredibly important determinant in our life prospects.  And if race helps determine our life prospects wouldn’t it have to exist?

Second, we seem to be quite good at categorizing people into different races.  Now there are some individuals that are hard for most people to racially categorize.  For instance, the Public Broadcasting System has a webpage that provides a very difficult Racial Sorting Task http://www.pbs.org/race/002_SortingPeople/002_00-home.htm which is worth taking for anyone who thinks that it is always clear what race someone belongs to.  That being said, for the majority of people, we seem to agree with others in our community as to what race someone is.  And if that’s the case, wouldn’t races have to exist?

It is particularly hard to even figure out how to start answering this question.  To show why we can look at three closely related challenges to developing an account of race.  Let’s call the first challenge “the Domain Problem”, the second “the Expertise and Deference Problem” and the third “the Mismatch Problem” or as it is more commonly known, “the Mismatch Argument”.

The Domain Problem is best captured by the question, “If there are races, what kind of thing are they?”  For instance, we might think that races are natural categories and that for someone to be a member of a race is for them to have a set of natural properties some of which are shared with other members of the same race.  Natural properties are properties that exist in the world independently of the way we categorize it.  So for instance, having the property of being a hat is not a natural property, whereas having the property of being made of wool is.  Let’s say that if this is the right way to think of races, then the right domain from which to study races would be the natural domain.  This was a common approach to race in the 19th and 20th centuries and natural historians such as Johann Blumenbach, Thomas Huxley, and Friedrich Ratzel saw investigations of race as falling within this natural domain.  Today, some philosophers view race as being explainable in terms of a subset of natural properties we refer to as biological properties.

But around the end of the 20th century we started to see the development of arguments which suggested that race is not a natural phenomenon, but a socio-historical one.  What follows from this is that the important racial properties associated with race are not natural but socio-historical.  For instance, in W.E.B. Du Bois’ groundbreaking 1897 speech “The Conservation of Races” he tells us that while races, “transcend scientific definition” they “nevertheless are clearly defined to the eye of the Historian and the Sociologist”.

That might be a bit hard to understand so let me give you an example.  In the U.S., we have quite a few doctors.  When they are working, they are normally easily identifiable.  They often wear white coats with stethoscopes around their necks, they work in hospitals and universities, and often talk in ways that suggest a high level of medical expertise.  And in order to be a practicing doctor in the US, you have to graduate from an accredited medical school, complete a residency program, and obtain a license to practice in a particular state or jurisdiction.  But the fact that doctors have the properties of having medical degrees and licenses depend on the existence of institutions which can be explained historically and socially.  And while doctors, and virtually all other people share in natural properties like having a brain, the properties that make a person a doctor are social properties.  Because of this, doctors can be thought of as socio-historical constructs.

Now there is a big difference between being considered to be of a particular race and being considered to be a doctor; but, the idea is that racial properties are largely determined by our history and social institutions.  Since W.E.B. Du Bois’ speech, the idea that race falls within the domain of sociology and history has been increasing in popularity and I think I can safely say is the dominant view among academics (or at the very least sociologists and historians).

Another possibility is that racial properties are not just natural properties, or socio-historical properties, but a combination of these two.  If this is the case, then to get a grasp on what races are may involve research in both the natural and the socio-historical domain.

So what we can gather from this discussion is that figuring out what races are seems really difficult because there is still substantial debate about what is the proper domain of investigation.

A related problem is “the Expertise and Deference Problem”.  The idea is roughly this:  language seems to work in such a way that there are lots of specialty terms that we can meaningfully use without being in possession of much information.  For instance, I might say that my friend Julio has tuberculosis without being able to tell you what tuberculosis is.  I know that it is not good to have tuberculosis, and that it is a medical condition; but, this doesn’t distinguish tuberculosis from lots of other conditions that are medical and also bad.  So if I can’t distinguish tuberculosis from other bad medical conditions, in virtue of what do I get to say I am speaking meaningfully about tuberculosis, and not, let’s say, cancer?  To answer this question, the theory of semantic deference claims that I can speak meaningfully about tuberculosis because there are experts in my community (namely research doctors) that do know what tuberculosis is and how to tell it apart from other bad medical conditions.  To put the point more generally, I can meaningfully talk about things in the world even though I don’t know much about the things I’m talking about because I can defer to experts for fixing the meaning of the terms.  As the philosopher Hilary Putnam once said, we should think of language less like a singular tool and more like the running of a complex steamship in which many of us have different and cooperative roles to play.

So now that we have an understanding of the role of semantic deference and expertise in the role of fixing the meaning of medical terms, we can ask, “Do racial terms work in the same way as medical terms like ‘tuberculosis’?”  It does seem hard for many of us to say much meaningfully about race, so maybe we can just defer to race experts in the way I deferred to research doctors in the tuberculosis example.  This seems like a good solution, so what’s the problem?  Well, there are several problems.  For starters, experts normally occupy a domain, and as we’ve already seen, it’s not clear in which domain we should locate our experts.  For instance, would we consult a biologist, a historian, a sociologist, or a philosopher?  Additionally, there is little agreement even within these domains as to how to characterize races.  For instance, take the naturalist’s domain:  are races the kind of things in which all members share some sort of underlying essential properties?  Should races be primarily defined in terms of ancestral relations or geographic locations?  Or perhaps races can be picked out by referring to groups that have a higher frequency of non-coding DNA in common.  Even though we are working within a singular domain, there is still massive disagreement on what races are within that domain.  In short, it’s not clear there is a unified group of experts to defer to even if we can solve the Domain Problem.  So we don’t seem to have a solution to the Expertise and Deference Problem.

Finally, there is the Mismatch Problem, or as it has been coined by philosopher Ron Mallon, the Mismatch Argument.  Here’s the problem:  race is an area that we need to investigate and that normally involves some people specializing in race issues.  And during such investigations, specialists sometimes come up with highly specialized definitions of what race is and what racial terms pick out in the world.  For instance, if the specialists (or experts) tell us that races are biologically isolated populations of individuals then it might turn out that some of the things we thought were races actually aren’t races while other things we thought weren’t races actually are.  For instance, as the philosopher Anthony Appiah suggests, the Amish might meet this definition of race even though we don’t tend to think of Amish as a race.  The worry here is that what experts tell us racial terms pick out ends up deviating substantially from what we normally think racial terms pick out.  And if this happens, then our expert accounts of what race is may not match up with our ordinary account of race and all the important explanatory work such ordinary accounts of race play in our everyday lives.

The Domain Problem, the Expertise and Deference Problem, and the Mismatch Problem are three problems that any account of race will need to deal with.

-David Miguel Gray
Introductions Mills 1998 Appiah 1994
Related categories

569 found
Order:
1 — 50 / 569
Material to categorize
  1. On Reflexive Racism: Disavowal, Deferment and the Lacanian Subject.Jack Black - 2020 - Diacritics 48 (4):76-101.
    The term ‘reflexivity’ continues to maintain an interpretive hegemony in discussions on modernity and the Self. As a form of praxis, applications of reflexivity frequently rely upon an acknowledged awareness of one’s self-conscious attitudes, dispositions, behaviors and motives. This paper will take aim at such contentions, exploring the extent to which examples of racism rely upon a level of reflexivity, best encapsulated in Žižek’s ‘reflexive racism’. Specifically, it is highlighted how examples of non- racism/anti-racism assert the formal promotion of a (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  2. New Work for a Critical Metaphysics of Race.Ludwig David - 2021 - In Lorusso Ludovica & Winther Rasmus (eds.), Remapping Race in a Global Context. Routledge.
    Analytic metaphysics has become increasingly extended into the social domain. The aim of this article is critical self-reflection on the challenges of transferring the tools of analytic metaphysics from classical cases such as the very existence of abstract or composed objects to socially-contested phenomena such as gender and race. In reflecting on the status of metaphysics of race, I formulate a polemical hypothesis of misalignment according to which the tools of analytic metaphysics are not suitable for engaging with complex racial (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  3. Why We Shouldn't Compare Transracial to Transgender Identity.Robin Dembroff & Dee Payton - 2020 - Boston Review.
    Unlike gender inequality, racial inequality primarily accumulates across generations. In this article, Dembroff and Payton argue that transracial identification undermines collective reckoning with that injustice.
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  4. Dodging Darwin: Race, Evolution, and the Hereditarian Hypothesis.Jonny Anomaly - 2020 - Personality and Individual Differences 160.
  5. Critique of Black Reason, by Achille Mbembe. [REVIEW]Elinor Hayden & Liam Kruger - 2017 - Journal of the African Literature Association 11:371-372.
  6. Against the Philosophical Project of “Biologizing” Race.Anthony F. Peressini - 2021 - Metaphilosophy 52 (5):593-615.
    This paper critiques philosophical efforts to biologize race as racial projects (Omi and Winant, Racial Formation in the United States). The paper argues that the deeply social phenomenon of race defies the analytic schema employed by biologizing philosophers. The very (social) act of theorizing race is already in an involuted relationship with its target concept: analyzing race must be seen as a racial project, in that it simultaneously helps to manage how race is represented in society and helps organize society’s (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  7. Embodiment and Oppression: Reflections on Haslanger, Gender, and Race.Erin Beeghly - 2021 - In Brock Bahler (ed.), The Logic of Racial Practice: Explorations in the Habituation of Racism. Lanham, MA: Lexington Books. pp. 121-142.
    This chapter is an extended version (almost 2x in length) of an essay first published in Australasian Philosophical Review. -/- Abstract: In On Female Body Experience, Iris Marion Young argues that a central aim of feminist and queer theory is social criticism. The goal is to understand oppression and how it functions: know thy enemy, so as to better resist. Much of Sally Haslanger’s work shares this goal, and her newest article, “Cognition as a Social Skill,” is no exception. In (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  8. Genes Are the New Black: Racism and 'Roots' in the Age of 23andMe.William H. Harwood - 2020 - Social Philosophy Today:153-177.
    Although there is much discussion in scientific and law journals regarding direct-to-consumer genetic testing (DTCGT), there is a paucity of philosophical-ethical examination of how such services threaten to repeat the essentialist, racial-projects of the past. On the one hand, testing for ancestry can be cathartic: for those lacking familial history as to when and how they came to be where they are, DTCGT can offer powerful access to their lineage and identity-formation. On the other hand, DTCGT inevitably reinscribes problematic epistemologies (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  9. Sally Haslanger and Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak on the Possibility of Metaphysics of Resistance and its Implications for Postcolonial Feminist Theologizing.Jeane C. Peracullo - 2020 - Feminist Theology 28 (2):130-146.
    In Resisting Reality: Social Construction and Social Critique, contemporary feminist philosopher Sally Haslanger claims that the reality of race and gender is built on unjust social structures and must be resisted. Meanwhile, contemporary social theorist Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak extends the term ‘subaltern’ to Third World Asian women who were rendered inarticulate by centuries of oppressive masculinist, imperialist, and colonial rule. This article examines how a metaphysics of resistance, culled from philosophy and postcolonial studies, can contribute to expanding postcolonial feminist theologizing.
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  10. The Creolizing Genre of SF and the Nightmare of Whiteness in John W. Campbell’s “Who Goes There?”.Bernabe S. Mendoza - 2018 - Journal of Science Fiction and Philosophy 1:1-16.
    The alien in science fiction has not often been seen as part of an imperial colonial discourse. By examining John W. Campbell’s founding golden age SF text, “Who Goes There?” (1938), this paper explores the ways in which the alien adheres to an invisible mythos of whiteness that has come to be seen through a colonizing logic as isomorphic with the human. Campbell’s alien-monster comes to disseminate and invade both self and world and as such serves as an interrogation of (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  11. Categories We Live By: The Construction of Sex, Gender, Race, and Other Social Categories, by Ásta. [REVIEW]Elizabeth Barnes & Matthew Andler - 2020 - Mind 129 (515):939-947.
  12. Are Our Racial Concepts Necessarily Essentialist Due to Our Cognitive Nature?Eric Bayruns Garcia - 2019 - APA Newsletter on Hispanic/Latino Issues in Philosophy 1 (19):19-24.
    Mallon and Kelly claim that hybrid constructionism predicts, at least, that (1) racial representations are stable over time and (2) that racial representations should vary more in mixed-race cultures than in cultures where there is less racial mixing. I argue that hybrid constructionism’s predictions do not obtain and thus hybrid constructionism requires further evidence. I argue that the historical record is inconsistent with hybrid constructionism, and I suggest that humans may not be innately disposed to categorize people by race even (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  13. Beyond the "Logic of Purity": "Post-Post-Intersectional" Glimpses in Decolonial Feminism.Anna Carastathis - 2019 - In Pedro DiPietro, Jennifer McWeeny & Shireen Roshanravan (eds.), Speaking Face to Face/Hablando Cara a Cara: The Visionary Philosophy of María Lugones. New York, NY, USA:
    This chapter examines María Lugones’s germane and insightful attempt to theorize “intermeshed oppressions,” which, she argues, have been (mis)represented in women of color feminisms by the concepts of “interlocking systems of oppression” and, more recently, “intersectionality.” The latter, intersectionality, introduced by Black feminist legal scholar Kimberlé Williams Crenshaw as a metaphor (1989) and as a “provisional concept” (1991), has become the predominant way of referencing the mutual constitution of what have been theorized as multiple systems of oppression, constructing the multiplicity (...)
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  14. Biko on Non-White and Black: Improving Social Reality.Brian Epstein - 2018 - In George Hull (ed.), Debating African Philosophy: Perspectives on Identity, Decolonial Ethics and Comparative Philosophy. New York: Routledge. pp. 97-117.
    This paper examines Steve Biko’s distinction between black and non-white as a project in the “amelioration” of social concepts and categories. Biko himself—it has been persuasively argued by Mabogo More and Lewis Gordon—writes in the tradition of existential phenomenology. More and Gordon explore Biko’s continuity with Frantz Fanon, and in this paper I draw on their interpretations, attempting to complement and elaborate on these continuities. I also, however, attempt to show how Biko moves beyond Fanon in crucial ways, solving problems (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  15. Race as a Social Construction.J. L. A. Garcia - 2019 - The Harvard Review of Philosophy 26:115-133.
    This paper raises serious problems for the commonly held claim that races are socially constructed. The first section sketches out an approach to our construction of institutional phenomena that, taking Searle’s general approach, restricts social construction proper to cases where we adopt rules that bind relevant parties to treat things of a type in certain ways, thus constituting important roles in, and parts of, our social lives. I argue this conception, construction-by-rules, helps distinguish genuine construction from other activities and relations (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  16. Racism, Hypocrisy, and Bad Faith: A Moral Challenge to the America I Love.Julius Bailey - 2020 - Broadview Press.
    The election of President Donald Trump, through his campaign of race-baiting, sexual harassment, and blatant disregard for human decency, lowered the moral bar of American public discourse. Julius Bailey’s latest book discusses the current state of hypocrisy and mistrust in the American political system, especially as these affect ethnic minorities and low-income groups. In powerful and inspiring prose, Bailey writes with a voice well informed by current events, empirical data, and philosophical observation. Bailey looks at the causes and consequences of (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  17. W. E. B. Du Bois’s “Conservation of Races”: A Metaphilosophical Text.Kimberly Ann Harris - 2019 - Metaphilosophy 50 (5):670-687.
    Nothing was more important for W. E. B. Du Bois than to promote the upward mobility of African Americans. This essay revisits his “The Conversation of Races” to demonstrate its general philosophical importance. Ultimately, Du Bois’s three motivations for giving the address reveal his view of the nature of philosophical inquiry: to critique earlier phenotypic conceptions of race, to show the essentiality of history, and to promote a reflexive practice. Commentators have been unduly invested in the hermeneutic readings and as (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (8 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  18. Religion & Repugnance: Empiricism, Political Theology, Projective Disgust.Virgil W. Brower - 2019 - In Lars Aagaard Mogensen & Jane Forsey (eds.), On Taste: Aesthetic Exchanges. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: pp. 53-68.
    "[O]ther contributors argue that taste has a clear epistemic function. Brower cites Agamben as claiming that taste is a priveleged locus for knowledge...A phenomenology of taste, then, is no mere trivial or personal matter, but one with wide-ranging consequences. And some of these conseqences are ethical...[D]oes the debasement of taste indeed breed xenophobic oppression, as Brower is sure that it does? [sic:)] These are contentious claims. Surely a person of exemplary aesthetics and gustatory taste can still be a moral monster...aesthetic (...)
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  19. Kalpana Rahita Seshadri: HumAnimal: Race, Law, Language: University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, 2012, 309 Pp, 1 B&W Photo, Price: $25 , ISBN: 9780816677894.Chris Lloyd - 2016 - Feminist Legal Studies 24 (1):107-110.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  20. “Race”, “Sex”, and “Gender”: Intersections, Naturalistic Fallacies, and the Age of Reason.Carina Pape - 2015 - In Martin L. Davies (ed.), Thinking about the Enlightenment. London, Vereinigtes Königreich: pp. 153-170.
    The terms “race” and “sex / gender” have a specific relation to the Age of Enlightenment. Both were relevant for the new discourses of anthropology or the ‘nature of men’. Both have ‘naturalistic’ and social aspects that intersect, as the double-termed idea of “sex / gender” shows explicitly. The idea of “race” is no less complex. Both terms were topics of theoretical anthropology, but were nevertheless charged with pragmatic implications which lead to naturalistic fallacies: the equation of physical features and (...)
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  21. Onto-Epistemological Pluralism, Social Practices, Human Rights And White Racism.Mónica Gómez Salazar - 2017 - Cultura 14 (2):89-106.
    Based on onto–epistemological pluralism and social practices this work maintains that the proclamation of cultural neutrality originating in the idea of equality without any distinction of color, sex, language, religion or political opinion, really favors white racism and cultural imperialism of the liberal way of life.This article argues that the process of reasoning which justifies human rights is distorted by particular interests, such as the colonization of American territory in the case of the Declaration of the Good People of Virginia (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  22. Kant, Race, and Natural History.Stella Sandford - 2018 - Philosophy and Social Criticism 44 (9):950-977.
    This article presents a new argument concerning the relation between Kant’s theory of race and aspects of the critical philosophy. It argues that Kant’s treatment of the problem of the systematic unity of nature and knowledge in the Critique of Pure Reason and the Critique of the Power of Judgment can be traced back a methodological problem in the natural history of the period – that of the possibility of a natural system of nature. Kant’s transformation of the methodological problem (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   7 citations  
  23. How Race Travels. Relating Local and Global Ontologies of Race. Philosophical Studies.David Ludwig - 2018 - Philosophical Studies:1-22.
    his article develops a framework for addressing racial ontologies in transnational perspective. In contrast to simple contextualist accounts, it is argued that a globally engaged metaphysics of race needs to address transnational continuities of racial ontologies. In contrast to unificationist accounts that aim for one globally unified ontology, it is argued that questions about the nature and reality of race do not always have the same answers across national contexts. In order address racial ontologies in global perspective, the article develops (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  24. Strategic Conceptual Engineering for Epistemic and Social Aims.Ingo Brigandt & Esther Rosario - 2020 - In Alexis Burgess, Herman Cappelen & David Plunkett (eds.), Conceptual Engineering and Conceptual Ethics. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 100-124.
    Examining previous discussions on how to construe the concepts of gender and race, we advocate what we call strategic conceptual engineering. This is the employment of a (possibly novel) concept for specific epistemic or social aims, concomitant with the openness to use a different concept (e.g., of race) for other purposes. We illustrate this approach by sketching three distinct concepts of gender and arguing that all of them are needed, as they answer to different social aims. The first concept serves (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   7 citations  
  25. L'Avenir de la Race Blanche. [REVIEW]J. Novicow - 1898 - Ancient Philosophy (Misc) 8:291.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  26. The Race for Consciousness.Nigel Thomas - 2001 - Mind 110 (440):1127-1130.
    This ambitious work apparently has two main aims. The first is to provide a survey of the currently burgeoning field of "Consciousness Studies", presented via the extended metaphor of a horse race whose winning post is a full scientific explanation of consciousness. The second, which receives much more space, is to present Taylor's own cognitive/neuroscientific theory, dubbed "relational consciousness", and to persuade us that it should be the odds-on favourite to win. Neither aim is very well realized.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   10 citations  
  27. Barzan, Jacques. Race. [REVIEW]A. Goldenweiser - 1939 - Journal of Social Philosophy and Jurisprudence 5:362.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  28. From Racialized Philosophy to Philosophy of Race: Lucius T. Outlaw’s On Race and Philosophy. [REVIEW]Anthony Monteiro - 1998 - Radical Philosophy Review 1 (2):157-174.
  29. Race-Ing Justice: Randall Kennedy’s Race, Crime, and the Law. [REVIEW]Greg Moses - 1998 - Radical Philosophy Review 1 (2):150-156.
    This review of Randall Kennedy's book--Race, Crime, and the Law--argues that Kennedy provides useful evidence to indict the prevalence of racism at the turn of the 21st Century but that Kennedy's definition of racism, which relies on explicit discriminatory intent, is too narrow to account for the value of statistical approaches that he presents. A logic of disparate impact is necessary to diagnose and remedy the systematic oppressions of racism. The reviewer also considers a structural relationship between liberal and radical (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  30. In Defense of the Actual Metaphysics of Race.Quayshawn Spencer - unknown
    In a recent paper, David Ludwig argues that “the new metaphysics of race” is “based on a confusion of metaphysical and normative classificatory issues.” Ludwig defends his thesis by arguing that the new metaphysics of race is non-substantive according to three notions of non-substantive metaphysics from contemporary metametaphysics. However, I show that Ludwig’s argument is an irrelevant critique of actual metaphysics of race. One interesting result is that actual metaphysics of race is more akin to the metaphysics done in philosophy (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  31. Ancient Races of Baluchistan, Panjab, and Sind.George F. Dales & S. S. Sarkar - 1968 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 88 (3):647.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  32. Race Prejudice. Jean Finot.Erle Fiske Young - 1925 - International Journal of Ethics 35 (2):192-193.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  33. Race Questions and Prejudices.Josiah Royce - 1906 - International Journal of Ethics 16 (3):265-288.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  34. Our Relations With the "Lower Races".Henry Rutgers Marshall - 1901 - International Journal of Ethics 11 (4):409-423.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  35. L'Evolution Juridique Dans Les Diverses Races Humaines.T. Gavanescul - 1892 - International Journal of Ethics 2 (3):399-401.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  36. Race in 21st Century America by Curtis Stokes, Theresa Melendéz, and Genice Rhodes-Reed, Eds.Jemima Pierre - 2002 - Philosophia Africana 5 (2):71-77.
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  37. The Human Race. [REVIEW]V. C. A. & Emil Froeschels - 1948 - Journal of Philosophy 45 (24):668.
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  38. Adrian Desmond and James Moore, Darwin's Sacred Cause: Race, Slavery and the Quest for Human Origins. London: Allen Lane, 2009. Pp. Xxi+485. ISBN 978-1-846-14035-8. £25.00. [REVIEW]Gordon Mcouat - 2010 - British Journal for the History of Science 43 (1):119-121.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  39. Jenny Reardon, Race to the Finish: Identity and Governance in an Age of Genomics. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2005. Pp. 256. ISBN 0-691-11857-4. £11.95. [REVIEW]Lisa Gannett - 2007 - British Journal for the History of Science 40 (3):462.
  40. Reaction Time with Reference to Race.R. Meade Bache - 1895 - Psychological Review 2 (5):475-486.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  41. Appiah on Race and Identity in the Illusions of Race: A Rejoinder.David A. Oyedola - 2015 - Filosofia Theoretica: Journal of African Philosophy, Culture and Religions 4 (2):20-45.
    Whether Appiah’s concession in [The Illusions of Race, 1992] that there are no races can stand vis-a-vis Masolo’s submission in “African Philosophy and the Postcolonial: some Misleadingions about Identity” that identity is impossible, it is worthy to note that much of what is entailed in human societies tend toward the exaltation and protection of self-interest. Self-interest, as it is related to particular or individual entities, to a great extent, presupposes the ontology of different races and identities. Paul Taylor in “Appiah’s (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  42. Dickens and Race.Oliver S. Buckton - 2016 - The European Legacy 21 (5-6):594-596.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  43. Motherhood and the Invention of Race.Steven Martinot - 2007 - Hypatia 22 (2):79-97.
    This article attempts to do two things: reveal a continuity of structure in white supremacy in the U.S. between its initial invention in the seventeenth-century English colonies and the present, and advance a specific analysis of a moment in the process of that invention that involved the domination and redefinition of women. That moment was provided by the matrilineal servitude statute passed in Virginia in 1662. To highlight the meaning of this statute, the article begins with a portrait of a (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  44. Race and Language in the Darwinian Tradition.Gregory Radick - 2008 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 39 (3):359-370.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  45. Race Questions and Prejudices.Josiah Royce - 1905 - Ethics 16 (3):265.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  46. The Treatment of Subject Races.Mary A. M. Marks - 1900 - Ethics 10 (4):417.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  47. An Aristotelian Glance at Race and the Mind.lan Hacking - 1997 - Ethos: Journal of the Society for Psychological Anthropology 25 (1):107-112.
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  48. A Theory of Race.Joshua Glasgow - 2008 - Routledge.
    Social commentators have long asked whether racial categories should be conserved or eliminated from our practices, discourse, institutions, and perhaps even private thoughts. In _A Theory of Race_, Joshua Glasgow argues that this set of choices unnecessarily presents us with too few options. Using both traditional philosophical tools and recent psychological research to investigate folk understandings of race, Glasgow argues that, as ordinarily conceived, race is an illusion. However, our pressing need to speak to and make sense of social life (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   53 citations  
  49. The History of the Race Idea : From Ray to Carus.Klaus Vondung & Ruth Hein (eds.) - 1989 - University of Missouri.
    In _The History of the Race Idea: From Ray to Carus,_ Eric Voegelin places the rise of the race idea in the context of the development of modern philosophy. The history of the race idea, according to Voegelin, begins with the postChristian orientation toward a natural system of living forms. In the late seventeenth century, philosophy set about a new task--to oppose the devaluation of man's physical nature. By the middle of the eighteenth century the effort of philosophy was to (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  50. Race and State.Klaus Vondung & Ruth Hein (eds.) - 1997 - University of Missouri.
    _Race and State_ is the second of five books that Eric Voegehn wrote before his emigration to the United States from Austria in 1938. First published in Germany in 1933, the year Hitler came to power, the study was prompted in part by the rise of national socialism during the preceding year. Yet Voegelin neither descended to the level of contemporary debates on race nor dismissed these debates by way of value judgments. Although still young when he wrote this book, (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
1 — 50 / 569