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  1. Opening the black box of commodification: A philosophical critique of actor-network theory as critique.Henrik Rude Hvid - manuscript
    This article argues that actor-network theory, as an alternative to critical theory, has lost its critical impetus when examining commodification in healthcare. The paper claims that the reason for this, is the way in which actor-network theory’s anti-essentialist ontology seems to black box 'intentionality' and ethics of human agency as contingent interests. The purpose of this paper was to open the normative black box of commodification, and compare how Marxism, Habermas and ANT can deal with commodification and ethics in healthcare. (...)
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  2. Inductive Risk and Values in Composite Outcome Measures.Roger Stanev - forthcoming - In Kevin Elliot & Ted Richards (eds.), Exploring Inductive Risk. Oxford University Press.
    The use of composite outcomes is becoming widespread in clinical trials. By combining individual outcome measures into a composite, researchers claim a composite can increase statistical precision and trial efficiency, expediting the trial by reducing sample size and cost, and consequently enabling researchers to answer questions that could not otherwise be answered. Another rationale given for using a composite is that it provides a measure of the net effect of the intervention that is more patient-relevant than any single outcome measure. (...)
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  3. New Directions in Philosophy of Medicine.Jacob Stegenga, Ashley Kennedy, Serife Tekin, Saana Jukola & Robyn Bluhm - forthcoming - In James Marcum (ed.), Bloomsbury Companion to Contemporary Philosophy of Medicine. Bloomsbury Academic. pp. 343-367.
    The purpose of this chapter is to describe what we see as several important new directions for philosophy of medicine. This recent work (i) takes existing discussions in important and promising new directions, (ii) identifies areas that have not received sufficient and deserved attention to date, and/or (iii) brings together philosophy of medicine with other areas of philosophy (including bioethics, philosophy of psychiatry, and social epistemology). To this end, the next part focuses on what we call the “epistemological turn” in (...)
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  4. Biological Essentialism, Projectable Human Kinds, and Psychiatric Classification.Jonathan Y. Tsou - forthcoming - Philosophy of Science:1-21.
    A minimal essentialism (‘intrinsic biological essentialism’) about natural kinds is required to explain the projectability of human science terms. Human classifications that yield robust and ampliative projectable inferences refer to biological kinds. I articulate this argument with reference to an intrinsic essentialist account of HPC kinds. This account implies that human sciences (e.g., medicine, psychiatry) that aim to formulate predictive kind categories should classify biological kinds. Issues concerning psychiatric classification and pluralism are examined.
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  5. Medical Ontology.Kazem Sadegh-Zadeh - 2nd ed. 2015 - In Handbook of Analytic Philosophy of Medicine. Springer Verlag.
    Due to the intricate nature of its subject matter, medicine is always threatened by speculations and disagreements about which among its entities exist, e.g., any specific biological structures, substructures or substances, pathogenic agents, pathophysiological processes, diseases, psychosomatic relationships, therapeutic effects, and other possible and impossible things. To avoid confusion, and to determine what entities an item of medical knowledge presupposes to exist if it is to be true, we need medical ontology. The term “medical ontology” we understand to mean the (...)
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  6. Reviewing the Reproduction Number R in Covid-19 Models.Maria Cristina Amoretti & Elisabetta Lalumera - 2022 - Philosophy of Medicine 3 (1).
    Most of the epidemiological models of the Covid-19 pandemic contain the reproduction number as a parameter. In this article we focus on some shortcomings regarding its role in driving health policies and political decisions. First, we summarize what R is and what it is used for. Second, we introduce a three-question matrix for the evaluation of any construct or parameter within a model. We then review the main literature about R to highlight some of its shortcomings and apply to them (...)
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  7. Recent Work in the Philosophy of Medicine: An Essay Review. [REVIEW]John E. Huss - 2022 - Philosophy of Science 89 (1):193-201.
  8. Phenomenological physiotherapy: extending the concept of bodily intentionality.Halák Jan & Petr Kříž - 2022 - Medical Humanities 48 (4):e14.
    This study clarifies the need for a renewed account of the body in physiotherapy to fill sizable gaps between physiotherapeutical theory and practice. Physiotherapists are trained to approach bodily functioning from an objectivist perspective; however, their therapeutic interactions with patients are not limited to the provision of natural-scientific explanations. Physiotherapists’ practice corresponds well to theorisation of the body as the bearer of original bodily intentionality, as outlined by Merleau-Ponty and elaborated upon by enactivists. We clarify how physiotherapeutical practice corroborates Merleau-Ponty’s (...)
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  9. Francis Bacon Y René Descartes acerca Del dominio de la naturaleza, la autoconservación Y la medicina.Silvia Manzo - 2022 - Kriterion: Journal of Philosophy 63 (151):99-119.
    RESUMEN Francis Bacon y René Descartes han sido presentados tradicionalmente como pioneros de corrientes filosóficas opuestas entre sí. Sin embargo, son cada vez más los estudios que muestran importantes continuidades entre sus filosofías. Este artículo explora una de ellas: sus perspectivas sobre la medicina. El dominio sobre la naturaleza y el instinto de autoconservación son los elementos centrales del marco teórico dentro del cual se inserta su valoración de la medicina como la disciplina más destacada por sus beneficios para el (...)
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  10. C. Pierce Salguero (Editor). Buddhism and Medicine: An Anthology of Modern and Contemporary Sources. xv + 379 pp., app., figs., refs., index. New York: Columbia University Press, 2019. $150 (cloth); ISBN 9780231189361. E-book available. [REVIEW]Geoffrey Samuel - 2022 - Isis 113 (1):190-191.
  11. Evaluating emotions in medical practice: a critical examination of ‘clinical detachment’ and emotional attunement in orthopaedic surgery.Helene Scott-Fordsmand - 2022 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 25 (3):413-428.
    In this article I propose to reframe debates about ideals of emotion in medicine, abandoning the current binary setup of this debate as one between ‘clinical detachment’ and empathy. Inspired by observations from my own field work and drawing on Sky Gross’ anthropological work on rituals of practice as well as Henri Lefebvre’s notion of rhythm, I propose that the normative drive of clinical practice can be better understood through the notion of attunement. In this framework individual types of emotions (...)
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  12. Stefanie GängerA Singular Remedy: Cinchona across the Atlantic World, 1750–1820. xv + 238 pp., illus., notes, bibl., index. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2021. £75 (cloth); ISBN 9781108842167. E-book available. [REVIEW]Anna Simmons - 2022 - Isis 113 (1):186-187.
  13. Wherein is the concept of disease normative? From weak normativity to value-conscious naturalism.M. Cristina Amoretti & Elisabetta Lalumera - 2021 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 25 (1):1-14.
    In this paper we focus on some new normativist positions and compare them with traditional ones. In so doing, we claim that if normative judgments are involved in determining whether a condition is a disease only in the sense identified by new normativisms, then disease is normative only in a weak sense, which must be distinguished from the strong sense advocated by traditional normativisms. Specifically, we argue that weak and strong normativity are different to the point that one ‘normativist’ label (...)
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  14. Types, norms, and normalisation: Hormone research and treatments in Italy, Argentina, and Brazil, c. 1900–50.Chiara Beccalossi - 2021 - History of the Human Sciences 34 (2):113-137.
    Displacing the physiological model that had held sway in 19th-century medical thinking, early 20th-century hormone research promoted an understanding of the body and sexual desires in which variations in sex characteristics and non-reproductive sexual behaviours such as homosexuality were attributed to anomalies in the internal secretions produced by the testes or the ovaries. Biotypology, a new brand of medical science conceived and led by the Italian endocrinologist Nicola Pende, employed hormone research to study human types and hormone treatments to normalise (...)
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  15. The Biopsychosocial Model of Health and Disease: Responses to the 4 Commentaries.Derek Bolton - 2021 - European Journal of Analytic Philosophy 17 (2):(M6)5-26.
    I respond to the 4 commentaries by Awais Aftab & Kristopher Nielsen, Hane Htut Maung, Diane O’Leary and Kathryn Tabb under 3 main headings: “What is the BPSM really?” & Why update it?; “Is our approach foundationally compromised?”, and finally, “Antagonists or fellow travellers?”.
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  16. On evidence fiascos and judgments in COVID-19 policy.Stefano Canali & Saana Jukola - 2021 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 43 (2):1-4.
    Calls for evidence-based approaches to COVID-19 have sparked up discussions on the use of evidence for policy. In this note, we expand these discussions: while the debate has mostly focused on the types of evidence to be used for policy, we argue that the assessment of judgments involved in data practices and evidence production should play a central role in evaluating policy.
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  17. Mark Dennis Robinson. The Market in Mind: How Financialization Is Shaping Neuroscience, Translational Medicine, and Innovation in Biotechnology. xi + 309 pp., notes, bibl., index. Cambridge, Mass./London: MIT Press, 2019. $40 (paper); ISBN 9780262536875. [REVIEW]Lianne Habinek - 2021 - Isis 112 (1):213-214.
  18. Vanessa Heggie. Higher and Colder: A History of Extreme Physiology and Exploration. 253 pp., bibl., index. Chicago/London: University of Chicago Press, 2019. $40 (cloth); ISBN 9780226650913. E-book available. [REVIEW]Andi Johnson - 2021 - Isis 112 (1):198-199.
  19. Philosophy of Advanced medical Imaging.Elisabetta Lalumera & Stefano Fanti - 2021 - Springer International.
    This is the first book to explore the epistemology and ethics of advanced imaging tests, in order to improve the critical understanding of the nature of knowledge they provide and the practical consequences of their utilization in healthcare. Advanced medical imaging tests, such as PET and MRI, have gained center stage in medical research and in patients’ care. They also increasingly raise questions that pertain to philosophy: What is required to be an expert in reading images? How are standards for (...)
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  20. Follow *the* science? On the marginal role of the social sciences in the COVID-19 pandemic.Simon Lohse & Stefano Canali - 2021 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 11 (4):1-28.
    In this paper, we use the case of the COVID-19 pandemic in Europe to address the question of what kind of knowledge we should incorporate into public health policy. We show that policy-making during the COVID-19 pandemic has been biomedicine-centric in that its evidential basis marginalised input from non-biomedical disciplines. We then argue that in particular the social sciences could contribute essential expertise and evidence to public health policy in times of biomedical emergencies and that we should thus strive for (...)
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  21. Evidence, Defeasibility, and Metaphors in Diagnosis and Diagnosis Communication.Pietro Salis & Francesca Ervas - 2021 - Topoi 40 (2):327–341.
    The paper investigates the epistemological and communicative competences the experts need to use and communicate evidence in the reasoning process leading to diagnosis. The diagnosis and diagnosis communication are presented as intertwined processes that should be jointly addressed in medical consultations, to empower patients’ compliance in illness management. The paper presents defeasible reasoning as specific to the diagnostic praxis, showing how this type of reasoning threatens effective diagnosis communication and entails that we should understand diagnostic evidence as defeasible as well. (...)
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  22. Jan Peter Verhave. A Constant State of Emergency: Paul de Kruif: Microbe Hunter and Health Activist. (Historical Series of the Reformed Church in America, 98.) xxii + 656 pp., figs., bibl., index. Holland, Mich.: Van Raalte Press, 2020. $35 (paper); ISBN 9781950572069. [REVIEW]Daniel J. Wilson - 2021 - Isis 112 (1):200-201.
  23. Heat in Renaissance Philosophy.Filip Buyse - 2020 - In Marco Sgarbi (ed.), Encyclopedia of Renaissance Philosophy. Berlin: Springer.
    The term ‘heat’ originates from the Old English word hǣtu, a word of Germanic origin; related to the Dutch ‘hitte’ and German ‘Hitze’. Today, we distinguish three different meanings of the word ‘heat’. First, ‘heat’ is understood in colloquial English as ‘hotness’. There are, in addition, two scientific meanings of ‘heat’. ‘Heat’ can have the meaning of the portion of energy that changes with a change of temperature. And finally, ‘heat’ can have the meaning of the transfer of thermal energy (...)
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  24. Juhani Norri (Compiler). Dictionary of Medical Vocabulary in English, 1375–1550: Body Parts, Sicknesses, Instruments, and Medicinal Preparations. 1,294 pp., bibl. New York: Ashgate, 2016. £185 (cloth). E-book available. [REVIEW]W. F. Bynum - 2020 - Isis 111 (3):664-665.
  25. Julie Orlemanski. Symptomatic Subjects: Bodies, Medicine, and Causation in the Literature of Late Medieval England. (Alembics: Penn Studies in Literature and Science.) ix + 333 pp., notes, index. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2019. $69.95 (cloth); ISBN 9780812250909. E-book available. [REVIEW]Esther Cohen - 2020 - Isis 111 (4):871-872.
  26. What does ‘quality’ add? Towards an ethics of healthcare improvement.Alan Cribb, Vikki Entwistle & Polly Mitchell - 2020 - Journal of Medical Ethics 46 (2):118-122.
    In this paper, we argue that there are important ethical questions about healthcare improvement which are underexplored. We start by drawing on two existing literatures: first, the prevailing, primarily governance-oriented, application of ethics to healthcare ‘quality improvement’ (QI), and second, the application of QI to healthcare ethics. We show that these are insufficient for ethical analysis of healthcare improvement. In pursuit of a broader agenda for an ethics of healthcare improvement, we note that QI and ethics can, in some respects, (...)
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  27. Jessica Wang. Mad Dogs and Other New Yorkers: Rabies, Medicine, and Society in an American Metropolis, 1840–1920. (Animals, History, Culture.) xvii + 322 pp., notes, index. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2019. $54.95 (cloth); ISBN 9781421409719. E-book available. [REVIEW]Patricia D’Antonio - 2020 - Isis 111 (4):892-894.
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  28. The Belmont Report and Innovative Practice.Jake Earl - 2020 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 63 (2):313-326.
    One of the Belmont Report’s most important contributions was the clear and serviceable distinction it drew between standard medical practice and biomedical research. A less well-known achievement of the Report was its conceptualization of innovative practice, a type of medical practice that is often mistaken for research because it is new, untested, or experimental. Although the discussion of innovative practice in Belmont is brief and somewhat cryptic, this does not reflect the significant progress its authors made in understanding innovative practice (...)
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  29. Analytic philosophy for biomedical research: the imperative of applying yesterday's timeless messages to today's impasses.Sepehr Ehsani - 2020 - In P. Glauner & P. Plugmann (eds.), Innovative Technologies for Market Leadership - Investing in the Future. Springer. pp. 167-200.
    The mantra that "the best way to predict the future is to invent it" (attributed to the computer scientist Alan Kay) exemplifies some of the expectations from the technical and innovative sides of biomedical research at present. However, for technical advancements to make real impacts both on patient health and genuine scientific understanding, quite a number of lingering challenges facing the entire spectrum from protein biology all the way to randomized controlled trials should start to be overcome. The proposal in (...)
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  30. Josefina Rodríguez-Arribas; Charles Burnett; Silke Ackermann; Ryan Szpiech (Editors). Astrolabes in Medieval Cultures. vi + 508 pp., figs., notes, index. Leiden/Boston: Brill, 2019. €87 (paper). E-book available. [REVIEW]Seb Falk - 2020 - Isis 111 (3):660-661.
  31. Amelia Bonea; Melissa Dickson; Sally Shuttleworth; Jennifer Wallis. Anxious Times: Medicine and Modernity in Nineteenth-Century Britain. (Science and Culture in the Nineteenth Century.) vii + 312 pp., notes, bibl., index. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2019. $50 (cloth). E-book available. [REVIEW]Sander L. Gilman - 2020 - Isis 111 (3):677-678.
  32. The Humors in Hume's Skepticism.Charles Goldhaber - 2020 - Ergo: An Open Access Journal of Philosophy 7:789–824.
    In the conclusion to the first book of the Treatise, Hume's skeptical reflections have plunged him into melancholy. He then proceeds through a complex series of stages, resulting in renewed interest in philosophy. Interpreters have struggled to explain the connection between the stages. I argue that Hume's repeated invocation of the four humors of ancient and medieval medicine explains the succession, and sheds a new light on the significance of skepticism. The humoral context not only reveals that Hume conceives of (...)
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  33. From the China Medical Board to the China Foundation: The Network of Interlocking Patronage and China’s New Scientific Community, 1920s–1930s. [REVIEW]Wen Heng - 2020 - Isis 111 (2):264-283.
  34. Ole Peter Grell; Andrew Cunningham; Jon Arrizabalaga (Editors). “It All Depends on the Dose”: Poisons and Medicines in European History. (The History of Medicine in Context.) xiii + 244 pp., figs., tables, index. New York/London: Routledge, 2018. $155 (cloth); ISBN 9781138697614. E-book available. Frederick W. Gibbs. Poison, Medicine, and Disease in Late Medieval and Early Modern Europe. xvii + 313 pp., bibl., index. New York/London: Routledge, 2018. $155 (cloth); ISBN 9781472420398. [REVIEW]Wouter Klein - 2020 - Isis 111 (4):849-851.
  35. Sharon T. Strocchia. Forgotten Healers: Women and the Pursuit of Health in Late Renaissance Italy. (I Tatti Studies in Italian Renaissance History.) ix + 330 pp., figs., notes, bibl., index. Cambridge, Mass./London: Harvard University Press, 2019. $49.95 (cloth); ISBN 9780674241749. [REVIEW]Hannah Marcus - 2020 - Isis 111 (4):873-874.
  36. Suman Seth. Difference and Disease: Medicine, Race, and the Eighteenth-Century British Empire. (Global Health Histories.) xv + 324 pp., bibl., index. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018. £29.99 (cloth). ISBN 9781108418300. [REVIEW]Jonathan Marks - 2020 - Isis 111 (2):400-401.
  37. Keith Andrew Stewart. Galen’s Theory of Black Bile: Hippocratic Tradition, Manipulation, Innovation. ix + 178 pp., bibl., index. Leiden/Boston: Brill, 2018. €94 (cloth); ISBN 9789004382787. E-book available. P. N. Singer; Philip J. van der Eijk (Editors and Translators). Galen: Works on Human Nature. Volume 1: Mixtures (De temperamentis). With Piero Tassinari. (Cambridge Galen Translations.) xvii + 269 pp., illus., bibl., indexes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2019. £90 (cloth); ISBN 9781107023147. E-book available. [REVIEW]Caroline Petit - 2020 - Isis 111 (4):867-869.
  38. Reversing the medical humanities.Helene Scott-Fordsmand - 2020 - Medical Humanities.
    The paper offers the concept of reversing the medical humanities. In agreement with the call from Kristeva et al. to recognise the bidirectionality of the medical humanities, I propose moving beyond debates of attitude and aptitude in the application and engagement (either friendly or critical) of humanities to/in medicine, by considering a reversal of the directions of epistemic movement (a reversal of the flow of knowledge). I situate my proposal within existing articulations of the field found in the medical humanities (...)
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  39. Angela Ki Che Leung; Izumi Nakayama (Editors). Gender, Health, and History in Modern East Asia. ix + 315 pp., illus., bibl., index. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 2018. $50 (cloth); ISBN 9789888390908. E-book available. [REVIEW]Soyoung Suh - 2020 - Isis 111 (4):863-864.
  40. Experiential knowledge in clinical medicine: use and justification.Mark R. Tonelli & Devora Shapiro - 2020 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 41 (2):67-82.
    Within the evidence-based medicine construct, clinical expertise is acknowledged to be both derived from primary experience and necessary for optimal medical practice. Primary experience in medical practice, however, remains undervalued. Clinicians’ primary experience tends to be dismissed by EBM as unsystematic or anecdotal, a source of bias rather than knowledge, never serving as the “best” evidence to support a clinical decision. The position that clinical expertise is necessary but that primary experience is untrustworthy in clinical decision-making is epistemically incoherent. Here (...)
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  41. The ethical and epistemic roles of narrative in person centred healthcare.Mary Jean Walker, Wendy A. Rogers & Vikki Entwistle - 2020 - European Journal of Person Centred Healthcare 8 (3):345-354.
    Positive claims about narrative approaches to healthcare suggest they could have many benefits, including supporting person-centred healthcare (PCH). Narrative approaches have also been criticised, however, on both theoretical and practical grounds. In this paper we draw on epistemological work on narrative and knowledge to develop a conception of narrative that responds to these concerns. We make a case for understanding narratives as accounts of events in which the way each event is described as influenced by the ways other events in (...)
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  42. Looking Back to Look Forward: Disability, Philosophers, and Activism.Robert A. Wilson - 2020 - Diversity and Inclusion Section, APA Blog.
    How have and how might philosophers contribute to linking disability and activism in these peri-COVID-19 times, especially in forms of public engagement that go beyond podcasted talks and articles aimed at a public audience? How do we harness philosophical thinking to contribute positively to those living with disability whose vulnerabilities are heightened by this pandemic and the ableism highlighted by collective responses to it?
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  43. Is Coronavirus an object? Metametaphysics meets medical sciences.Raoni Wohnrath Arroyo - 2020 - Voluntas: Revista Internacional de Filosofia 11 (7):01-08.
    In ontological terms, what can we learn from the current state of the art in Epidemiology? Applying the Quinean criterion of ontological commitment, we can learn that there are several fundamental entities for the theory to work. One is a virus type entity, in which the (in)famous Coronavirus is a particular case. In metaphysical terms, this entity can, in principle, be understood in several ways. One of those ways, apparently, and perhaps intuitively, is the notion of object. Applying the metametaphysical (...)
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  44. Evidence amalgamation, plausibility, and cancer research.Marta Bertolaso & Fabio Sterpetti - 2019 - Synthese 196 (8):3279-3317.
    Cancer research is experiencing ‘paradigm instability’, since there are two rival theories of carcinogenesis which confront themselves, namely the somatic mutation theory and the tissue organization field theory. Despite this theoretical uncertainty, a huge quantity of data is available thanks to the improvement of genome sequencing techniques. Some authors think that the development of new statistical tools will be able to overcome the lack of a shared theoretical perspective on cancer by amalgamating as many data as possible. We think instead (...)
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  45. Teaching, Learning, and "Doing": Ethics for the Clinic and the Future of Psychiatry.Rebecca Weintraub Brendel - 2019 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 26 (3):195-197.
    Just over a decade ago, I began teaching medical students in the required preclinical course ethics and professionalism. The point of the course was to introduce basic ethical and professional norms through a small number of large group sessions, but mostly small group tutorials of 10 or 12 students engaging in weekly sessions combining readings from the literature and case scenarios highlighting real-life ethical tensions they either had, or would most likely, encounter in the future. The students wrote perceptively and (...)
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  46. Pere Grapí, Inspiring Air: A History of Air-Related Science. Wilmington: Vernon Press, 2019. Pp. ix + 352. ISBN 1-62273-738-5. £44.00. [REVIEW]Nicholas Danne - 2019 - British Journal for the History of Science 52 (4):717-719.
  47. Fanti, S., Oyen, W., & Lalumera, E. (2019). Consensus Procedures in Oncological Imaging: The Case of Prostate Cancer.Stefano Fanti, Wim Oyen & Elisabetta Lalumera - 2019 - Cancers 11:1178-1190.
    Recently, there has been increasing interest in methodological aspects of advanced imaging, including the role of guidelines, recommendations, and experts’ consensus, the practice of self-referral, and the risk of diagnostic procedure overuse. In a recent Delphi study of the European Association for Nuclear Medicine (EANM), panelists were asked to give their opinion on 47 scientific questions about imaging in prostate cancer. Nine additional questions exploring the experts’ attitudes and opinions relating to the procedure of consensus building itself were also included. (...)
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  48. Scientific ignorance.Manuela Fernández Pinto - 2019 - Theoria: Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia 34 (2):195-211.
    The aim of the paper is to clarify the concept of scientific ignorance: what is it, what are its sources, and when is it epistemically detrimental to science. While some sources of scientific ignorance come inevitably with the process of knowledge acquisition, others are deliberately created. The former includes selection processes, inductive reasoning, and cognitive biases, while the latter includes scientific fraud. Another important source of scientific ignorance appears when scientists introduce methodological biases through micro-decisions in the research process. I (...)
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  49. Sobre la polaridad simpatía-antipatía en la interpretación hipocrática de la phýsis humana.Ruy J. Henriquez Garrido - 2019 - Agora 38 (2).
    The purpose of this paper is studying the importance of the antithetical pair sympathy-antipathy, as an interpretive instrument of the human phýsis in the Hippocratic medical epistemology. His study aims to be a contribution to the understanding of the methods of inference developed by ancient medicine, in parallel to the demonstrative method.
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  50. The Importance of Learning Ethics for and from Psychiatrists: A Teacher–Trainee Reflection.Cynthia Geppert & Hammam Yahya - 2019 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 26 (3):199-201.
    It is our privilege to be invited to write a commentary on the "Interface of Ethics and Psychiatry: A Philosophical Case Consultation on Psychiatric Ethics on the Ground." The article presents an innovative collaboration between a philosopher and a psychiatrist reasoning together through the ethical aspects of three clinical cases. The case consultation also offers a unique opportunity to reflect on the teaching of psychiatric ethics in clinical settings. This commentary explores those areas of the article from the perspective of (...)
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