Ontology

Edited by T. Parent (Nazarbayev University)
About this topic
Summary Following Quine, ontology is here understood as the study of what there is. (Re: neo-Aristotelian ontology, the study of what grounds what, see the "Fundamentality" category.) Our focus is on the existence of the most generic things that populate many philosophers' ontologies, e.g., objects, properties, natural kinds, states-of-affairs, events, etc. We often talk of these things without thinking twice, but the existence of such entities can seem odd on reflection. For instance, it is natural to say that red roses and red firetrucks have something in common, the property of being red. But does this mean there is a single entity that is a constituent of *every* such rose and firetruck? A second example concerns composite objects: Suppose Abe Lincoln replaces the handle of his axe in 1825, and later in 1860 replaces the head. Does this mean he has owned more than one axe in his lifetime? In general, given a puzzling entity X, Realists about X will strive to minimize such oddities--whereas Anti-Realists often try to preserve ordinary talk of X, despite excluding X from their ontology. Questions about ontology can also lead to questions about these questions. Thus, ontology often bleeds into metaontology, the study of the study of what there is. In recent years, the ontology literature has grown dramatically, especially on metaontology and on composition.
Key works Besides Quine 1953, the articles in Wasserman et al 2009 are central to current metaontology. Lewis 1990 is a classic on mereology; see also ch. 4 of Lewis 1986. Other key works on composition are van Inwagen 1990, Sider 2001, and the selections in Rea 1997. Armstrong is the most important author on properties and universals; see Armstrong 1978 (two vols.) and Armstrong 1989. (These also are informative about Armstrong's influential view of states-of-affairs.) Lewis' critical studies of Armstrong are also must reads: Lewis 1983 and Lewis 1986. Some other important works in ontology are Meinong 1904, Benacerraf 1965, Quine 1968, Lewis & Lewis 1970, and Field 1980. An especially important, currently active ontologist is Thomasson; see especially Thomasson 1998 and Thomasson 2007.
Introductions Hofweber 2008, Rosen 2008, and Korman 2011 are especially recommended. Additional entries in the Stanford Encyclopedia are also relevant, e.g., "object," "properties," "intrinsic vs. extrinsic properties," "essential vs. accidental properties," "tropes," "natural kinds," etc. The pertinent chapters in Loux & Zimmerman 2003, Gale 2002, and Kim et al 2009 are also recommended.
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  1. Acts and Embodiment.Kit Fine - 2022 - Metaphysics 5 (1):14–28.
    The theory of embodiment is used in providing an account of the identity of acts and in providing solutions to various puzzles concerning acts.
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  2. Quantification and Ontological Commitment.Nicholas K. Jones - forthcoming - In Anna Sofia Maurin & Anthony Fisher (eds.), Routledge Handbook on Properties.
    This chapter discusses ontological commitment to properties, understood as ontological correlates of predicates. We examine the issue in four metaontological settings, beginning with an influential Quinean paradigm on which ontology concerns what there is. We argue that this naturally but not inevitably avoids ontological commitment to properties. Our remaining three settings correspond to the most prominent departures from the Quinean paradigm. Firstly, we enrich the Quinean paradigm with a primitive, non-quantificational notion of existence. Ontology then concerns what exists. We argue (...)
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  3. Markus Gabriel, Fields of Sense.Josh Lalonde - 2015 - Symposium.
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  4. The Mechanics of Existence.Yessim Bozheyev & Farabi Bozheyev - manuscript
    The proposed publication is oriented to those who are interested in the issues of being and thinking (consciousness). The emphasis on matter and movement in its dynamically stable state - tetrainertia, as a special phenomenon and the essence and quality of objective reality are considered.
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  5. Functionalising the Wavefunction.Lorenzo Lorenzetti - 2022 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 96:141-153.
    Functionalism is the view that being x is to play the role of x. This paper defends a functionalist account of three-dimensional entities in the context of Wave Function Realism (WFR), that can explain in detail how we can recover three-dimensional entities out of the wavefunction. In particular, the essay advocates for a novel version of WFR in terms of a functional reductionist approach in the style of David Lewis. This account entails reduction of the upper entities to the bottom (...)
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  6. Does God Exist?Peter Eastman - 2022 - Medium.Com.
    It shouldn’t be beyond the wit of human beings to come up with a few clear thoughts on this topic. If nothing else, we can treat this as a basic exercise in sceptical spiritual exploration. -/- But how exactly do we ‘take a look’? What ‘capacity’ do we use to do this? In other words, and to put it more crudely, which of our organs do we deploy in this (presumably important) quest for (presumably important) facts and answers? Do we (...)
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  7. Tying the Double Metaphysics of Johannes Clauberg: Ontosophia and Rational Theology.Andrea Strazzoni - 2014 - In Stefano Caroti & Alberto Siclari (eds.), Filosofia e religione. Studi in onore di Fabio Rossi. Parma: E-theca OnLineOpenAccess Edizioni. pp. 156-187.
    The German philosopher Johannes Clauberg (1622–1665) was the first academic teacher who attempted to put the philosophy of René Descartes (1596–1650) at the basis of all disciplines of the traditional curriculum of studies, that is, to establish a Cartesian Scholasticism. To this aim, he developed a first philosophy, i.e. a metaphysics including rational-theological arguments, which was based on Descartes’s Meditationes de prima philosophia (1641). By it, Clauberg attempted to provide philosophy with a foundation, namely with a demonstration of the reliability (...)
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  8. Goddard and Judge on Tractarian Objects.José L. Zalabardo - forthcoming - Australasian Journal of Philosophy.
    I discuss the idea that the objects of Wittgenstein’s Tractatus are propertyless bare particulars, an idea defended by Leonard Goddard and Brenda Judge in their monograph, The Metaphysics of the Tractatus. I present the difficulties that Goddard and Judge raise for this construal concerning the idea that Tractarian objects have natures that determine their possibilities of combination, and I assess the solution they propose. I offer an alternative construal of the notion with which these difficulties can be overcome.
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  9. Ontological Disagreements, Reference, and Charity: A Challenge for Hirsch's Deflationism.Delia Belleri - 2022 - Theoria 88 (5):982-996.
    Eli Hirsch argues that certain ontological disputes involve a conflict between “equivalent” languages, and that the principle of charity compels each disputant to interpret the other as speaking truly in their own language. For Hirsch, a language’s semantics maps sentences (in context) onto sets of possible worlds but assigns no role to reference. I argue that this method leads to an overly uncharitable portrayal of the disputes at issue – whereby ontologists who speak “equivalent” languages can only argue about syntax. (...)
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  10. Cosmos is a (Fatalistic) State Machine: Objective Theory (Cosmos, Objective Reality, Scientific Image) Vs. Subjective Theory (Consciousness, Subjective Reality, Manifest Image).Xiaoyang Yu - manuscript
    As soon as you believe an imagination to be nonfictional, this imagination becomes your ontological theory of the reality. Your ontological theory (of the reality) can describe a system as the reality. However, actually this system is only a theory/conceptual-space/imagination/visual-imagery of yours, not the actual reality (i.e., the thing-in-itself). An ontological theory (of the reality) actually only describes your (subjective/mental) imagination/visual-imagery/conceptual-space. An ontological theory of the reality, is being described as a situation model (SM). There is no way to prove/disprove (...)
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  11. What is It Like to Be Me?Xiaoyang Yu - manuscript
    No matter how many words/gestures one uses to describe his/her qualia, I won't be able to know what it was like for him/her to experience his/her qualia. I know what it was like for me to experience my qualia, simply because I can remember what it was like for me to experience my qualia. -/- So, to me, there is no evidence that anyone else can experience his/her qualia. -/- So, one can't prove to others that he/she can experience his/her (...)
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  12. L'irrealizzabile: per una politica dell'ontologia.Giorgio Agamben - 2022 - Torino: Giulio Einaudi editore s.p.a..
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  13. Emotions as States.Hichem Naar - forthcoming - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy.
    A common distinction in emotion theory is between ‘occurrent emotions’ and ‘dispositional emotions’, ‘emotional episodes’ and ‘emotional states’, ‘emotions’ and ‘sentiments’, or more neutrally between ‘short-term emotions’ and ‘long-term emotions’. While short-term emotions are, or necessarily comprise, experiences, long-term emotions are generally seen as states that can exist without experience. Given the theoretical importance of experience for emotion theorists, long-term emotions are often cast aside as of secondary importance, or at any rate as in need of separate treatment. In this (...)
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  14. Individuating Goods on Markets with a View Towards Ethics and Economics.Joshua Stein - 2022 - Journal of Social Ontology 8 (1):1-23.
    This paper proposes that goods (the things exchanged in financial transactions and an object of study in economics) should be individuated according to a two-place relation constituted by an object and a description. Several of the problems in contemporary philosophy of economics involve shifting focus from objects to descriptions, while certain phenomena central to micro-economics, market regulation, and political economy require consideration of one of the two places. The paper argues thatby considering both constituents in a relation, many of those (...)
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  15. What We Can and Cannot Say: An Apophatic Response to Atheism.Joshua Matthan Brown - forthcoming - In Joshua Matthan Brown & James Siemens (eds.), Eastern Christian Approaches to Philosophy. Palgrave Macmillan.
    Joshua Matthan Brown contrasts the concept of God assumed by most analytic philosophers, what he refers to as theistic personalism, with that of the apophatic conception of God endorsed by Eastern Christian thinkers. He maintains that the most powerful and economical response to contemporary arguments for atheism is to reject theistic personalism and adopt apophatic theism. Apophatic theists believe there is a lot we cannot say about God, taking the divine nature to be completely ineffable. Brown develops a coherent account (...)
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  16. Transcending Human Sociality: Eco-Cosmological Relationships Between Entities in the Ecosphere.Luis Gregorio Abad Espinoza - 2022 - Disparidades. Revista de Antropología 77 (1):1-17.
    Based on a discussion of the theoretical contributions of Claude Lévi-Strauss and Pierre Clastres, this article explores social relationships as more than a human dimension. Though strongly analysed by both anthropologists, these relationships appear to involve indigenous societies’ whole ecological and cosmological system. In this sense, reciprocity, social cohesion, and exchange can be understood as material and immaterial interrelationships between entities of a more than a corporeal world. I argue, then, that to go beyond the mere anthropocentric conceptualisation of sociality (...)
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  17. A Proposal for a Metaphysics of Self-Subsisting Structures. I. Classical Physics.Antonio Vassallo, Pedro Naranjo & Tim Koslowski - 2022 - Synthese 200 (5):1-32.
    We present a new metaphysical framework for physics that is conceptually clear, ontologically parsimonious, and empirically adequate. This framework relies on the notion of self-subsisting structure, that is, a set of fundamental physical elements whose individuation and behavior are described in purely relational terms, without any need for a background spacetime. Although the specification of the fundamental elements of the ontology depends on the particular physical domain considered---and is thus susceptible to scientific progress---, the empirically successful structural features of the (...)
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  18. Review of Alyssa Ney’s The World in the Wave Function: A Metaphysics for Quantum Physics[REVIEW]Mario Hubert - 2022 - Philosophy of Science 89 (4):864-875.
    There is not much of a consensus on almost anything about quantum mechanics. I take it, however, that the minimum consensus is that "although quantum mechanics is empirically successful, quantum mechanics is hard to understand." Quantum mechanics, in the way it is presented in most textbooks, does indeed not provide a clear picture of reality that would make it a theory to be understood. In her new book, "The World in the Wave Function: A Metaphysics for Quantum Physics," Alyssa Ney (...)
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  19. A Bitstring Semantics for Calculus CL.Fabien Schang & Jens Lemanski - 2022 - In Ioannis M. Vandoulakis & Jean-Yves Beziau (eds.), The Exoteric Square of Opposition. Cham: Springer. pp. 171–193.
    The aim of this chapter is to develop a semantics for Calculus CL. CL is a diagrammatic calculus based on a logic machine presented by Johann Christian Lange in 1714, which combines features of Euler-, Venn-type, tree diagrams, squares of oppositions etc. In this chapter, it is argued that a Boolean account of formal ontology in CL helps to deal with logical oppositions and inferences of extended syllogistics. The result is a combination of Lange’s diagrams with an algebraic semantics of (...)
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  20. No History to Be Found: Denying Relations in the Name of Realism.Gilbert Bennett - 2022 - Epekeina: International Journal of Ontology History and Critics 14 (1):1-22.
    Rejecting or reforming anthropocentrism for the sake of human survival is a central moral challenge in our time. The rejection of anthropocentrism relies on the view that anthropocentrism has pervasively constituted the historical character of humankind and must be replaced in the future as understood by historical theory. This critique arises from new realist ontologies, including neo-materialisms and object-oriented ontology. Their rigid rejection of anthropocentrism requires the view of history and sociality proposed by proponents of object-oriented ontology. It is based (...)
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  21. Worlds Are Pluralities.Isaac Wilhelm - forthcoming - Australasian Journal of Philosophy:1-11.
    I propose an account of possible worlds. According to the account, possible worlds are pluralities of sentences in an extremely large language. This account avoids a problem, relating to the total number of possible worlds, that other accounts face. And it has several additional benefits.
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  22. Die 'Physik als Wissenschaft' und die Fallstricke der Erkenntnistheorie.Rudolf Lindpointner - manuscript
    Die Physik als Wissenschaft übt eine besondere Faszination auf die Philosophie aus. Wohl deshalb, weil sie einen ähnlich fundamentalen Erkenntnisanspruch erhebt, wie die Philosophie selbst. Aber auch, weil sie in hohem Ausmaß Erkenntnissicherheit vermittelt und aus diesem Grund großes Vertrauen genießt. Dennoch scheint der Primat der Philosophie unzweifelhaft, und zwar aus dem schlichten Grund, dass es sich bei der Physik als Wissenschaft um ein Resultat menschlicher Erkenntnistätigkeit handelt, das insofern der 'Jurisdiktion' der Erkenntnistheorie unterliegt. Allerdings ist auch die Erkenntnistheorie ein (...)
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  23. Paraphrasability and the Causal Status of Types.Alexey Aliyev - 2022 - Theoria 88 (4):812-828.
    Some are attracted to the view that repeatable artworks, such as films, novels, plays, symphonies, photographs, and the like, are a particular kind of abstracta—namely, types. This view, however, is not unproblematic. One of the most serious problems it faces is the so-called "creation problem." The core idea behind this problem is that, on the one hand, it seems reasonable to accept the claims that (1) repeatable artworks are types, (2) types cannot be created, and (3) repeatable artworks are created, (...)
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  24. Modes, Disturbances, and Spatio-Temporal Location.Friederike Moltmann - forthcoming - In Objects and Properties. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    It is a standard assumption in contemporary metaphysics that concrete objects come with a location in space and time. This applies not only to material objects and events, but also modes (such as the roundness of the apple, the softness of the pillow, Socrates' wisdom) and entities that have been called 'disturbances' (e.g. holes, folds, faults, and scratches). Taking the approach of descriptive metaphysics, I will show that modes and disturbances fail to have a spatial location (or at least a (...)
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  25. La logica filosofica di Karl Jaspers. Analisi del problema logico nel Nachlass jaspersiano, Mimesis, Milano-Udine 2021.Ludovica Neri - 2021 - Mimesis.
    Il progetto della Logica filosofica di Karl Jaspers, com’esso si delinea nella prima parte, Della verità, pubblicata nel 1947, e nei tre volumi della seconda parte, la Dottrina delle categorie, la Dottrina del metodo e la Dottrina della scienza, pubblicati postumi nel 1991 nel Nachlaßzur philosophischen Logik, ha una gestazione graduale, corrispondente al periodo dell’intera produzione scientifica e filosofica jaspersiana. Da qui la difficoltà di delineare i suoi principali risvolti filosofico-teoretici. Secondo le indicazioni dello stesso Jaspers, tale progetto restituisce le (...)
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  26. Thomas d'Aquin, Dieu et la Métaphysique.Guy François Delaporte - forthcoming - Grand Portail Thomas d'Aquin.
    La somme d’Humbrecht fait preuve d’une érudition peu commune et d’un réel amour de Thomas d’Aquin (mais au détriment d’Aristote, comme c’est de mode). Sa réflexion s’allonge au fil de la plume, en des méandres et des reflux quelquefois difficiles à suivre. Mais donne aussi le sentiment heureux d’une libre méditation de l’auteur voguant au gré de ses pensées, méditation à laquelle il nous invite avec amitié, pourvu que nous acceptions de nous laisser guider. Hélas, si nous branchons un GPS, (...)
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  27. "It is of the Nature of Reason to Regard Things as Necessary, Not as Contingent": A Defense of Spinoza's Necessitarianism.Brandon Rdzak - 2021 - Dissertation, Purdue University
    There is longstanding interpretive dispute between commentators over Spinoza’s commitment to necessitarianism, the doctrine that all things are metaphysically necessary and none are contingent. Those who affirm Spinoza’s commitment to the doctrine adhere to the necessitarian interpretation whereas those who deny it adhere to what I call the semi-necessitarian interpretation. As things stand, the disagreement between commentators appears to have reached an impasse. Notwithstanding, there seems to be no disagreement among commentators on the question of necessitarianism’s philosophical plausibility as a (...)
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  28. A Dynamical Perspective on the Arrow of Time.Kian Salimkhani - 2022
    It is standardly believed that the generally time-reversal symmetric fundamental laws of physics themselves cannot explain the apparent asymmetry of time. In particular, it is believed that CP violation is of no help. In this paper, I want to push back against a quick dismissal of CP violation as a potential source for the arrow of time and argue that it should be taken more seriously for conceptualising time in physics. I first recall that CP violation is a key feature (...)
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  29. In defense of Countabilism.David Builes & Jessica M. Wilson - 2022 - Philosophical Studies 179 (7):2199-2236.
    Inspired by Cantor's Theorem (CT), orthodoxy takes infinities to come in different sizes. The orthodox view has had enormous influence in mathematics, philosophy, and science. We will defend the contrary view---Countablism---according to which, necessarily, every infinite collection (set or plurality) is countable. We first argue that the potentialist or modal strategy for treating Russell's Paradox, first proposed by Parsons (2000) and developed by Linnebo (2010, 2013) and Linnebo and Shapiro (2019), should also be applied to CT, in a way that (...)
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  30. An Ontology of Security From a Risk Treatment Perspective.Ítalo Oliveira, Tiago Prince Sales, Riccardo Baratella, Mattia Fumagalli & Giancarlo Guizzardi - forthcoming - In 41th International Conference, ER 2022, Proceedings. Cham: Springer.
    In Risk Management, security issues arise from complex relations among objects and agents, their capabilities and vulnerabilities, the events they are involved in, and the value and risk they ensue to the stakeholders at hand. Further, there are patterns involving these relations that crosscut many domains, ranging from information security to public safety. Understanding and forming a shared conceptualization and vocabulary about these notions and their relations is fundamental for modeling the corresponding scenarios, so that proper security countermeasures can be (...)
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  31. Ontology Generator.Alik Pelman - 2022 - Metaphysica:1-20.
    The paper proposes a simple method for constructing ontological theories—an ‘ontology generator’. It shows that such a generator manages to produce major existing ontological theories, e.g., Realism, Nominalism, Trope theory, Bundle theory, Perdurantism, Endurantism, Possibilism, Actualism and more. It thus turns out, surprisingly, that all these seemingly unrelated different ontological theories that were designed by thinkers hundreds of years apart, can all be generated using the same simple mechanism. Moreover, this same generator manages to produce entirely novel ontological theories, that (...)
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  32. Fichte, Transcendental Ontology, and the Ethics of Belief.Steven Hoeltzel - 2016 - In Halla Kim & Steven Hoeltzel (eds.), Transcendental Inquiry: Its History, Methods, and Critiques. pp. 55-82.
    Fichte’s Jena Wissenschaftslehre is often thought to occupy a standpoint from which claims about what there really is, as opposed to claims about how we necessarily represent things to be, are metaphilosophically prohibited or methodologically precluded. This essay argues that for Fichte a transcendental account of the necessary conditions for knowing supports an accordant understanding of the basic nature of being. These are linked by a reconception of the nature of rationality, and thus of rational justification, that Fichte’s transcendental epistemology (...)
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  33. Belief, Unity, and Parts to Whole in the Ontology of Person.Lucian Delescu - 2016 - Studii Franciscane 16:185-196.
    In this paper I continue to explore some of the problems I believe one encounters when attempting to unravel the ontology of person. I maintain my interest for classical philosophical theories which were equally concerned with this matter. I draw upon Hume’s philosophy and Husserl’s phenomenology by indicating their conceptual differences relevant to my current topic, but I adopt a thought-expe-rimental approach. That because, on the one hand, my purpose is not to reconstruct the logic of these philosophers in details, (...)
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  34. On the Difference Between Meaning and Perception.Lucian Delescu - 2021 - Studii Franciscane 21:317-337.
    This is the first in a series of attempts to unveil the implications of the ontological difference between meaning and perception. I begin with general consideration regarding the tension between dualism and physicalism and move on some phenomenologically driven set of implications which will be later detailed and expanded in order to lay the grounds for the architecture of meaning. The main assumption at work is that meaning and perception are ontologically different but not disconnected in a sense that in (...)
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  35. Le privilège ontologique d’un étant parmi d’autres : Martin Heidegger, l’existence et le vivant.Simon Tardif - 2022 - Ithaque 30:39-62.
    Cette étude entend analyser la thèse heideggérienne d’un « privilège ontologique » de l’humain sur les autres étants. Par le recours à une « lecture anthropologique » de Martin Heidegger, nous voulons montrer l’actualité, la pertinence et la légitimité d’une telle thèse en nous appuyant notamment sur Être et Temps (GA2) et les Concepts fondamentaux de la métaphysique (GA29/30), œuvres dans lesquelles Heidegger déploie des concepts et des arguments permettant de distinguer ontologiquement l’humain du reste du vivant en s’intéressant aux (...)
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  36. Ontologia informazionale: una visione del mondo come livelli di sistemi informati.Claudio Gnoli - manuscript
    This is an evolving short text drafting the main ideas of the author's ontology, before producing special articles on its various aspects. It suggests that the major ontical levels that can be identified in the world -- forms, matter, life, cognition and culture -- all can be described in terms of informational systems that follow combinatorial rules. The emergence of a major level from previous ones is triggered by the appearance of a new kind of memory (genomes, neural systems, symbolic (...)
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  37. Qubit Cosmology.Haikel Mubarek - manuscript
    Understanding the fabric and mechanism of the universe as an information processing procedure is one way of approaching the mystery of reality. And there should be ingredients of information for such a description. But if we are going to start from the origin of the universe, those ingredients should be found at the beginning. What is assumed, in this paper, to be found at the beginning of the universe is an outward-inward vanishing of a point. And those are taken to (...)
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  38. Pitagorejczycy, albo pochwała metafizyki.Jerzy Gołosz - 2021 - Filozofia i Nauka. Studia Filozoficzne I Interdyscyplinarne 1 (9):251-276.
    This paper attempts to demonstrate that the conviction about the harmony and order of the world was a fundamental metaphysical principle of the Pythagoreans. This harmony and order were primarily sought in the structures of arithmetics, yet following the discovery of incommensurable magnitudes (irrational numbers, as we now call them), the Pythagoreans began to see geometrical structure as a fundamental part of the world. On the example of the Pythagoreans’ metaphysics and science, the paper shows the mutual relations between metaphysics (...)
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  39. Arjen Kleinherenbrink (2019) Against Continuity: Gilles Deleuze's Speculative Realism. [REVIEW]M. Curtis Allen & Dylan Vaughan - 2021 - Deleuze and Guattari Studies 15 (3):458-469.
  40. Mathematics is Ontology? A Critique of Badiou's Ontological Framing of Set Theory.Roland Bolz - 2020 - Filozofski Vestnik 2 (41):119-142.
    This article develops a criticism of Alain Badiou’s assertion that “mathematics is ontology.” I argue that despite appearances to the contrary, Badiou’s case for bringing set theory and ontology together is problematic. To arrive at this judgment, I explore how a case for the identification of mathematics and ontology could work. In short, ontology would have to be characterised to make it evident that set theory can contribute to it fundamentally. This is indeed how Badiou proceeds in Being and Event. (...)
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  41. Counterfactuals of Ontological Dependence.Sam Baron - 2022 - Journal of the American Philosophical Association 8 (2):278-299.
    A great deal has been written about 'would' counterfactuals of causal dependence. Comparatively little has been said regarding 'would' counterfactuals of ontological dependence. The standard Lewis-Stalnaker semantics is inadequate for handling such counterfactuals. That's because some of these counterfactuals are counterpossibles, and the standard Lewis-Stalnaker semantics trivializes for counterpossibles. Fortunately, there is a straightforward extension of the Lewis-Stalnaker semantics available that handles counterpossibles: simply take Lewis's closeness relation that orders possible worlds and unleash it across impossible worlds. To apply the (...)
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  42. Seyn, ἕν, 道: Brevis tractatus meta-ontologicus de elephantis et testudinibus.Florian Marion - 2022 - Revue Philosophique De Louvain 119 (1):1-51.
    The question of ontological foundation has undergone a noteworthy revival in recent years: metaphysicians today quarrel about how exactly to understand the asymmetrical and hyperintensional relationship of grounding. One of the reasons for this revival is that the old quantificationalist meta-ontology inherited from Quine has been effectively criticised by leading philosophers favourable to a meta-ontology, the aim of which is to come to know “which facts/items ground (constitute the base of) which other facts/items”, thus to examine the relation of ontological (...)
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  43. The Structure of Nothingness: A Prelude to a Theory of the Absolute.Haikel Mubarek - manuscript
    Among the possible options for the origin of the universe the most sensible one is nothingness, because it is without a need for any other beginning. It must be possible for nothingness to have a structure so that we can speak about it. The structure of nothingness can be constructed by using inward-outward vanishing points, with a guiding principle of conservation of nothingness. When taken all at once, the inward-outward vanishing points remain as they are—nothing; but when they are taken (...)
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  44. Abstract Events in Semantics.Gilles Kassel - 2022 - Philosophia 50 (4):1913-1930.
    Here, we defend the thesis whereby the event plays a main role of sense in the meaning of certain sentences. This thesis is based on the one hand on recent work in the metaphysics of so-called “happening” entities, which has led to a distinction between concrete physical processes and abstract events, the latter being conceived as psychological constructs accounting for stabilities or changes in the world. Furthermore, we look back at the work on intentionality carried out in the Brentanian school (...)
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  45. L'ontologie du virtuel.Alexandre Declos - 2022 - Klēsis Revue Philosophique 52:1-25.
    David Chalmers a récemment soutenu que la réalité virtuelle est réelle, plutôt que fictionnelle. Dans cet article, j’examine les implications ontologiques de ce « réalisme virtuel ». Comme je le suggère, cette position s’associe naturellement à une ontologie algorithmique, qui identifie les objets virtuels à des structures de données comprises de manière fonctionnelle. Je présente ensuite plusieurs objections à cette ontologie algorithmique. Tant que celles-ci ne sont pas réglées, la question de l’identité des mondes et des objets virtuels reste encore (...)
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  46. Bradley’s Relation Regress and the Inadequacy of the Relata-Specific Answer.Jani Hakkarainen & Markku Keinänen - forthcoming - Acta Analytica:1-15.
    F. H. Bradley’s relation regress poses a difficult problem for metaphysics of relations. In this paper, we reconstruct this regress argument systematically and make its presuppositions explicit in order to see where the possibility of its solution or resolution lies. We show that it cannot be answered by claiming that it is not vicious. Neither is one of the most promising resolutions, the relata-specific answer adequate in its present form. It attempts to explain adhence (relating), which is a crucial component (...)
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  47. World and Logic.Jens Lemanski - 2021 - London, Vereinigtes Königreich: College Publications.
    What is the relationship between the world and logic, between intuition and language, between objects and their quantitative determinations? Rationalists, on the one hand, hold that the world is structured in a rational way. Representationalists, on the other hand, assume that language, logic, and mathematics are only the means to order and describe the intuitively given world. In World and Logic, Jens Lemanski takes up three surprising arguments from Arthur Schopenhauer’s hitherto undiscovered Berlin Lectures, which concern the philosophy of language, (...)
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  48. Heraclitean Flux Metaphysics.Andrew Dennis Bassford - forthcoming - Metaphysica: International Journal for Ontology and Metaphysics.
    This essay offers an original interpretation and defense of the doctrine of flux, as it is presented in Plato’s Theaetetus. The methodology of the paper’s analysis is in the style of rational reconstruction, and it is highly analytic in scope, in the sense that I will focus on the text itself, and only on certain parts of it too, while ignoring the rest of Plato’s extensive corpus, and without worrying about whether, how, and to what extent the interpretation of the (...)
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  49. Irreducibly Collective Existence and Bottomless Nihilism.Jonas Werner - 2022 - Synthese 200 (2):1-16.
    This paper develops the metaphysical hypothesis that there are irreducibly collective pluralities, pluralities of objects that do not have a singular object among them. A way to formulate this hypothesis using plural quantification will be proposed and the coherence of irreducibly collective existence will be defended. Furthermore, irreducibly collective existence will be shown to allow for bottomless scenarios that do not involve things standing in relations of parthood. This will create logical space for an anti-atomistic form of mereological nihilism.
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  50. Poststructuralism and Transcendental Philosophy: Derrida’s Différance.James Cartlidge - 2022 - Kritikos 1 (Spring).
    This paper examines how Jacques Derrida appropriates and deepens Immanuel Kant’s transcendental philosophy. In Derrida’s early essay on différance, Kant is conspicuous in his absence. One of the essay’s key aims is to re-think space and time, drawing on the work of Heidegger, Hegel, Nietzsche, and several others to do so. It is therefore curious that Kant is never mentioned, especially because the method and conceptual framework Derrida ends up adopting owes a huge debt to transcendental arguments. Derrida posits a (...)
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