Biomedical Ethics

Edited by L. Syd M Johnson (SUNY Upstate Medical University)
Assistant editor: Tyler John (Rutgers University - New Brunswick)
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History/traditions: Biomedical Ethics

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  1. Prognostication of Patients in Coma After Cardiac Arrest: Public Perspectives.Mayli Mertens, Janine van Til, Eline Bouwers-Beens, Marianne Boenink, Jeannette Hofmeijer & Catherina Groothuis-Oudshoorn - 2021 - Resuscitation 169:4-10.
    Aim: To elicit preferences for prognostic information, attitudes towards withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment (WLST) and perspectives on acceptable quality of life after post-anoxic coma within the adult general population of Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and the United States of America. Methods: A web-based survey, consisting of questions on respondent characteristics, perspectives on quality of life, communication of prognostic information, and withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment, was taken by adult respondents recruited from four countries. Statistical analysis included descriptive analysis and chi2-tests for (...)
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  2. Reproductive Justice for the Haunted Nordic Welfare State: Race, Racism, and Queer Bioethics in Finland.Tiia Sudenkaarne & Mwenza Blell - forthcoming - Bioethics.
  3. The Side Effects of Not Being Vaccinated: Individual Risk and Vaccine Hesitancy Nationalism.David Shaw - forthcoming - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry:1-4.
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  4. Satsuma - 3rd Place.Soo Hyun Choi - forthcoming - Journal of Medical Humanities:1-1.
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  5. Is Dupras and Bunnik’s Framework for Assessing Privacy Risks in Multi-Omic Research and Databases Still Too Exceptionalist?Karla Alex & Eva C. Winkler - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics 21 (12):80-82.
    Dupras and Bunnik’s strong statement against the normative approach of genetic exceptionalism, which can no longer be justified in the midst of multi-omic research, is of great importance fo...
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  6. Dementia, Frailty and Triage in a Pandemic.Dominic J. C. Wilkinson - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics 21 (12):1-4.
    I am grateful to the commentators for their deep engagement with the issues raised in my paper. They raise a number of important challenges and questions about the use of frailty i...
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  7. Whose Data Are They Anyway? Identification of Relatives and Genetic Exceptionalism.Robert I. Field - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics 21 (12):78-79.
    In developing a framework for assessing privacy risks, Dupras and Bunnik’s “Toward a framework for assessing privacy risks in multi-omic research and databases” considers the question of whe...
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  8. Scrutinizing Privacy in Multi-Omics Research: How to Provide Ethical Grounding for the Identification of Privacy-Relevant Data Properties.C. W. Safarlou, A. L. Bredenoord, R. Vermeulen & K. R. Jongsma - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics 21 (12):73-75.
    The outline of a framework for assessing privacy risks in multi-omic research and databases provided by Dupras and Bunnik is a valuable contribution to the literature on the ethics of omics data. T...
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  9. Ownership of Genetic Data: Between Universalism and Contextualism?Henri-Corto Stoeklé & Christian Hervé - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics 21 (12):75-77.
    The article by Dupras and Bunnik. makes a fundamental contribution in the context of the current boom in personalized medicine. We propose an additional crit...
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  10. Data Properties or Analytical Methodologies: Too Much Attention to the Former Ignores Concerns About the Latter.Mathias Brochhausen & D. Micah Hester - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics 21 (12):70-72.
    The paper by Dupras and Bunnik is a useful addition to the literature on privacy in regards to datasets of human tissue/materials. In particular, the paper addresses import...
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  11. Whose Data, Whose Risk? Omics Privacy Concerns Should Be Defined by Individuals, Not Researchers.Sabrina F. Derrington, Matthew A. Deardorff, Alexander R. Judkins & Xiaowu Gai - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics 21 (12):67-70.
    The framework proposed by Dupras and Bunnik was developed in response to their recognition that standard regulations are increasingly inadequate to address the complex privacy issues created by the...
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  12. Exceptionalism, Information Categories and the Relevance of Gender.Ruth Chadwick - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics 21 (12):65-67.
    Dupras and Bunnik take on the particular privacy risks of multi-omics, in particular via a contrast and comparison of genomics and epigenomics, followed by a consideration of the issues in r...
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  13. Toward a Framework for Assessing Privacy Risks in Multi-Omic Research and Databases.Charles Dupras & Eline M. Bunnik - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics 21 (12):46-64.
    While the accumulation and increased circulation of genomic data have captured much attention over the past decade, privacy risks raised by the diversification and integration of omics have been la...
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  14. What Can We Learn From COVID-19 Drug Development and Access for Non-Pandemic Diseases? A Chinese Perspective.Hui Zhang, Zhiping Guo, Lijun Shen, Yongguang Yang, Zhenxiang Zhang & Yuming Wang - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics 21 (12):42-45.
    The target article by Lynch et al. offers approaches for improving trial availability and Expanded Access for non-pandemic diseases based on the analysis of the COVID-19 experience in the US...
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  15. Utilitarian Lessons From the COVID-19 Pandemic for Non-Pandemic Diseases.Heather Browning & Walter Veit - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics 21 (12):39-42.
    The COVID-19 pandemic has created a unique set of challenges for national governments regarding how to deal with a major international pandemic of almost unprecedented scope. As the pandemic consti...
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  16. “If It’s Ethical During a Pandemic…”: Lessons From COVID-19 for Post-Pandemic Biobanking.Kyle B. Brothers, Aaron J. Goldenberg & R. Jean Cadigan - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics 21 (12):34-36.
    The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in widespread disruption of the typical way of doing things. In nearly every industry, responses to the pandemic have brought about departures from standard opera...
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  17. Another Cautionary Lesson From COVID Research.Christine Grady - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics 21 (12):36-39.
    Lynch and colleagues describe positive and cautionary lessons learned from recent extraordinary research efforts to develop COVID-19 vaccines and therapeutics and consider whether some of th...
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  18. Decisions on Innovation or Research for Devastating Disease.M. H. Andreae, L. D. Shah, V. Shepherd, M. Sheehan, H. S. Sacks & R. Rhodes - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics 21 (12):28-31.
    In their paper, “Helpful Lessons and Cautionary Tales: How Should COVID-19 Drug Development and Access Inform Approaches to Non-Pandemic Diseases?” Holly Fernandez Lynch and colleagues have present...
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  19. Physician Responsibility to Discuss Palliative Unproven Therapies With Out-of-Option Patients.Omar Kawam, Jon C. Tilburt & Zubin Master - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics 21 (12):31-33.
    We agree with Lynch et al. that patients with chronic diseases and Band-Aid treatments are unlikely to benefit from a version of Operation Warp Speed or by deprioritizing standards of scientific ev...
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  20. Avoiding Exceptionalism and Silver Bullets: Lessons From Public Health Ethics and Alzheimer’s Disease.Ignacio Mastroleo & Timothy Daly - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics 21 (12):25-28.
    Lynch et al.’ s work “Helpful Lessons and Cautionary Tales: How Should COVID-19 Drug Development and Access Inform Approaches to Non-Pandemic Diseases?” is an essential c...
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  21. Why Exceptional Public Investment in the Development of Vaccines Is Justified for COVID-19, But Not for Other Unmet Medical Needs.Eline M. Bunnik & Jilles Smids - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics 21 (12):22-25.
    In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, states have funneled exceptional amounts of public funding into research and development of diagnostics, treatments and vaccines to help fight the virus. In th...
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  22. Please, Don’T Fly Me to the Moon.Jason Karlawish - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics 21 (12):20-22.
    Years after the publication of “Helpful Lessons and Cautionary Tales: How Should COVID-19 Drug Development and Access Inform Approaches to Non-Pandemic Disease?” I hope it continues to animate and...
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  23. Helpful Lessons and Cautionary Tales: How Should COVID-19 Drug Development and Access Inform Approaches to Non-Pandemic Diseases?Holly Fernandez Lynch, Arthur Caplan, Patricia Furlong & Alison Bateman-House - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics 21 (12):4-19.
    After witnessing extraordinary scientific and regulatory efforts to speed development of and access to new COVID-19 interventions, patients facing other serious diseases have begun to ask “where’s...
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  24. From “Ought” to “Is”: Surfacing Values in Patient and Family Advocacy in Rare Diseases.Meghan C. Halley - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics 21 (12):1-3.
    In this issue, Lynch and colleagues discuss lessons learned from the “Operation Warp Speed” response to the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States—both about what to do and what not to do fo...
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  25. Defending the Substance View Against its Critics.Bruce P. Blackshaw - 2021 - The New Bioethics 1 (1):1-14.
    Recently, the substance view of persons has been heavily criticized for the counterintuitive conclusions it seems to imply in scenarios such as embryo rescue cases and embryo loss. These criticisms have obscured the considerable success of the substance view in supporting other intuitions that are widely shared, and that competing accounts such as the psychological view have difficulties accounting for. Here, I examine common intuitions regarding identity, human exceptionalism, the moral equality of children and adults, infanticide, and prenatal injury. I (...)
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  26. What If a Friend Asks Me to Assist Their Suicide?Christopher Cowley - forthcoming - Bioethics.
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  27. On the Uneasy Alliance Between Moral Bioenhancement and Utilitarianism.Karolina Kudlek - forthcoming - Bioethics.
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  28. Water - 2nd Place.Dana Vigue - forthcoming - Journal of Medical Humanities:1-2.
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  29. Mapping Out the Grounds for African Philosophy of Medicine and Bioethics.Chrysogonus M. Okwenna - 2021 - Sophia: An African Journal of Philosophy 19 (1):62-71.
    In this paper, I open an inquiry that provides a catalyst for the inauguration of African Philosophy of Medicine and Bioethics (APMB) as a full-fledged academic pursuit. I situate this inquiry within the quest of early professional African philosophers for a stirring of the course of contemporary African philosophy along the path of critically retrieving, clarifying, and articulating aspects of traditional African culture and practices in the light of social pluralism and modernization. The case I make for the establishment of (...)
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  30. Semi-Automated Care: Video-Algorithmic Patient Monitoring and Surveillance in Care Settings.Piers M. Gooding & David M. Clifford - forthcoming - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry:1-6.
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  31. Covid-19, Free Exercise, and the Changing Constitution.Alexander Morgan Capron - forthcoming - Hastings Center Report.
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  32. The Relational Care Framework: Promoting Continuity or Maintenance of Selfhood in Person-Centred Care.Matthew Tieu & Steve Matthews - forthcoming - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy.
    We argue that contemporary conceptualizations of “persons” have failed to achieve the moral goals of “person-centred care” (PCC, a model of dementia care developed by Tom Kitwood) and that they are detrimental to those receiving care, their families, and practitioners of care. We draw a distinction between personhood and selfhood, pointing out that continuity or maintenance of the latter is what is really at stake in dementia care. We then demonstrate how our conceptualization, which is one that privileges the lived (...)
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  33. Between “Medical” and “Social” Egg Freezing.Nitzan Rimon-Zarfaty, Johanna Kostenzer, Lisa-Katharina Sismuth & Antoinette de Bont - forthcoming - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry:1-17.
    Egg freezing has led to heated debates in healthcare policy and bioethics. A crucial issue in this context concerns the distinction between “medical” and “social” egg freezing —contrasting objections to bio-medicalization with claims for oversimplification. Yet such categorization remains a criterion for regulation. This paper aims to explore the “regulatory boundary-work” around the “medical”–”social” distinction in different egg freezing regulations. Based on systematic documents’ analysis we present a cross-national comparison of the way the “medical”–”social” differentiation finds expression in regulatory frameworks (...)
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  34. Vaccine Nationalism – at This Point in the COVID-19 Pandemic: Unjustifiable.Udo Schuklenk - 2021 - Developing World Bioethics 21 (3):99-99.
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  35. In Response to ʺThe Negative Impact of Ad Hoc Committees for Ethical Evaluation: The Case of COVID-19-Related Research in Ecuadorʺ.Tannya Lozada & Miguel Angel Garcia-Bereguiain - 2021 - Developing World Bioethics 21 (3):100-101.
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  36. Heart Sounds.Emerson Lee - forthcoming - Journal of Medical Humanities:1-2.
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  37. Medical Students’ Creation of Original Poetry, Comics, and Masks to Explore Professional Identity Formation.Johanna Shapiro, Juliet McMullin, Gabriella Miotto, Tan Nguyen, Anju Hurria & Minh Anh Nguyen - forthcoming - Journal of Medical Humanities:1-23.
    Introduction. This study examines differences in students’ perceived value of three artmaking modalities and whether the resulting creative projects offer similar or different insights into medical students’ professional identity formation. Methods. Mixed-methods design using a student survey, student narrative comments and qualitative analysis of students’ original work. Results. Poetry and comics stimulated insight, but masks were more enjoyable and stress-reducing. All three art modalities expressed tension between personal and professional identities. Discussion. Regardless of type of artmaking, students express concern about (...)
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  38. Cross-cultural bioethics: lessons from the Sub-Saharan African philosophy of ubuntu.James E. Sabin - forthcoming - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics:1-4.
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  39. Informing the Debate around ADHD: Take Care of Zizi, directed by Karim El Shennawy, 2021.Khalid Ali & Mona El Shimi - forthcoming - Journal of Medical Humanities:1-4.
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  40. Mechanisms of Defense in Clinical Ethics Consultation.Robert M. Guerin - forthcoming - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy.
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  41. The “Medical Friendship” or the True Meaning of the Doctor-Patient Relationship From Two Complementary Perspectives: Goya and Laín.Roger Ruiz-Moral - forthcoming - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy.
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  42. The Introduction to Law, Medicine, and Bioethics: Role of Interdisciplinary Leadership in Influencing Health and Public Health Policy and Democratic Systems of Governance.Mary Beth Quaranta Morrissey & Basia D. Ellis - 2021 - Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 41 (4):213-215.
  43. Cash Incentives, Ethics, and COVID-19 Vaccination.Nancy Jecker - 2021 - Science 6569 (374):819-820.
    Monetary incentives to increase COVID-19 vaccinations are widely used. Even if they work, whether such payments are ethical is contested. This paper reviews ethical arguments for and against using monetary incentives that appeal to utility, liberty, civic responsibility, equity, exploitation, and autonomy. It concludes that in low-income nations and nations with meagre safety nets and income inequality, policy-makers should proceed with caution.
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  44. Mass Effect – 1st Place.Steven Pan - forthcoming - Journal of Medical Humanities:1-2.
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  45. Making the (Business) Case for Clinical Ethics Support in the UK.L. L. Machin & Mark Wilkinson - 2021 - HEC Forum 33 (4):371-391.
    This paper provides a series of reflections on making the case to senior leaders for the introduction of clinical ethics support services within a UK hospital Trust at a time when clinical ethics committees are dwindling in the UK. The paper provides key considerations for those building a case for clinical ethics support within hospitals by drawing upon published academic literature, and key reports from governmental and professional bodies. We also include extracts from documents relating to, and annual reports of, (...)
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  46. Looking Behind the Fear of Becoming a Burden.Brandy M. Fox - 2021 - HEC Forum 33 (4):401-414.
    As they age, many people are afraid that they might become a burden to their families and friends. In fact, fear of being a burden is one of the most frequently cited reasons for individuals who request physician aid in dying. Why is this fear so prevalent, and what are the issues underlying this concern? I argue that perceptions of individual autonomy, dependency, and dignity all contribute to the fear of becoming a burden. However, this fear is misplaced; common conceptions (...)
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  47. Forced Nutrition of a Pediatric Patient with Autism Spectrum Disorder.Lauren Bunch - 2021 - HEC Forum 33 (4):393-400.
    Autism spectrum disorder affects an estimated 1 in 54 children aged 8 years in the United States. For many of these children, there are concomitant eating and/or behavioral challenges that can make managing their nutritional health challenging. This commentary responds to a particularly challenging case in which a pediatric patient with ASD presented to the local hospital’s emergency department with severe weight loss and malnutrition.
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  48. Is Left Ventricular Assist Device Deactivation Ethically Acceptable? A Study on the Euthanasia Debate.Sara Roggi & Mario Picozzi - 2021 - HEC Forum 33 (4):325-343.
    In the last decades, new technologies have improved the survival of patients affected by chronic illnesses. Among them, left ventricular assist device has represented a viable solution for patients with advanced heart failure. Even though the LVAD prolongs life expectancy, patients’ vulnerability generally increases during follow up and patients’ request for the device withdrawal might occur. Such a request raises some ethical concerns in that it directly hastens the patient’s death. Hence, in order to assess the ethical acceptability of LVAD (...)
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  49. Moral Distress Entangled: Patients and Providers in the COVID-19 Era.Sarah Vittone & Claudia R. Sotomayor - 2021 - HEC Forum 33 (4):415-423.
    Moral distress is defined as the inability to act according to one’s own core values. During the COVID-19 pandemic, moral distress in medical personnel has gained attention, related to the impact of pandemic-associated factors, such as the uncertainty of treatment options for the virus and the accelerated pace of deaths. Measures to provide aid and mitigate the long-term pandemic effect on providers are starting to be designed. Yet, little has been said about the moral distress experienced by patients and the (...)
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  50. Pediatric Off-Label Use of Covid-19 Vaccines: Ethical and Legal Considerations.Elizabeth Lanphier & Shannon Fyfe - forthcoming - Hastings Center Report.
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