About this topic
Summary According to the third edition of the Shorter Oxford English Dictionary (1965) the adjective "eugenic" means "pertaining or adopted to the production of fine offspring". This is the "thin", abstract meaning of "eugenic", which carries no moral or historical connotation. In this sense, the ante-natal selection of the genetic characteristics of living beings (genetic selection) and its improvement (gene-therapy or genetic enhancement) all qualify as forms of eugenics. The word is used in this morally neutral way by contemporary proponents of "liberal eugenics". However, the word "Eugenics" may also refer to the core ideas of Francis Galton (who invented the word) and his immediate followers; or to the specific policies adopted mainly in Europe and in the United States, roughly from the beginning of the twentieth century to the end of WW2. Because such policies, including forced sterilization in US and Nazi Germany, are nowadays widely regarded as immoral, the term "eugenics" is often intended as having an intrinsic negative connotation. For that reason, some authors reject "eugenic talk" and the identification of human genetic enhancement and eugenics. This category includes works on both early eugenics and comparisons between early eugenics, traditional eugenic themes, and liberal eugenics.     
Key works

Harris 1993 argues that even if gene-therapy for removing disability or for enhancing normal human traits is a form of eugenics,  it is morally sound. He identifies the morally unsound aspect of eugenics with the idea that "those who are genetically weak should be discouraged from reproducing". He objects that eugenics properly understood maintains that "everyone should be discouraged from reproducing children who will be significantly harmed by their genetic constitution". Thus, eugenics through gene-therapy is morally sound because, unlike past eugenics, it might "enable individuals with genetic defects to be sure of having healthy rather than harmed children".  Wikler 1999 provides a short history of eugenic movements and argues that we must learn from it, for instance by avoiding genetic determinism, class and race biases and the conviction that genetic improvement overrides the freedom of the individual whether and with whom to procreate. Wikler tries to identify the "original sin" in Eugenics, which leads him to analyze and discard many usual objections against it. Agar 2004 is important as perhaps the first book that uses the expression "eugenics" with a positive connotation coherently throughout. Agar endorses eugenics achieved by parents in a society which respects reproductive liberties since, unlike traditional eugenics, it is compatible with a pluralism of different conceptions about human flourishing.Savulescu 2001 argues that couples or single reproducers have a prima facie moral duty to select the embryo with the best life prospects,  selecting against harmful genetic susceptibilities and in favor of beneficial ones. Wilkinson 2010 rejects the identification of "eugenics" and moral claims made in the context of the bioethical debate concerning pre-implantation genetic diagnosis and screening. He claims that it is wrong to the emotional power of "eugenic talk" to bypass rational critical faculties.

Introductions Harris 1993 Chadwick 2001 Wikler 1999 Wilkinson 2008 Buchanan 2007
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672 found
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  1. Genetics, Eugenics and the Future: A Critique of Philip Kitcher's Utopian Eugenics.Mark Blocher - unknown - Proceedings of the Heraclitean Society 19.
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  2. The debate over liberal eugenics.Nicholas Agar, Dan W. Brock, Paul Lauritzen & Bernard G. Prusak - forthcoming - Hastings Center Report.
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  3. The Ethics of Genetic Enhancement: Key Concepts and Future Prospects.Jonathan Anomaly & Tess Johnson - forthcoming - In The Ethics of Human Enhancement. London: Routledge Press.
  4. Eugenics: then and now.Carl Jay Bajema - forthcoming - Philosophical Explorations.
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  5. China and Eugenics-Preliminary remarks concerning the structure and impact of a problem of International Bioethics.Ole Doering - forthcoming - Bioethics in Asia.
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  6. What Sort of People Should There Be?Jonathan Glover - forthcoming - Philosophical Explorations.
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  7. The State of Ohio’s Auditors, the Enumeration of Population, and the Project of Eugenics.Cameron Graham, Martin E. Persson, Vaughan S. Radcliffe & Mitchell J. Stein - forthcoming - Journal of Business Ethics:1-23.
    In 1856, the State of Ohio began an enumeration of its population to count and identify people with disabilities. This paper examines the ethical role of the accounting profession in this project, which supported the transatlantic eugenics movement and its genocidal attempts to eliminate disabled persons from the population. We use a theoretical approach based on Levinas who argued that the self is generated through engagement with the Other, and that this engagement presupposes a responsibility to and for the Other. (...)
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  8. Lock Out'Back Door Eugenics.'.David Magnus - forthcoming - Penn Bioethics, 3 (1).
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  9. Eugenics: The scrence and religron of the Nazis.Benno Miiller-Hill - forthcoming - Paper Pre Sented at Conference on ‘the Meanmg of the Holocaust for Bioethics,” Minneapo Lrs, May.
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  10. Nietzsche’s Naturalist Morality of Breeding: A Critique of Eugenics as Taming.Donovan Miyasaki - forthcoming - In Vanessa Lemm (ed.), Nietzsche and the Becoming of Life. Fordham.
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  11. 4 the eugenics review.Mr Osborn & Mr Bloomfield - forthcoming - The Eugenics Review.
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  12. Race, Eugenics, and the Holocaust.Jonathan Anomaly - 2022 - In Ira Bedzow & Stacy Gallin (eds.), Bioethics and the Holocaust. Springer. pp. 153-170.
  13. Reproductive carrier screening: responding to the eugenics critique.Lisa Dive & Ainsley J. Newson - 2022 - Journal of Medical Ethics 48 (12):1060-1067.
    Reproductive genetic carrier screening (RCS), when offered to anyone regardless of their family history or ancestry, has been subject to the critique that it is a form of eugenics. Eugenics describes a range of practices that seek to use the science of heredity to improve the genetic composition of a population group. The term is associated with a range of unethical programmes that were taken up in various countries during the 20th century. Contemporary practice in medical genetics has, understandably, distanced (...)
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  14. Reinventing Expertise in the History of Psychiatry and Eugenics.Erika Dyck - 2022 - Spontaneous Generations 10 (1):107-112.
    This reflection piece considers how expertise has been generated within the history of madness, disability, eugenics, psychiatry and anti-psychiatry. As numerous scholars and critics have pointed out, the power of rational argumentation can be persuasive, while its absence can be pathologized. Yet, in the fields of madness studies and critical disability studies we can see many examples of how the dividing line between normal and pathological states have been contested, especially where those categories correspond with notions of expertise, experience, and (...)
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  15. The Norwegian Association for Heredity Research and the Organized International Eugenics Movement. Expertise, Authority, Transnational Networks and International Organization in Norwegian Genetics and Eugenics.Jon Røyne Kyllingstad - 2022 - Perspectives on Science 30 (1):77-107.
    The Norwegian Association for Heredity Research played a key role in the rise of genetics as a research field in Norway. The immediate background of its establishment in 1919 was the need for an organization that could clarify scientific issues regarding eugenics and coordinate Norwegian representation in the organized international eugenics movement. The Association never assumed this role. Instead, Norway was represented in the international eugenics movement by the so-called Norwegian Consultative Eugenics Commission, whose leader, Jon Alfred Mjøen, was dismissed (...)
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  16. Eugenics or Not, Prenatal Genetic Testing’s Common Issues Need to Be Addressed.Mark W. Leach - 2022 - In Megan A. Allyse & Marsha Michie (eds.), Born Well: Prenatal Genetics and the Future of Having Children. Springer Verlag. pp. 33-44.
    Critiques of prenatal genetic testing as eugenic have been debated for decades, but this strident debate can obscure ways in which persistent eugenic aspects of prenatal genetic testing can and should be addressed. Comparing arguments and professional guidelines regarding prenatal testing for genetic conditions with those regarding sex selection can provide useful insights into the ways prenatal genetic testing is offered by clinicians and administered by government programs. This chapter addresses the predominant funding models for prenatal genetic testing and ways (...)
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  17. “We Who Champion the Unborn”: Racial Poisons, Eugenics, and the Campaign for Prohibition.Paul A. Lombardo - 2022 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 50 (1):124-138.
    Dr. Caleb Williams Saleeby was the author of Parenthood and Race Culture, one of the first monographs on eugenics and the book that popularized the term “racial poison.” The goal of eradicating the racial poisons and the harm they caused — particularly infant morbidity and mortality — provided common ground for early 20th century reformers, and their concerns fed the growing support for legal prohibition of alcohol.
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  18. From genome editing to human genetic enhancement: a new time for discussing eugenics?Mauro Mandrioli - 2022 - Scienza E Filosofia 27:237-250.
    From genome editing to human genetic enhancement: a new time for discussing eugenics? In the last decade several Authors strongly suggested that genome editing technologies are just related to gene therapy rejecting any eugenic discussion about them. Actually, this dispute is mainly influenced by the previous terrific consequences of eugenic measures rather than by the real consequences that genome editing technologies could have on the future societies. Here we discuss genome editing technologies as eugenic approaches in order to assess that (...)
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  19. Eugenics and photography in Britain, the USA and Australia 1870–1940.Anne Maxwell - 2022 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 92 (C):71-85.
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  20. The Call of the Hoatzin: Ecology, Evolution, and Eugenics at the Bronx Zoo.Katherine McLeod - 2022 - Centaurus 64 (3):683-704.
    From 1908 to 1922, William Beebe, the curator of birds at the Bronx Zoo, tried unsuccessfully to bring tropical birds known as hoatzin to the zoological park in the Bronx run by the New York Zoological Society. Beebe was committed to bringing hoatzin to the zoo because he thought they could reveal scientific truths about ecology and evolution to him and the visiting public. While contemporary scholarship about zoo science in the United States has focused on how environmental conservation shaped (...)
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  21. Moral Challenges of Liberal Eugenics Based on the Principle of Justice.Naser Noormohamad & Ali Reza Alebouyeh - 2022 - Journal of Philosophical Theological Research 24 (1):89-112.
    For a long time, human beings have been wishing to improve the genetic composition of their generation and clearing it of some disabilities and defects, and this concern has always been pursued in different ways in different eras. The existence of authoritarian and racist policies and discriminatory methods in the old Eugenics made it easy to rule that it was immoral, but it is somewhat difficult to judge the liberal and new Eugenics because one group, citing the scientific contexts and (...)
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  22. L'intelligenza tra natura e cultura.Davide Serpico - 2022 - Turin: Rosenberg & Sellier.
    ENG: We all have our own ideas about what it is like to be intelligent. Indeed, even the experts disagree on this topic. This has generated diverse theories on the nature of intelligence and its genetic and environmental bases. Many scientific and philosophical questions thus remain unaddressed: is it possible to characterize intelligence in scientific terms? What do IQ tests measure? How is intelligence influenced by genetics, epigenetics, and the environment? What are the ethical and social implications of the research (...)
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  23. Uterus collectors: The case for reproductive justice for African American, Native American, and Hispanic American female victims of eugenics programs in the United States.Eric D. Smaw - 2022 - Bioethics 36 (3):318-327.
    Bioethics, Volume 36, Issue 3, Page 318-327, March 2022.
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  24. Disability's challenge to theology: genes, eugenics, and the metaphysics of modern medicine.Devan Stahl - 2022 - Notre Dame, Indiana: University of Notre Dame Press.
    This book uses insights from disability studies to understand in a deeper way the ethical implications that genetic technologies pose for Christian thought. Theologians have been debating genetic engineering for decades, but what has been missing from many theological debates is a deep concern for persons with genetic disabilities. In this ambitious and stimulating book, Devan Stahl argues that engagement with metaphysics and a theology of nature is crucial for Christians to evaluate both genetic science and the moral use of (...)
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  25. Eugenics, Disability, and Bioethics.Robert A. Wilson - 2022 - In Joel Reynolds & Christine Weiseler (eds.), The Disability Bioethics Reader. New York, NY, USA: Routledge. pp. 21-29.
    This paper begins by saying enough about eugenics to explain why disability is central to eugenics (section 2), then elaborates on why cognitive disability has played and continues to play a special role in eugenics and in thinking about moral status (section 3) before identifying three reasons why eugenics remains a live issue in contemporary bioethics (section 4). After a reminder of the connections between Nazi eugenics, medicine, and bioethics (section 5), it returns to take up two more specific clusters (...)
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  26. Aesthetics in the Eugenics Movement: A Critical Examination.Peter J. Woods - 2022 - Journal of Aesthetic Education 56 (2):56-77.
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  27. R.A. Fisher, eugenics, and the campaign for family allowances in interwar Britain.Alex Aylward - 2021 - British Journal for the History of Science 54 (4):485-505.
    Ronald Aylmer Fisher is today remembered as a giant of twentieth-century statistics, genetics and evolutionary theory. Alongside his influential scientific contributions, he was also, throughout the interwar years, a prominent figure within Britain's eugenics movement. This essay provides a close examination of his eugenical ideas and activities, focusing particularly upon his energetic advocacy of family allowances, which he hoped would boost eugenic births within the more ‘desirable’ middle and upper classes. Fisher's proposals, which were grounded in his distinctive explanation for (...)
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  28. Paul-André Rosental. A Human Garden: French Policy and the Transatlantic Legacies of Eugenic Experimentation. Translated by Carolyn Avery. Foreword by Theodore M. Porter. (Berghahn Monographs in French Studies, 16.) 248 pp., illus., bibl., index. New York/Oxford: Berghahn Books, 2019. $135 (cloth); ISBN 9781789205435. E-book available. [REVIEW]Alice L. Conklin - 2021 - Isis 112 (1):206-207.
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  29. Can ‘eugenics’ be defended?Francesca Minerva, Diana S. Fleischman, Peter Singer, Nicholas Agar, Jonathan Anomaly & Walter Veit - 2021 - Monash Bioethics Review 39 (1):60-67.
  30. A Nietzschean Critique of Liberal Eugenics.Donovan Tateshi Miyasaki - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 1.
    Ethical debates about liberal eugenics frequently focus on the supposed unnaturalness of its means and possible harm to autonomy. I present a Nietzsche-inspired critique focusing on intention rather than means and harm to abilities rather than to autonomy. I first critique subjective eugenics, the selection of extrinsically valuable traits, drawing on Nietzsche’s notion of ‘slavish’ values reducible to the negation of another’s good. Subjective eugenics slavishly evaluates traits relative to a negatively evaluated norm (eg, above-average intelligence), disguising a harmful intention (...)
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  31. Technologies of Reproduction: Race, Disability, and Neoliberal Eugenics.Desiree Valentine - 2021 - Journal of Philosophy of Disability 1:35-55.
    When considering the relation between race, disability, and reproduction, race and disability tend to figure as outcomes of reproduction. It is assumed that one births a child with a certain race and ability status as a function of biological and genetic processes. This paper shifts such analyses of race and disability in the context of contemporary reproduction to examine how race and disability are not only produced but are productive. Building on recent work describing race as a technology emergent in (...)
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  32. Can ‘eugenics’ be defended?Walter Veit, J. Anomaly, N. Agar, P. Singer, D. Fleischman & F. Minerva - 2021 - Bioethics Review 39 (1):60–67.
    In recent years, bioethical discourse around the topic of ‘genetic enhancement’ has become increasingly politicized. We fear there is too much focus on the semantic question of whether we should call particular practices and emerging bio-technologies such as CRISPR ‘eugenics’, rather than the more important question of how we should view them from the perspective of ethics and policy. Here, we address the question of whether ‘eugenics’ can be defended and how proponents and critics of enhancement should engage with each (...)
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  33. Eugenics Offended.Robert A. Wilson - 2021 - Monash Bioethics Review 39 (2):169-176.
    This commentary continues an exchange on eugenics in Monash Bioethics Review between Anomaly (2018), Wilson (2019), and Veit, Anomaly, Agar, Singer, Fleischman, and Minerva (2021). The eponymous question, “Can ‘Eugenics’ be Defended?”, is multiply ambiguous and does not receive a clear answer from Veit et al.. Despite their stated desire to move beyond mere semantics to matters of substance, Veit et al. concentrate on several uses of the term “eugenics” that pull in opposite directions. I argue, first, that Veit et (...)
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  34. Dehumanization, Disability, and Eugenics.Robert A. Wilson - 2021 - In Maria Kronfeldner (ed.), Routledge Handbook of Dehumanization. New York, NY, USA: pp. 173-186.
    This paper explores the relationship between eugenics, disability, and dehumanization, with a focus on forms of eugenics beyond Nazi eugenics.
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  35. Creating Future People: The Ethics of Genetic Enhancement.Jonathan Anomaly - 2020 - London, UK: Routledge.
  36. Cognitive Enhancement and Network Effects: How Individual Prosperity Depends on Group Traits.Jonathan Anomaly & Garett Jones - 2020 - Philosophia 48:1753-1768.
  37. Great Minds Think Different: Preserving Cognitive Diversity in an Age of Gene Editing.Jonny Anomaly, Julian Savulescu & Christopher Gyngell - 2020 - Bioethics 34 (1):81-89.
  38. Altered Inheritance: CRISPR and the Ethics of Human Genome Editing.Donna Dickenson - 2020 - The New Bioethics 26 (1):75-77.
    Review of Francoise Baylis, Altered Inheritance: CRISPR and the Ethics of Human Genome Editing (2019).
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  39. Race, Technology, and Posthumanism.Holly Flint Jones & Nicholaos Jones - 2020 - In Mads Rosenthal Thomsen & Jacob Wamberg (eds.), The Bloomsbury Handbook of Posthumanism. New York: Bloomsbury Academic. pp. 161-170.
    This chapter briefly reviews the role of race (as a concept) in the history of theorizing the posthuman, engages with existing discussions of race as technology, and explores the significance of understanding race as technology for the field of posthumanism. Our aim is to engage existing literature that posits racialized individuals as posthumans and to consider how studying race might inform theories of the posthuman.
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  40. Prologue: Eugenics and its Study.Robert A. Wilson - 2020 - In Frank Stahnisch & Erna Kurbegovic (eds.), Exploring the Relationship of Eugenics and Psychiatry: Canadian and Trans-Atlantic Perspectives 1905 – 1972. Athabasca University Press.
    This is the prologue to a collection of essays on eugenics and psychiatry.
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  41. Looking Back to Look Forward: Disability, Philosophers, and Activism.Robert A. Wilson - 2020 - Diversity and Inclusion Section, APA Blog.
    How have and how might philosophers contribute to linking disability and activism in these peri-COVID-19 times, especially in forms of public engagement that go beyond podcasted talks and articles aimed at a public audience? How do we harness philosophical thinking to contribute positively to those living with disability whose vulnerabilities are heightened by this pandemic and the ableism highlighted by collective responses to it?
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  42. Genome editing: slipping down toward Eugenics?Davide Battisti - 2019 - Medicina Historica 3 (3):206-218.
    In this paper, I will present the empirical version of the slippery slope argument (SSA) in the field of genome editing. According to the SSA, if we adopt germline manipulation of embryos we will eventually end up performing or allowing something morally reprehensible, such as new coercive eugenics. I will investigate the actual possibility of sliding towards eugenics: thus, I will examine enhancement and eugenics both in the classical and liberal versions, through the lens of SSA. In the first part, (...)
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  43. The trust game CRISPR for human germline editing unsettles scientists and society.Matthias Braun & Darian Meacham - 2019 - EMBO Reports 20 (2).
  44. Wronging Future Children.K. Lindsey Chambers - 2019 - Ergo: An Open Access Journal of Philosophy 6.
    The dominant framework for addressing procreative ethics has revolved around the notion of harm, largely due to Derek Parfit’s famous non-identity problem. Focusing exclusively on the question of harm treats what procreators owe their offspring as akin to what they would owe strangers (if they owe them anything at all). Procreators, however, usually expect (and are expected) to parent the persons they create, so we cannot understand what procreators owe their offspring without also appealing to their role as prospective parents. (...)
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  45. Cloning Centering at Egoism.Yusuke Kaneko - 2019 - The Basis : The Annual Bulletin of Research Center for Liberal Education 9:245-260.
    Cloning research caught a great deal of attention when Dolly the sheep was born (§4). While some fear surrounded the attainment (§§14-15), Wilmutʼs research itself has grown well, providing a less vicious manner to gain ES cells (§12). In this article, we review the progress of cloning research along with the concern of medical circles about its application to reproductive cloning, that is to say, making replicas of human beings (§§16-21). Note that all the content is ascribed to the author (...)
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  46. Should Parents Genetically Engineer their Children?Walter Veit - 2019 - Psychology Today.
    Imagine a world where everyone is healthy, intelligent, long living and happy. Intuitively this seems wonderful, albeit unrealistic. However, recent scientific developments in genetic engineering, namely CRISPR/Cas bring the question into public discourse, how the genetic enhancement of humans should be evaluated morally.
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  47. Eugenics Undefended.Robert A. Wilson - 2019 - Monash Bioethics Review 37 (1-2):68-75.
  48. Defending eugenics: From cryptic choice to conscious selection.Jonathan Anomaly - 2018 - Monash Bioethics Review 35 (1-4):24-35.
    For most of human history children have been a byproduct of sex rather than a conscious choice by parents to create people with traits that they care about. As our understanding of genetics advances along with our ability to control reproduction and manipulate genes, prospective parents have stronger moral reasons to consider how their choices are likely to affect their children, and how their children are likely to affect other people. With the advent of cheap and effective contraception, and the (...)
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  49. Review of Colin Farrelly, Genetic Ethics. [REVIEW]Jonathan Anomaly - 2018 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews:X-Y.
  50. Defending Eugenics: From cryptic choice to conscious selection.Jonny Anomaly - 2018 - Monash Bioethics Review 35:24-35.
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