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  1. Evolutionary continuity between humans and non-human animals: Emotion and emotional expression.Zorana Todorovic - 2021 - Theoria (Beograd) 64 (4):19-36.
    This paper deals with the evolutionary origin and the adaptive function of emotion. I discuss the view that emotions have evolved as functional adaptations in both humans and non-human animals in order to cope with adaptive challenges and to promote fitness. I argue that there is evolutionary continuity between humans and animals in emotions and emotional expressions, and discuss behavioural argument for this thesis, specifically, Darwin’s and Ekman’s research on similarities in how humans and animals express their basic emotions. In (...)
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  2. New Work for a Critical Metaphysics of Race.Ludwig David - 2021 - In Lorusso Ludovica & Winther Rasmus (eds.), Remapping Race in a Global Context. Routledge.
    Analytic metaphysics has become increasingly extended into the social domain. The aim of this article is critical self-reflection on the challenges of transferring the tools of analytic metaphysics from classical cases such as the very existence of abstract or composed objects to socially-contested phenomena such as gender and race. In reflecting on the status of metaphysics of race, I formulate a polemical hypothesis of misalignment according to which the tools of analytic metaphysics are not suitable for engaging with complex racial (...)
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  3. Filosofia da Biologia.Sérgio Farias De Souza Filho - 2020 - In Rodrigo Reis Lastra Cid & Luiz Helvécio Marques Segundo (eds.), Problemas Filosóficos. Pelotas - Princesa, Pelotas - RS, Brasil: pp. 420-452.
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  4. Evolutionary origin of emotions: Continuity between animals and humans.Zorana Todorovic - 2014 - Glasnik Za Društvene Nauke 6 (2014):45-62.
    This paper discusses the evolutionary origin and adaptive functions of emotions, in line with contemporary evolutionary psychology. Drawing upon Charles Darwin’s study of emotional expressions, it is argued that there is an evolutionary continuity among animals in emotional capacities, and that the differences between humans and animals are differences in degree and not in kind. The focus is on basic or primary emotions (joy, fear, sadness, anger), as it has been consistently shown that they are universal and shared among many (...)
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  5. Correction To: Reply to Cartwright, Pemberton, Wieten: “Mechanisms, Laws and Explanation”.Beate Krickel - 2021 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 11 (3):1-2.
    A Correction to this paper has been published (changed to open access).
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  6. Adaptive Imagination: Toward a Mythopoetic Cognitive Science.Stephen Asma - forthcoming - Evolutionary Studies in Imaginative Culture.
    A mythopoetic paradigm or perspective sees the world primarily as a dramatic story of competing personal intentions, rather than a system of objective impersonal laws. Asma (2017) argued that our contemporary imaginative cognition is evolutionarily conserved—it has structural and functional similarities to premodern Homo sapiens’ cognition. This article will (i) outline the essential features of mythopoetic cognition or adaptive imagination, (ii) delineate the adaptive socio-cultural advantages of mythopoetic cognition, (iii) explain the phylogenetic and ontogenetic mechanisms that give rise to human (...)
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  7. Constructivist Learning Amid the COVID-19 Pandemic: Investigating Students’ Perceptions of Biology Self-Learning Modules.Aaron Funa & Frederick Talaue - 2021 - International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research 20 (3):250-264.
    Modes of teaching and learning have had to rapidly shift amid the COVID-19 pandemic. As an emergency response, students from Philippine public schools were provided learning modules based on a minimized list of essential learning competencies in Biology. Using a cross-sectional survey method, we investigated students’ perceptions of the Biology self-learning modules (BSLM) that were designed in print and digitized formats according to a constructivist learning approach. Senior high school STEM students from grades 11 (n = 117) and 12 (n (...)
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  8. Sinnlich beginnt die Wissenschaft. Rezension von: David Cahan, Helmholtz: A Life in Science. [REVIEW]Gregor Schiemann - 2019 - German Studies Review 42 (3):592-595.
  9. Minimal Organizational Requirements for the Ascription of Animal Personality to Social Groups.Hilton F. Japyassú, Lucia C. Neco & Nei Nunes-Neto - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
    Recently, psychological phenomena have been expanded to new domains, crisscrossing boundaries of organizational levels, with the emergence of areas such as social personality and ecosystem learning. In this contribution, we analyze the ascription of an individual-based concept to the social level. Although justified boundary crossings can boost new approaches and applications, the indiscriminate misuse of concepts refrains the growth of scientific areas. The concept of social personality is based mainly on the detection of repeated group differences across a population, in (...)
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  10. On the Naturalisation of Teleology: Self-Organisation, Autopoiesis and Teleodynamics.Miguel Garcia-Valdecasas - 2021 - Adaptive Behavior.
    In recent decades, several theories have claimed to explain the teleological causality of organisms as a function of self-organising and self-producing processes. The most widely cited theories of this sort are variations of autopoiesis, originally introduced by Maturana and Varela. More recent modifications of autopoietic theory have focused on system organisation, closure of constraints and autonomy to account for organism teleology. This article argues that the treatment of teleology in autopoiesis and other organisation theories is inconclusive for three reasons: First, (...)
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  11. Het laatste woord is niet gezegd: de moderne synthese voorbij.Nathalie Gontier - 2005 - In I. Tallon (ed.), Evolutie vandaag: hoe de dingen ontstaan en waarom ze veranderen. pp. 57-84.
  12. Uniting Micro- with Macroevolution Into an Extended Synthesis: Reintegrating Life’s Natural History Into Evolution Studies.Nathalie Gontier - 2015 - In Nathalie Gontier & Emanuele Serrelli (eds.), Macroevolution: Explanation, interpretation and Evidence. pp. 227-278.
  13. Macroevolutionary Issues and Approaches in Evolutionary Biology.Nathalie Gontier & Emanuele Serrelli - 2015 - In Nathalie Gontier & Emanuele Serrelli (eds.), Macroevolution: Explanation, interpretation and Evidence. pp. 1-29.
  14. Qui a été le premier : le virus ou la cellule ?Sfetcu Nicolae - manuscript
    Une rétrospective des débats sur l'origine de la vie : le virus ou la cellule ? Le virus a besoin de la cellule pour se répliquer, mais la cellule est une forme plus évoluée à l'échelle évolutive de la vie. Les virus semblent avoir joué un rôle dans des événements tels que l'origine de la vie cellulaire et l'évolution des mammifères. Même la bactérie la plus simple est bien trop complexe pour être apparue spontanément au début de l'évolution. Par la (...)
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  15. Tele-Mournings: Actuvirtual Events and Shared Responsibilities.Thomas Clément Mercier - 2020 - Derrida Today 13 (2):189-197.
    This thought piece dealing with the Covid-19 ‘crisis’ was written – in the form of a diary that runs from February to July 2020 – for a special issue of Derrida Today entitled ‘Fire, Flood, Pestilence and Protest’, edited by Nicole Anderson, and published in November 2020. The piece deals with matters of biopolitics, telecommunication, death and mourning through Derrida and Agamben, and interrogates the eventness of what is called an ‘event’.
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  16. Virus Ontology: Thing, Being, Process, or Information?Sfetcu Nicolae - manuscript
    The study of viruses raises pressing conceptual and philosophical questions about their nature, their classification, and their place in the biological world. A major set of problems concerns the individuality and diachronic identity of a virus: what is the virus, the viral particle (virion) or the entire viral cycle? The correct identification of the virus has significant ontological consequences, also related to the place and time when biological entities begin and end. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.35874.66241.
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  17. The Philosophy of Ecology: An Introduction.James Justus - 2021 - New York, USA: Cambridge University Press.
    Ecology is indispensable to understanding the biological world and addressing the environmental problems humanity faces. Its philosophy has never been more important. In this book, James Justus introduces readers to the philosophically rich issues ecology poses. Besides its crucial role in biological science generally, climate change, biodiversity loss, and other looming environmental challenges make ecology's role in understanding such threats and identifying solutions to them all the more critical. When ecology is applied and its insights marshalled to address these problems (...)
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  18. Kant, Organisms, and Representation.Patrick R. Leland - 2020 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 79:101223.
    Some interpreters claim Kant distinguishes between organisms and living things. I argue that this claim is underdetermined by the textual evidence. Once this is recognized, it becomes a real possibility that Kant’s various remarks about the essential properties of living things generalize to organisms as such. This, in turn, generates a puzzle. Kant repeatedly claims that the capacity for representation is essential to the nature of a living thing. If he does not distinguish between living things and organisms, then how (...)
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  19. The Art of Conversation: Design Cybernetics and its Ethics.Claudia Westermann - 2020 - Kybernetes 49 (8):2171-2183.
    Purpose This paper aims to discuss ethical principles that are implicit in second-order cybernetics, with the aim of arriving at a better understanding of how second-order cybernetics frames living in a world with others. It further investigates implications for second-order cybernetics approaches to architectural design, i.e. the activity of designing frameworks for living. Design/methodology/approach The paper investigates the terminology in the second-order cybernetics literature with specific attention to terms that suggest that there are ethical principles at work. It further relates (...)
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  20. A Defense of Free-Roaming Cats From a Hedonist Account of Feline Well-Being.C. E. Abbate - 2020 - Acta Analytica 35 (3):439-461.
    There is a widespread belief that for their own safety and for the protection of wildlife, cats should be permanently kept indoors. Against this view, I argue that cat guardians have a duty to provide their feline companions with outdoor access. The argument is based on a sophisticated hedonistic account of animal well-being that acknowledges that the performance of species-normal ethological behavior is especially pleasurable. Territorial behavior, which requires outdoor access, is a feline-normal ethological behavior, so when a cat is (...)
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  21. How Did Language Evolve? Some Reflections on the Language Parasite Debate.Tzu-wei Hung - 2019 - Biological Theory 14 (4):214-223.
    The language parasite approach refers to the view that language, like a parasite, is an adaptive system that evolves to fit its human hosts. Supported by recent computer simulations, LPA proponents claim that the reason that humans can use languages with ease is not because we have evolved with genetically specified linguistic instincts but because languages have adapted to the preexisting brain structures of humans. This article examines the LPA. It argues that, while the LPA has advantages over its rival, (...)
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  22. Philosophy of life science.Jianhui Li - 2006 - Beijing Normal University Press.
    本书共分九章内容:第一章论述了生命科学哲学兴起的背景,区分了生命科学哲学研究中的两种理论倾向,指出了生命科学哲学研究的主要问题,最后介绍了国内外生命科学哲学研究的进展;第二章分析了这种解释方式的合理性 及其与因果性解释方式的关系,并由此进一步讨论了生命科学的自主性问题;第三章从不同方面较详细地论述了正反两方面论证的依据,并对各种观点进行了比较,说明生物学理论缺少规律的原因;第四章讨论了还原概念和突现 概念的历史发展,分析了它们各自的认识论和本体论原因,指出了它们各自的优点和局限,最后指出了超越它们的途径;第五章着重讨论了进化论的统计特性与进化过程的决定论和非决定论问题;第六章讨论了生命难以定义的各 种原因,论述了定义生命的两种主要方法;第七章指出了人工生命提出的主要的哲学问题,从不同角度论证了强人工生命的可能性,分析了数字生命的实在论地位,揭示了人工生命所蕴含计算主义世界观;第八章分析了人类基因 组研究的价值及其所可能引起的伦理和法律问题;第九章总结了8年来关于人类克隆的主要争论和观点,并揭示了这些争论给我们的启示。.
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  23. On the Definition of Life.Jianhui Li - 2019 - Philosophy Study 9 (9):497-510.
    The definition of life is a very important issue in the philosophy of biology, but this issue has unfortunately been neglected by the mainstream philosopher of biology for many years. In this paper, the difficulties with and the reasons for defining life are illustrated, the characteristics of life on Earth are explored, ways of defining life are examined, the main definitions of life are explained and evaluated, and finally, a new information definition of life is proposed.
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  24. Levels of Organization in the Biological Sciences.Daniel Stephen Brooks, James DiFrisco & William C. Wimsatt (eds.) - 2021 - MIT Press.
    The subject of this edited volume is the idea of levels of organization: roughly, the idea that the natural world is segregated into part-whole relationships of increasing spatiotemporal scale and complexity. The book comprises a collection of essays that raise the idea of levels into its own topic of analysis. Owing to the wide prominence of the idea of levels, the scope of the volume is aimed at theoreticians, philosophers, and practicing researchers of all stripes in the life sciences. The (...)
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  25. Protention and Retention in Biological Systems.Giuseppe Longo & Maël Montévil - 2011 - Theory in Biosciences 130:107-117.
    This article proposes an abstract mathematical frame for describing some features of cognitive and biological time. We focus here on the so called “extended present” as a result of protentional and retentional activities (memory and anticipation). Memory, as retention, is treated in some physical theories (relaxation phenomena, which will inspire our approach), while protention (or anticipation) seems outside the scope of physics. We then suggest a simple functional representation of biological protention. This allows us to introduce the abstract notion of (...)
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  26. The Aristotelian Conception of Habit and its Contribution to Human Neuroscience.José Ignacio Murillo & Javier Bernacer - 2014 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8:1-10.
    The notion of habit used in neuroscience is an inheritance from a particular theoretical origin, whose main source is William James. Thus, habits have been characterized as rigid, automatic, unconscious, and opposed to goal-directed actions. This analysis leaves unexplained several aspects of human behavior and cognition where habits are of great importance. We intend to demonstrate the utility that another philosophical conception of habit, the Aristotelian, may have for neuroscientific research. We first summarize the current notion of habit in neuroscience, (...)
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  27. Stefanie Buchenau and Roberto Lo Presti, eds.: Human and Animal Cognition in Early Modern Philosophy and Medicine, University of Pittsburg Press, Pittsburgh, 2017, 354 pp., ISBN: 978-0-8229-4472-0. [REVIEW]Sara Ray - 2019 - Journal of the History of Biology 52 (2):359-360.
  28. Active Sleep Promotes Functional Connectivity in Developing Sensorimotor Networks.Carlos Del Rio‐Bermudez & Mark S. Blumberg - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (4).
    A ubiquitous feature of active sleep in mammals and birds is its relative abundance in early development. In rat pups across the first two postnatal weeks, active sleep promotes the expression of synchronized oscillatory activity within and between cortical and subcortical sensorimotor structures. Sensory feedback from self-generated myoclonic twitches – which are produced exclusively during active sleep – also triggers neural oscillations in those structures. We have proposed that one of the functions of active sleep in early infancy is to (...)
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  29. How the Hippocampus Represents Memories: Making Sense of Memory Allocation Studies.Thiago F. A. França & José M. Monserrat - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (11):800068.
  30. Comparing the New and Existing Hypotheses on Energy Metabolism and Longevity.Chen Hou - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (8):1800110.
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  31. El mecanismo evolutivo de Margulis y los niveles de selección.Javier Suárez - 2015 - Contrastes: Revista Internacional de Filosofía 20 (1):7-26.
    Margulis’ evolutionary theory entails a revision of certain core concepts of traditional biology. One of these changes is related to the hot debate about units of selection. This paper considers Margulis’ proposal as a new research tradition (RT) and evaluates its consequences to the mentioned issue. Three ideas are suggested here: firstly, that her theory represents the revision of many classical biological concepts; secondly, that her position implies a reappraisal of many traditional issues in philosophy of biology; and thirdly, that (...)
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  32. Toward a Macroevolutionary Theory of Human Evolution: The Social Protocell.Claes Andersson & Petter Törnberg - 2019 - Biological Theory 14 (2):86-102.
    Despite remarkable empirical and methodological advances, our theoretical understanding of the evolutionary processes that made us human remains fragmented and contentious. Here, we make the radical proposition that the cultural communities within which Homo emerged may be understood as a novel exotic form of organism. The argument begins from a deep congruence between robust features of Pan community life cycles and protocell models of the origins of life. We argue that if a cultural tradition, meeting certain requirements, arises in the (...)
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  33. The Role of Assessor Teaching in Human Culture.Laureano Castro, Miguel Ángel Castro-Nogueira, Morris Villarroel & Miguel Ángel Toro - 2019 - Biological Theory 14 (2):112-121.
    According to the dual inheritance theory, cultural learning in our species is a biased and highly efficient process of transmitting cultural traits. Here we define a model of cultural learning where social learning is integrated as a complementary element that facilitates the discovery of a specific behavior by an apprentice, and not as a mechanism that works in opposition to individual learning. In that context, we propose that the emergence of the ability to approve or disapprove of offspring behavior, orienting (...)
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  34. Why is There No Successful Whole Brain Simulation (Yet)?Klaus M. Stiefel & Daniel S. Brooks - 2019 - Biological Theory 14 (2):122-130.
    With the advent of powerful parallel computers, efforts have commenced to simulate complete mammalian brains. However, so far none of these efforts has produced outcomes close to explaining even the behavioral complexities of animals. In this article, we suggest four challenges that ground this shortcoming. First, we discuss the connection between hypothesis testing and simulations. Typically, efforts to simulate complete mammalian brains lack a clear hypothesis. Second, we treat complications related to a lack of parameter constraints for large-scale simulations. To (...)
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  35. Writing Papers to Be Memorable, Even When They Are Not Really Read.Thiago F. A. França & José M. Monserrat - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (5):1900035.
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  36. Cooking a Research Project: New Trends in the Kitchen and in Scientific Policies.Dolores Queiruga & Juan Cabello - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (5):1900017.
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  37. A Metaphysical Approach to Holobiont Individuality: Holobionts as Emergent Individuals.Javier Suárez & Vanessa Triviño - 2019 - Quaderns de Filosofia 6 (1):59-76.
    Holobionts are symbiotic assemblages composed by a host plus its microbiome. The status of holobionts as individuals has recently been a subject of continuous controversy, which has given rise to two main positions: on the one hand, holobiont advocates argue that holobionts are biological individuals; on the other, holobiont detractors argue that they are just mere chimeras or ecological communities, but not individuals. Both parties in the dispute develop their arguments from the framework of the philosophy of biology, in terms (...)
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  38. The Social Amplification View of Facial Expression.Trip Glazer - 2019 - Biology and Philosophy 34 (2):33.
    I offer a novel view of the mechanisms underlying the spontaneous facial expression of emotion. According to my Social Amplification View, facial expressions result from the interplay of two processes: an emotional process that activates specific facial muscles, though not always to the point of visible contraction, followed by a social cognitive process that amplifies these activations so that they may function more effectively as social signals. I argue that SAV outperforms both the Neurocultural View and the Behavioral Ecology View, (...)
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  39. La biosemiotica di Jakob von Uexküll e Max Scheler: dal Bauplan al Leibschema.Guido Cusinato - 2018 - In Biosemiotic and psychopathology of the ordo amoris. Biosemiotica e psicopatologia dell'ordo amoris. In dialogo con Max Scheler. Milano: pp. 70-77.
    In questo lavoro si dimostra che l'opinione comune, secondo cui è Heidegger a introdurre Jacob von Uexküll nel dibattito filosofico è scorretta, in quanto è Scheler, due decenni prima, a scoprire e valorizzare la portata filosofica di Uexküll. -/- Pure la distinzione fra mondo (Welt) e ambiente (Umwelt), come quella fra apertura al mondo e chiusura ambientale, non è introdotta da Heidegger nel 1929 (cfr. l'Introduzione di Marco Mazzeo al testo di Uexküll, Ambienti animali e ambienti umani, p.18 e seg.) (...)
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  40. Paleobiology and Philosophy.Adrian Currie - 2019 - Biology and Philosophy 34 (2):31.
    I offer four ways of distinguishing paleobiology from neontology, and from this develop a sketch of the philosophy of paleobiology. I then situate and describe the papers in the special issue Paleobiology and Philosophy, and reflect on the value and prospects of paleontology-focused philosophy.
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  41. Code Biology, Peircean Biosemiotics, and Rosen’s Relational Biology.Marcello Barbieri - 2019 - Biological Theory 14 (1):21-29.
    The classical theories of the genetic code claimed that its coding rules were determined by chemistry—either by stereochemical affinities or by metabolic reactions—but the experimental evidence has revealed a totally different reality: it has shown that any codon can be associated with any amino acid, thus proving that there is no necessary link between them. The rules of the genetic code, in other words, obey the laws of physics and chemistry but are not determined by them. They are arbitrary, or (...)
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  42. The Nature of Programmed Cell Death.Pierre M. Durand & Grant Ramsey - 2019 - Biological Theory 14 (1):30-41.
    In multicellular organisms, cells are frequently programmed to die. This makes good sense: cells that fail to, or are no longer playing important roles are eliminated. From the cell’s perspective, this also makes sense, since somatic cells in multicellular organisms require the cooperation of clonal relatives. In unicellular organisms, however, programmed cell death poses a difficult and unresolved evolutionary problem. The empirical evidence for PCD in diverse microbial taxa has spurred debates about what precisely PCD means in the case of (...)
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  43. Task Allocation and the Logic of Research Questions: How Ants Challenge Human Sociobiology.Ryan Ketcham - 2019 - Biological Theory 14 (1):52-68.
    After biologist Deborah Gordon made a series of experimental discoveries in the 1980s, she argued that a change in terminology regarding the division of labor among castes of specialists was needed. Gordon’s investigations of the interactive effects of ants in colonies led her to believe that the established approach Edward O. Wilson had pioneered was biased in a way that made some alternative candidate adaptive explanations invisible. Gordon argued that this was because the term “division of labor” implied a division (...)
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  44. Neural Reuse and the Modularity of Mind: Where to Next for Modularity?John Zerilli - 2019 - Biological Theory 14 (1):1-20.
    The leading hypothesis concerning the “reuse” or “recycling” of neural circuits builds on the assumption that evolution might prefer the redeployment of established circuits over the development of new ones. What conception of cognitive architecture can survive the evidence for this hypothesis? In particular, what sorts of “modules” are compatible with this evidence? I argue that the only likely candidates will, in effect, be the columns which Vernon Mountcastle originally hypothesized some 60 years ago, and which form part of the (...)
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  45. Agonism Management Through Agonistic Vocal Signaling in Subterranean Rodents: A Neglected Factor Facilitating Sociality?Gabriel Francescoli & Cristian Schleich - 2019 - Biological Theory 14 (1):42-51.
    Communication is inherent to social relationships. Previous papers addressed the correlation between social and communicative complexity, and the origin of sociality in rodents. In subterranean social species, as the number of animals in the same burrow increases, so do interindividual contact rates. This is because of limitations in actually used tunnel length and diameter, leading to an increasing number of agonistic situations probably resulting in time loss, threatening, and fighting with danger of injuries. To avoid this, social species are expected (...)
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  46. Biosemiotic and psychopathology of the ordo amoris. Biosemiotica e psicopatologia dell'ordo amoris. In dialogo con Max Scheler.Guido Cusinato - 2018 - Milano MI, Italia: FrancoAngeli.
    How comes that two organisms can interact with each other or that we can comprehend what the other experiences? The theories of embodiment, intersubjectivity or empathy have repeatedly taken as their starting point an individualistic assumption (the comprehension of the other comes after the self-comprehension) or a cognitivist one (the affective dimension follows the cognitive process). The thesis of this book is that there are no two isolated entities at the origin which successively interact with each other. There is, rather, (...)
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  47. S ara G reen , Philosophy of Systems Biology: Perspectives from Scientists and Philosophers, Springer International Publishing, 2017, 265 pp, ISBN 978-3-319-47000-9. [REVIEW]Jonathan Davies - 2019 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 41 (1):9.
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  48. Phronesis and Automated Science: The Case of Machine Learning and Biology.Emanuele Ratti - 2019 - In Fabio Sterpetti & M. Bertolaso (eds.), Will Science Remain Human? Springer.
    The applications of machine learning and deep learning to the natural sciences has fostered the idea that the automated nature of algorithmic analysis will gradually dispense human beings from scientific work. In this paper, I will show that this view is problematic, at least when ML is applied to biology. In particular, I will claim that ML is not independent of human beings and cannot form the basis of automated science. Computer scientists conceive their work as being a case of (...)
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  49. Coordination of Timers and Sensors in Cell Signaling.Junbin Qian, Lendert Gelens & Mathieu Bollen - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (3):1800217.
    Timers and sensors are common devices that make our daily life safer, more convenient, and more efficient. In a cellular context, they arguably play an even more crucial role as they ensure the survival of cells in the presence of various extrinsic and intrinsic stresses. Biological timers and sensors generate distinct signaling profiles, enabling them to produce different types of cellular responses. Recent data suggest that they can work together to guarantee correct timing and responsiveness. By exploring examples of cellular (...)
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  50. Sentience and Consciousness in Single Cells: How the First Minds Emerged in Unicellular Species.František Baluška & Arthur Reber - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (3):1800229.
    A reductionistic, bottom‐up, cellular‐based concept of the origins of sentience and consciousness has been put forward. Because all life is based on cells, any evolutionary theory of the emergence of sentience and consciousness must be grounded in mechanisms that take place in prokaryotes, the simplest unicellular species. It has been posited that subjective awareness is a fundamental property of cellular life. It emerges as an inherent feature of, and contemporaneously with, the very first life‐forms. All other varieties of mentation are (...)
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