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  1. Quotidian Medical Epistemology.Robert Bass - manuscript
    My title may suggest that I will address the activities of medical professionals as they go about their daily business of diagnosis, prescription and treatment. Certainly, that deserves attention, but it is not my target here. My concern is, on the one hand, with typical consumers of health and medical information, and, on the other, with the problems such consumers face in understanding, interpreting and applying the information available to them.
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  2. Pragmatism and the Determination of Death.Martin Benjamin - forthcoming - Pragmatic Bioethics:193--206.
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  3. A New Perspective on Shaw’s New Perspective.Jacob Busch & Rafaele Rodogno - forthcoming - Journal of Medical Ethics.
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  4. An Ethical Analysis of Vaccinating Children Against COVID-19: Benefits, Risks, and Issues of Global Health Equity [Version 2; Peer Review: 1 Approved, 1 Approved with Reservations].Rachel Gur-Arie, Steven R. Kraaijeveld & Euzebiusz Jamrozik - forthcoming - Wellcome Open Research.
    COVID-19 vaccination of children has begun in various high-income countries with regulatory approval and general public support, but largely without careful ethical consideration. This trend is expected to extend to other COVID-19 vaccines and lower ages as clinical trials progress. This paper provides an ethical analysis of COVID-19 vaccination of healthy children. Specifically, we argue that it is currently unclear whether routine COVID-19 vaccination of healthy children is ethically justified in most contexts, given the minimal direct benefit that COVID-19 vaccination (...)
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  5. Clarifying Capacity: Reasons and Value.Jules Holroyd - forthcoming - In Lubomira Radoilska (ed.), Autonomy and Mental Health. Oxford University Press.
    It is usually appropriate for adults to make significant decisions, such as about what kinds of medical treatment to undergo, for themselves. But sometimes impairments are suffered - either temporary or permanent - which render an individual unable to make such decisions. The Mental Capacity Act 2005 sets out the conditions under which it is appropriate to regard an individual as lacking the capacity to make a particular decision (and when provisions should be made for a decision on their behalf). (...)
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  6. Ethics of Vaccine Refusal.Michael Kowalik - forthcoming - Journal of Medical Ethics.
    Proponents of vaccine mandates typically claim that everyone who can be vaccinated has a moral or ethical obligation to do so for the sake of those who cannot be vaccinated, or in the interest of public health. I evaluate several previously undertheorised premises implicit to the ‘obligation to vaccinate’ type of arguments and show that the general conclusion is false: there is neither a moral obligation to vaccinate nor a sound ethical basis to mandate vaccination under any circumstances, even for (...)
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  7. Dementia Care, Robot Pets, and Aliefs.Rhonda Martens & Christine Hildebrand - forthcoming - Wiley: Bioethics.
  8. How Should Physicians Manage Neuroprognosis with ECPR?Ian McCurry, Jason Han & Andrew Courtwright - forthcoming - Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics.
    Rapidly advancing technologies in the field of extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) have presented a new challenge in accurate neuroprognostication following cardiac arrest. Determination of brain state informs the prognostic picture and allows providers to begin effective communication regarding likelihood of meaningful neurological recovery as defined by patients or family members. The evolving role of sedation during ECPR and its impacts on ethical tension in decision-making is reviewed. Work surrounding the advancing field of neuroprognostication after cardiac arrest and hypothermia is summarized (...)
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  9. Quantitative Framework for Retrospective Assessment of Interim Decisions in Clinical Trials.Roger Stanev - forthcoming - Medical Decision Making.
    This article presents a quantitative way of modeling the interim decisions of clinical trials. While statistical approaches tend to focus on the epistemic aspects of statistical monitoring rules, often overlooking ethical considerations, ethical approaches tend to neglect key epistemic dimension. The proposal is a second-order decision theoretic framework. The framework provides means for retrospective assessment of interim decisions based on a clear and consistent set of criteria that combines both ethical and epistemic considerations. The framework is broadly Bayesian and addresses (...)
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  10. Medical Ontology.Kazem Sadegh-Zadeh - 2nd ed. 2015 - In Handbook of Analytic Philosophy of Medicine. Springer Verlag.
    Due to the intricate nature of its subject matter, medicine is always threatened by speculations and disagreements about which among its entities exist, e.g., any specific biological structures, substructures or substances, pathogenic agents, pathophysiological processes, diseases, psychosomatic relationships, therapeutic effects, and other possible and impossible things. To avoid confusion, and to determine what entities an item of medical knowledge presupposes to exist if it is to be true, we need medical ontology. The term “medical ontology” we understand to mean the (...)
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  11. Practising What We Preach: Clinical Ethicists’ Professional Perspectives and Personal Use of Advance Directives.Jason Adam Wasserman, Mark Christopher Navin, Victoria Drzyzga & Tyler S. Gibb - 2022 - Journal of Medical Ethics 48 (2):144-149.
    The field of clinical bioethics strongly advocates for the use of advance directives to promote patient autonomy, particularly at the end of life. This paper reports a study of clinical bioethicists’ perceptions of the professional consensus about advance directives, as well as their personal advance care planning practices. We find that clinical bioethicists are often sceptical about the value of advance directives, and their personal choices about advance directives often deviate from what clinical ethicists acknowledge to be their profession’s recommendations. (...)
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  12. Metaphysics, Reason, and Religion in Secular Clinical Ethics.Jason T. Eberl - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics 21 (6):17-18.
    I support Abram Brummett’s contention that there is a need for secular clinical ethics to acknowledge that various positions typically advocated for by ethicists, concerning bedside decision-making and broader policy-making, rely upon metaphysical commitments that are not often explicit. I further note that calls for “neutrality” in debates concerning conscientious refusals to provide legal health care services—such as elective abortion or medical aid-in-dying—may exhibit biases against specific metaphysical claims regarding, for instance, the ontological and moral status of fetuses or the (...)
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  13. Governing AI-Driven Health Research: Are IRBs Up to the Task?Phoebe Friesen, Rachel Douglas-Jones, Mason Marks, Robin Pierce, Katherine Fletcher, Abhishek Mishra, Jessica Lorimer, Carissa Véliz, Nina Hallowell, Mackenzie Graham, Mei Sum Chan, Huw Davies & Taj Sallamuddin - 2021 - Ethics and Human Research 2 (43):35-42.
    Many are calling for concrete mechanisms of oversight for health research involving artificial intelligence (AI). In response, institutional review boards (IRBs) are being turned to as a familiar model of governance. Here, we examine the IRB model as a form of ethics oversight for health research that uses AI. We consider the model's origins, analyze the challenges IRBs are facing in the contexts of both industry and academia, and offer concrete recommendations for how these committees might be adapted in order (...)
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  14. Offering More Without Offering Compensation: Non-Compensating Benefits for Living Kidney Donors.Kyle Fruh & Ege K. Duman - 2021 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 24 (4):711-719.
    While different positions on the permissibility of organ markets enjoy support, there is widespread agreement that some benefits to living organ donors are acceptable and do not raise the same moral concerns associated with organ markets, such as exploitation and commodification. We argue on the basis of two distinctions that some benefit packages offered to donors can defensibly surpass conventional reimbursement while stopping short of controversial cash payouts. The first distinction is between benefits that defray the costs of donating an (...)
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  15. Continuous Glucose Monitoring as a Matter of Justice.Steven R. Kraaijeveld - 2021 - HEC Forum 33 (4):345-370.
    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a chronic illness that requires intensive lifelong management of blood glucose concentrations by means of external insulin administration. There have been substantial developments in the ways of measuring glucose levels, which is crucial to T1D self-management. Recently, continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) has allowed people with T1D to keep track of their blood glucose levels in near real-time. These devices have alarms that warn users about potentially dangerous blood glucose trends, which can often be shared with (...)
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  16. Made to Measure: The Ethics of Routine Measurement for Healthcare Improvement.Polly Mitchell, Alan Cribb & Vikki Entwistle - 2021 - Health Care Analysis 29 (1):39-58.
    This paper analyses the ethics of routine measurement for healthcare improvement. Routine measurement is an increasingly central part of healthcare system design and is taken to be necessary for successful healthcare improvement efforts. It is widely recognised that the effectiveness of routine measurement in bringing about improvement is limited—it often produces only modest effects or fails to generate anticipated improvements at all. We seek to show that these concerns do not exhaust the ethics of routine measurement. Even if routine measurement (...)
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  17. Being Seen by the Doctor: A Meditation on Power, Institutional Racism, and Medical Ethics.Bryan Mukandi - 2021 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 18 (1):33-44.
    The following pages sketch the outlines of “a Canaanite reading” of the health system. Beginning with the Black person—African, Afro-diasporic, Aboriginal, and Torres Strait Islander—who is seen by a health professional, the functions and effects of the racializing gaze are examined. I wrestle with Al Saji’s understanding of “colonial disregard,” Whittaker’s insights into the extractive disposition of settler institutions vis-à-vis Indigenous peoples, and Saidiya Hartman and Fred Moten’s struggle with the spectacular. This leads me to conclude that the situation of (...)
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  18. Allocation of Scarce Biospecimens for Use in Research.Leah Pierson, Sophia Gibert, Benjamin Berkman, Marion Danis & Joseph Millum - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 47 (11):740-743.
    Hundreds of millions of rare biospecimens are stored in laboratories and biobanks around the world. Often, the researchers who possess these specimens do not plan to use them, while other researchers limit the scope of their work because they cannot acquire biospecimens that meet their needs. This situation raises an important and underexplored question: how should scientists allocate biospecimens that they do not intend to use? We argue that allocators should aim to maximise the social value of the research enterprise (...)
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  19. Neurostimulation, Doping, and the Spirit of Sport.Jonathan Pugh & Christopher Pugh - 2021 - Neuroethics 14 (2):141-158.
    There is increasing interest in using neuro-stimulation devices to achieve an ergogenic effect in elite athletes. Although the World Anti-Doping Authority does not currently prohibit neuro-stimulation techniques, a number of researchers have called on WADA to consider its position on this issue. Focusing on trans-cranial direct current stimulation as a case study of an imminent so-called ‘neuro-doping’ intervention, we argue that the emerging evidence suggests that tDCS may meet WADA’s own criteria for a method’s inclusion on its list of prohibited (...)
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  20. The Ethics of Deliberate Exposure to SARS-CoV-2 to Induce Immunity.Robert Streiffer, David Killoren & Richard Y. Chappell - 2021 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 38 (3):479-496.
    We explore the ethics of deliberately exposing consenting adults to SARS-CoV-2 to induce immunity to the virus (“DEI” for short). We explain what a responsible DEI program might look like. We explore a consequentialist argument for DEI according to which DEI is a viable harm-reduction strategy. Then we consider a non-consequentialist argument for DEI that draws on the moral significance of consent. Additionally, we consider arguments for the view that DEI is unethical on the grounds that, given that large-scale DEI (...)
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  21. Pandemic Preparedness and Cooperative Justice.Cristian Timmermann - 2021 - Developing World Bioethics 21 (4):201-210.
    By examining the global public good nature of pandemic preparedness we can identify key social justice issues that need to be confronted to increase citizens’ voluntary compliance with prevention and mitigation measures. As people tend to cooperate on a voluntary basis only with systems they consider fair, it becomes difficult to ensure compliance with public health measures in a context of extreme inequality. Among the major inequalities that need to be addressed we can find major differences in the extensiveness and (...)
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  22. Property Claims on Antibiotic Effectiveness.Cristian Timmermann - 2021 - Public Health Ethics:1-12.
    The scope and type of property rights recognized over the effectiveness of antibiotics have a direct effect on how those claiming ownership engage in the exploitation and stewardship of this scarce resource. We examine the different property claims and rights the four major interest groups are asserting on antibiotics: (i) the inventors, (ii) those demanding that the resource be treated like any other transferable commodity, (iii) those advocating usage restrictions based on good stewardship principles and (iv) those considering the resource (...)
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  23. An Argument For Reinterpreting the Benign Behavioral Intervention Exemption.Ian Tully - 2021 - Ethics and Human Research 43 (4):20-26.
    Recent changes to the Common Rule have helped reduce regulatory burden on researchers conducting minimal risk research. However, in this paper, I propose a way of minimizing burden further within the existing confines of the current regulations. I focus my discussion on the newly created “benign behavioral interventions” category of exempt research, arguing that this exemption from the federal regulations governing research with human subjects should be more expansively interpreted by the Secretary's Advisory Committee on Human Research Protections (SACHRP) than (...)
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  24. Dimensions of the Threat to the Self Posed by Deep Brain Stimulation: Personal Identity, Authenticity, and Autonomy.Przemysław Zawadzki - 2021 - Diametros 18 (69):71-98.
    Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) is an invasive therapeutic method involving the implantation of electrodes and the electrical stimulation of specific areas of the brain to modulate their activity. DBS brings therapeutic benefits, but can also have adverse side effects. Recently, neuroethicists have recognized that DBS poses a threat to the very fabric of human existence, namely, to the selves of patients. This article provides a review of the neuroethical literature examining this issue, and identifies the crucial dimensions related to the (...)
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  25. Personality and Authenticity in Light of the Memory-Modifying Potential of Optogenetics.Przemysław Zawadzki & Agnieszka K. Adamczyk - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 12 (1):3-21.
    There has been a growing interest in research concerning memory modification technologies (MMTs) in recent years. Neuroscientists and psychologists are beginning to explore the prospect of controllable and intentional modification of human memory. One of the technologies with the greatest potential to this end is optogenetics—an invasive neuromodulation technique involving the use of light to control the activity of individual brain cells. It has recently shown the potential to modify specific long-term memories in animal models in ways not yet possible (...)
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  26. Against the Family Veto in Organ Procurement: Why the Wishes of the Dead Should Prevail When the Living and the Deceased Disagree on Organ Donation.Andreas Albertsen - 2020 - Bioethics 34 (3):272-280.
    The wishes of registered organ donors are regularly set aside when family members object to donation. This genuine overruling of the wishes of the deceased raises difficult ethical questions. A successful argument for providing the family with a veto must (a) provide reason to disregard the wishes of the dead, and (b) establish why the family should be allowed to decide. One branch of justification seeks to reconcile the family veto with important ideas about respecting property rights, preserving autonomy, and (...)
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  27. The Devil in the Details.Nicholas Colgrove - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics 20 (12):18-20.
    McCarthy et al.’s proposal gains much of its plausibility by relying on a superficial treatment of justice, human dignity, sin, and the common good within the Christian tradition. Upon closer inspection of what these terms mean within the context of Christianity, it becomes clear that despite using the same phrases (e.g., a commitment to “protecting vulnerable populations,” the goal of “promoting justice,” etc.) contemporary secular bioethical goals are often deeply at odds with goals of Christian bioethics. So, while the authors (...)
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  28. Prolife Hypocrisy: Why Inconsistency Arguments Do Not Matter.Nicholas Colgrove, Bruce Philip Blackshaw & Daniel Rodger - 2020 - Journal of Medical Ethics (Online First):1-6.
    Opponents of abortion are often described as ‘inconsistent’ (hypocrites) in terms of their beliefs, actions and/or priorities. They are alleged to do too little to combat spontaneous abortion, they should be adopting cryopreserved embryos with greater frequency and so on. These types of arguments—which we call ‘inconsistency arguments’—conform to a common pattern. Each specifies what consistent opponents of abortion would do (or believe), asserts that they fail to act (or believe) accordingly and concludes that they are inconsistent. Here, we show (...)
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  29. What Does ‘Quality’ Add? Towards an Ethics of Healthcare Improvement.Alan Cribb, Vikki Entwistle & Polly Mitchell - 2020 - Journal of Medical Ethics 46 (2):118-122.
    In this paper, we argue that there are important ethical questions about healthcare improvement which are underexplored. We start by drawing on two existing literatures: first, the prevailing, primarily governance-oriented, application of ethics to healthcare ‘quality improvement’, and second, the application of QI to healthcare ethics. We show that these are insufficient for ethical analysis of healthcare improvement. In pursuit of a broader agenda for an ethics of healthcare improvement, we note that QI and ethics can, in some respects, be (...)
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  30. (Under)Valuing Surgical Informed Consent.Inmaculada de Melo-Martin & N. A. Meredyth - 2020 - Journal of the American College of Surgeons 2 (230):257-62.
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  31. Obligations and Preferences in Knowing and Not Knowing: The Importance of Context.Lisa Dive & Ainsley Janelle Newson - 2020 - Journal of Medical Ethics 46 (5):306-307.
    In healthcare broadly, and especially in genetic medicine, there is an ongoing debate about whether patients have a right not to know information about their own health. The extensive literature on this topic is characterised by a range of different understandings of what it means to have a RNTK,1–9 and how this purported right relates to patient autonomy. Ben Davies considers whether obligations not to place avoidable burdens on a publicly funded healthcare system might form the basis for an obligation (...)
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  32. Limits of Trust in Medical AI.Joshua James Hatherley - 2020 - Journal of Medical Ethics 46 (7):478-481.
    Artificial intelligence is expected to revolutionise the practice of medicine. Recent advancements in the field of deep learning have demonstrated success in variety of clinical tasks: detecting diabetic retinopathy from images, predicting hospital readmissions, aiding in the discovery of new drugs, etc. AI’s progress in medicine, however, has led to concerns regarding the potential effects of this technology on relationships of trust in clinical practice. In this paper, I will argue that there is merit to these concerns, since AI systems (...)
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  33. Transhumanism, in vitro fertilization and woman dignity.Carlos Alberto Rosas Jimenez - 2020 - In Diana Stephania Muñoz-Gomez (ed.), La persona: on-off Desafíos de la familia en la cuarta revolución industrial. Bogotá, Colombia: pp. 304-317.
    Transhumanism is a movement that seeks to transcend certain limits inherent in the human condition as we know it. However, does it justify leaving aside the dignity of current human beings to fulfill the desire to increase human potential and improve the human being as such to obtain other human beings? Does it justify passing over the dignity of women in order to obtain new human beings through fertilization? To answer these questions we have made a sweep over the ideas (...)
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  34. Vaccinating for Whom? Distinguishing Between Self-Protective, Paternalistic, Altruistic and Indirect Vaccination.Steven R. Kraaijeveld - 2020 - Public Health Ethics 13 (2):190-200.
    Preventive vaccination can protect not just vaccinated individuals, but also others, which is often a central point in discussions about vaccination. To date, there has been no systematic study of self- and other-directed motives behind vaccination. This article has two major goals: first, to examine and distinguish between self- and other-directed motives behind vaccination, especially with regard to vaccinating for the sake of third parties, and second, to explore some ways in which this approach can help to clarify and guide (...)
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  35. The Narrative Coherence Standard and Child Patients' Capacity to Consent.Gah-Kai Leung - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 11 (1):40-42.
    Aryeh Goldberg compellingly argues for a Narrative Coherence Standard (NCS) to bolster existing methods of assessing patients' mental capacity. But his account fails to distinguish between the cognitive abilities of children and adults; consequently, worries may be raised about the scope of the NCS, in particular when we consider child patients. In this article, I argue the NCS cannot plausibly apply to children. Since children's self-conception does not arrive fully formed — but rather is a product of both incomplete cognitive (...)
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  36. Defining What is Good: Pluralism and Healthcare Quality.Polly Mitchell, Alan Cribb & Vikki A. Entwistle - 2020 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 29 (4):367-388.
    'Quality' is a widely invoked concept in healthcare, and 'quality improvement' is now a central part of healthcare service delivery. However, these concepts and their associated practices represent relatively uncharted territory for applied philosophy and bioethics. In this paper, we explore some of the conceptual complexity of quality in healthcare and argue that quality is best understood to be conceptually plural. Quality is widely agreed to be multidimensional and as such constitutively plural. However, we argue that quality is plural in (...)
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  37. No Blame No Gain? From a No Blame Culture to a Responsibility Culture in Medicine.Joshua Parker & Ben Davies - 2020 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 37 (4):646-660.
    Healthcare systems need to consider not only how to prevent error, but how to respond to errors when they occur. In the United Kingdom’s National Health Service, one strand of this latter response is the ‘No Blame Culture’, which draws attention from individuals and towards systems in the process of understanding an error. Defences of the No Blame Culture typically fail to distinguish between blaming someone and holding them responsible. This article argues for a ‘responsibility culture’, where healthcare professionals are (...)
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  38. A Historical Evaluation From Quarantine to Compartmental Model: From Ottoman Empire in 1830 to the Turkish Republic at 2020 and From Cholera to COVID-19.Sukran Sevimli - 2020 - Eubios Journal of Asian and International Bioethics 30 (6):295-98.
    Aim: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the Ottoman Empire's first experienced quarantine and the Turkey Republic's used compartmental models within quarantine. Method: This study was conducted as a review to explore quarantine procedures applied from Ottoman Empire to the present time in the Turkey Republic. For this purpose, we collected pieces of evidence from historical texts, articles, online reports, and books to websites. The reviews findings were assessed chronologically. Results: There were findings about the Ottoman Empire and (...)
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  39. Epistemic Ignorance, Poverty and the COVID-19 Pandemic.Cristian Timmermann - 2020 - Asian Bioethics Review 12.
    In various responses to the COVID-19 pandemic, we can observe insufficient sensitivity towards the needs and circumstances of poorer citizens. Particularly in a context of high inequality, policy makers need to engage with the wider public in debates and consultations to gain better insights in the realities of the worst-off within their jurisdiction. When consultations involve members of traditionally underrepresented groups, these are not only more inclusive, which is in itself an ethical aim, but pool ideas and observations from a (...)
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  40. Putting Minds Together: Commentary on the Interface of Ethics and Psychiatry.Gwen Adshead - 2019 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 26 (3):191-193.
    I am grateful to the editor for asking me to comment on this interesting article about interdisciplinary work between a philosopher and a psychiatrist, with which I found much to agree. As a medical student, I had no exposure to bioethical reasoning in medicine, and even now, I think it is the case that junior doctors in the UK have variable exposure to good quality ethical reasoning in clinical practice. I also agree that lectures are a poor way to learn (...)
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  41. Nudging in the Clinic: The Ethical Implications of Differences in Doctors’ and Patients’ Point of View.David Avitzour & Ittay Nissan-Rozen - 2019 - Journal of Medical Ethics 45 (3):183-189.
    There is an extensive ethical debate regarding the justifiability of doctors nudging towards healthy behaviour and better health-related choices. One line of argument in favour of nudging is based on empirical findings, according to which a healthy majority among the public support nudges. In this paper, we show, based on an experiment we conducted, that, in health-related choices, people’s ethical attitudes to nudging are strongly affected by the point of view from which the nudge is considered. Significant differences have been (...)
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  42. Moral Normative Force and Clinical Ethics Expertise.Parker Crutchfield - 2019 - American Journal of Bioethics 19 (11):89-91.
    Brummett and Salter propose a useful and timely taxonomy of clinical ethics expertise (2019). As the field becomes further “professionalized” this taxonomy is important, and the core of it is right. It needs some refinement around the edges, however. In their conclusion, Brummett and Salter rightly point out that there is a significant difference between the ethicist whose recommendations are procedure- and process-heavy, consensus-driven, and dialogical and the authoritarian ethicist whose recommendations flow from “private moral views” (Brummett and Salter, 2019). (...)
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  43. Epistemic Burdens and the Incentives of Surrogate Decision-Makers.Parker Crutchfield & Scott Scheall - 2019 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 22 (4):613-621.
    We aim to establish the following claim: other factors held constant, the relative weights of the epistemic burdens of competing treatment options serve to determine the options that patient surrogates pursue. Simply put, surrogates confront an incentive, ceteris paribus, to pursue treatment options with respect to which their knowledge is most adequate to the requirements of the case. Regardless of what the patient would choose, options that require more knowledge than the surrogate possesses (or is likely to learn) will either (...)
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  44. Culture and Consent in Clinical Care: A Critical Review of Nursing and Nursing Ethics Literature.Michael J. Deem & Felicia Stokes - 2019 - Annual Review of Nursing Research 37:223-259.
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  45. Innovative Practice, Clinical Research, and the Ethical Advancement of Medicine.Jake Earl - 2019 - American Journal of Bioethics 19 (6):7-18.
    Innovative practice occurs when a clinician provides something new, untested, or nonstandard to a patient in the course of clinical care, rather than as part of a research study. Commentators have noted that patients engaged in innovative practice are at significant risk of suffering harm, exploitation, or autonomy violations. By creating a pathway for harmful or nonbeneficial interventions to spread within medical practice without being subjected to rigorous scientific evaluation, innovative practice poses similar risks to the wider community of patients (...)
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  46. Protecting Reasonable Conscientious Refusals in Health Care.Jason T. Eberl - 2019 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 40 (6):565-581.
    Recently, debate over whether health care providers should have a protected right to conscientiously refuse to offer legal health care services—such as abortion, elective sterilization, aid in dying, or treatments for transgender patients—has grown exponentially. I advance a modified compromise view that bases respect for claims of conscientious refusal to provide specific health care services on a publicly defensible rationale. This view requires health care providers who refuse such services to disclose their availability by other providers, as well as to (...)
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  47. Conscientious Objection in Health Care.Jason T. Eberl - 2019 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 40 (6):483-486.
    Introduction to a special issue of _Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics_ on whether health care professionals should have a legally-protected right to conscientiously refuse to provide legal services that are autonomously requested by patients. Outlines the parameters of the current debate in the bioethics literature and orients readers to the articles the special issue comprises.
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  48. Possible Intentions and the Doctrine of Double Effect.Christopher Fruge - 2019 - Ethics, Medicine and Public Health 8:11-17.
    Under the standard formulation of the Doctrine of Double Effect, an act is permissible only if it is the result of an intention to do good and not the result of an intention to do bad. Many find that this absurdly ties the act’s permissibility to the agent’s character and not to features of the act itself. In light of such criticism, some philosophers have reformulated the doctrine so that it holds that an act is permissible given that it results (...)
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  49. Justice and Genes. [REVIEW]Adam Hayden - 2019 - Science 366 (6461):42.
  50. Kidney Sales and the Burden of Proof.Julian Koplin & Michael Selgelid - 2019 - Journal of Practical Ethics 7 (3):32-53.
    Janet Radcliffe Richards’ The Ethics of Transplants outlines a novel framework for moral inquiry in practical contexts and applies it to the topic of paid living kidney donation. In doing so, Radcliffe Richards makes two key claims: that opponents of organ markets bear the burden of proof, and that this burden has not yet been satisfied. This paper raises four related objections to Radcliffe Richards’ methodological framework, focusing largely on how Radcliffe Richards uses this framework in her discussion of kidney (...)
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