About this topic
Summary Merleau-Ponty (1908-1961) is best known for his contributions to phenomenology, in particular to phenomenological approaches to the body, perception, and consciousness in relation to nature. This also leads him to contributions in aesthetics, ontology, and the philosophy of nature, philosophy of science and philosophy of psychology. Through critical engagement with Marxism, in his philosophical and popular writings, he also contributes to social and political philosophy. A contemporary and colleague of figures such as Sartre, de Beauvoir, and Lacan, he was a public intellectual in France. He was Chair of Child Psychology and Pedagogy at the Sorbonne from 1949-52, and was appointed Chair of Philosophy at the Collége de France in 1952. He passed away suddenly at the age of 53, leaving behind a rich though incomplete project in phenomenological ontology and an array of unpublished notes and lectures.
Key works The monographs published by Merleau-Ponty in his lifetime (here listed for the English reader in translation, but with original publication dates) are Structure of Behaviour (1943), Phenomenology of Perception (1945), Humanism and Terror (1947), In Praise of Philosophy (1953), and Adventures of the Dialectic (1955). As well, he published collections of essays in Sense and Non-Sense (1948) and Signs (1960). At the time of this death Merleau-Ponty was working on a monograph, incomplete, which was titled The Visible and the Invisible (1961) by its editor, Claude Lefort.The Prose of the World is a project Merleau-Ponty abandoned circa 1952 that was published in 1968, after his death. As well, a number of his lectures courses have been published, drawing on notes from him and his students, on topics such as child psychology, nature, Husserl, institution and passivity, the world of expression and sense, the use of language in literature (see the list of works by Merleau-Ponty for further details).  For English readers, The Merleau-Ponty Reader, The Merleau-Ponty Aesthetics Reader, and The Primacy of Perception contain helpful collections of and selections from Merleau-Ponty’s published and unpublished texts. Also, The World of Perception, which is a transcription from a series of radio addresses given by Merleau-Ponty in 1948, offers a nice introduction to his early work.
Introductions For English readers, the following provide helpful resources and introductions for studying Merleau-Ponty and his texts: The Being of the Phenomenon (Barbaras), Merleau-Ponty (eds. Carman and Hansen), Merleau-Ponty’s Ontology (Dillon), Merleau-Ponty: Key Concepts (eds. Diprose and Reynolds), Merleau-Ponty’s Philosophy (Hass), The Merleau-Ponty Dictionary (Landes), The Phenomenology of Merleau-Ponty (Madison), Merleau-Ponty’s Philosophy (Mallin), Routledge Philosophy Guidebook to Merleau-Ponty (Romdenh-Romluc).
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  1. From Perception to Metaphysics: Reflections on Berkeley and Merleau-Ponty.John T. Sanders - manuscript
    George Berkeley's apparently strange view – that nothing exists without a mind except for minds themselves – is notorious. Also well known, and equally perplexing at a superficial level, is his insistence that his doctrine is no more than what is consistent with common sense. It was every bit as crucial for Berkeley that it be demonstrated that the colors are really in the tulip, as that there is nothing that is neither a mind nor something perceived by a mind. (...)
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  2. Investigations in Radical Temporality.Joshua Soffer - manuscript
    My central research focus over the past 30 years has been the articulation of what I call a radically temporal approach to philosophy. In the papers below, written between 2001 and 2022, I treat the varying ways in which radically temporal thinking manifests itself in the phenomenological perspectives of Edmund Husserl, Martin Heidegger and Eugene Gendlin. I also discuss Jacques Derrida's deconstructive project and George Kelly's personal construct theory as examples of radically temporal thinking. With the aim of clarifying and (...)
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  3. Beyond Blame and Anger; New Directions for Philosophy.Joshua Soffer - manuscript
    Despite the diversity of viewpoints throughout the history of philosophy on the subject of blame, one thing philosophers appear to agree on is that blame is an irreducible feature of experience. That is to say , no philosophical approach makes the claim to have entirely eliminated the need for anger and blame. On the contrary, a certain conception of blameful anger is at the very heart of both modern and postmodern philosophical foundations. As a careful analysis will show, this is (...)
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  4. Merleau-Ponty and the Problem Of Origins.Thomas Busch - unknown - Phil Today 2:124-130.
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  5. Merleau-Ponty and the Husserlian Reductions.J. Devettere Raymond - unknown - Phil Today 17:297-308.
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  6. Merleau-Ponty'S Concept Of the Self.William J. Hurst - unknown - Int Phil Quart 22:227-240.
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  7. Sanity and Myth In Affective Space: A Discussion Of Merleau-Ponty.David Michael Levin - unknown - Phil Forum 14:157-189.
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  8. Thinking Plurality: Arendt and Merleau-Ponty.Fiona Tomkinson - unknown - Yeditepe'de Felsefe (Philosophy at Yeditepe) 2.
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  9. The Merleau-Ponty Bibliography: Additions and Corrections.Kerry Whiteside - unknown - J Hist Phil 21:195-202.
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  10. Embodied Idealism: Merleau-Ponty's Transcendental Philosophy.Joseph C. Berendzen - forthcoming - Oxford University Press.
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  11. L'ontographie ou l'écriture de l'être chez Merleau-ponty.Sébastien Blanc - forthcoming - Les Etudes Philosophiques.
    Ce texte cherche à interroger l'œuvre de Merleau-Ponty à travers la métaphore de l'écriture: de la Phénoménologie de la perception jusqu'aux dernières notes du Visible et l'invisible, un même réseau conceptuel revient en effet, celui de la trace, du texte, de l'inscription, et nous avons tenté d'en cerner le sens et la fonction. L'écriture, le « texte du monde », c'est d'abord le sol fondamental, l'originaire dont la phénoménologie est en quête, et qu'elle tente de dévoiler sous les idéalités du (...)
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  12. Varonique M. Foti, Ed., Merleau-Ponty: Difference, Materiality, Painting.D. Coole - forthcoming - Radical Philosophy.
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  13. Metaphysical Consciousness and Unconsciousness in Merleau-Ponty.Michel Dalissier - forthcoming - Phenomenological Studies 2 (2018).
    I begin by comparing and contrasting Merleau-Ponty’s metaphysical project with the views of philosophers, such as Wolff, Leibniz, Bergson, Sartre, and Heidegger. Focusing on Merleau-Ponty’s most striking “metaphysical question,” the one about “bringing into being” (faire-être), I then show how it contrasts with notions such as being, non-being, and “being-made” (être fait). Responding to three objections to this theory, I, first, show how “making” (faire) is distinct from “acting.” Second, I argue that “bringing into being” is only actualized in “metaphysical (...)
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  14. From Phenomenology of Life to Metaphysics of Living – with Merleau-Ponty.Michel Dalissier - forthcoming - Memoirs of the Institute of Humanities 114.
    生とは一体何か。また生はどのように現れるのか。それは、現象学において生活(としての)世界(Lebenswelt)として現れる。だが、フッサールが試みる生活世界の存在論は、狭義の生の現象学ではない。加え て、彼は生活世界を自我の超越論的生から理解する。この問題を解決するには、ハイデッガー、M.アンリ、レヴィナスによる様々な生の現象学があるが、それに対して徹底的な反論がある。生の現象学を凌駕するには、メ ルロ=ポンティと共に、生きることの形而上学を取り上げる必要がある。それは、意識の様々な「段階」(驚き及び認識)、「豊かな矛盾」、「フェール(なす、作る、・・・させる)」(faire)等といった概念を通 じて可能になる。.
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  15. Embodied Higher Cognition: Insights From Merleau-Ponty’s Interpretation of Motor Intentionality.Jan Halák - forthcoming - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences:1-29.
    This paper clarifies Merleau-Ponty’s original account of “higher-order” cognition as fundamentally embodied and enacted. Merleau-Ponty’s philosophy inspired theories that deemphasize overlaps between conceptual knowledge and motor intentionality or, on the contrary, focus exclusively on abstract thought. In contrast, this paper explores the link between Merleau-Ponty’s account of motor intentionality and his interpretations of our capacity to understand and interact productively with cultural symbolic systems. I develop my interpretation based on Merleau-Ponty’s analysis of two neuropathological modifications of motor intentionality, the case (...)
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  16. Merleau-Ponty and Standpoint Theory.Rebecca Harrison - forthcoming - In Patrick Londen, Jeffrey Yoshimi & Philip Walsh (eds.), Horizons of Phenomenology: Essays on the State of the Field and its Applications.
    Feminist standpoint theory is a variety of feminist epistemology that has been active since the 1980s. Its two central tenets are (1) that knowledge is necessarily situated within a socio-political context, and (2) that certain socio-political positions or standpoints are epistemically privileged when it comes to “reveal[ing] the truth of social reality” (Hekman 1997). Over the course of its history, standpoint theory has encountered a number of problems which have revealed divisions among its supporters over certain fundamental philosophical commitments. In (...)
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  17. Merleau-Ponty’s ‘sensible ideas’ and embodied-embedded practice.Andrew Inkpin - forthcoming - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences:1-24.
    In The Visible and the Invisible Merleau-Ponty develops a notion of ‘sensible ideas’ that conceives general meaning as inseparable from its realization in sensible particulars. Such ideas – exemplified by music – are to capture the specificity of the meaning produced by embodied agency and serve as the foundation of all cognition. This article argues that, although Merleau-Ponty overgeneralizes their application, sensible ideas are philosophically important in enabling better understanding of the diverse forms and functions embodied-embedded practices and cognition can (...)
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  18. The Passivity of Institution in Merleau Ponty: Pandemic Thinking.Rajiv Kaushik - forthcoming - Humana Mente.
    This paper examines the relationship between Merleau-Ponty's lectures on institution and his lectures on passivity. I argue that the relationship depends on Merleau-Ponty's internal critique of institution as outlined in Husserl's ouevre. That is, institution is not only human institution, which rests on temporality and time-consciousness, but also animal, biological and even virological, which rests on a certain, non-euclidian space of the body. Merleau-Ponty's focus in the course is animal institution: animal morphology, menstruation, puberty, etc. These are what tie institution (...)
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  19. In Search of Lost Speech: From Language to Nature in Merleau-Ponty’s Collège de France Courses.Hayden Kee - forthcoming - Humana.Mente - Journal of Philosophical Studies.
    This paper tracks the development of Merleau-Ponty's inquiries into language through the themes of institution, symbolism, and nature in his Collège de France lectures of 1953-1960. It seeks to show the continuity of Merleau-Ponty's inquiries over this period. The Problem of Speech course (1953-1954) constitutes his last extended treatment of speech, language, and expression, and it leaves many questions unanswered. Nonetheless, a careful study of the course reveals that the inquiries that follow into institution and symbolism, and later into nature, (...)
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  20. Taking phenomenology beyond the first-person perspective: conceptual grounding in the collection and analysis of observational evidence.Marianne Elisabeth Klinke & Anthony Vincent Fernandez - forthcoming - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences:1-21.
    Phenomenology has been adapted for use in qualitative health research, where it’s often used as a method for conducting interviews and analyzing interview data. But how can phenomenologists study subjects who cannot accurately reflect upon or report their own experiences, for instance, because of a psychiatric or neurological disorder? For conditions like these, qualitative researchers may gain more insight by conducting observational studies in lieu of, or in conjunction with, interviews. In this article, we introduce a phenomenological approach to conducting (...)
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  21. De Profundis Clamavi Ad Te Domine : The Existential Significance of Depth for Berkeley, Merleau-Ponty and Desmond.Renee Köhler Ryan - forthcoming - Yearbook of the Irish Philosophical Society.
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  22. The Temporality of Maximal Grip: On Pragmatists’ Readings of Merleau-Ponty.Daniil Koloskov - forthcoming - Bulletin d'Analyse Phénoménologique.
    In this article, I will pursue three aims. First, I would like to demonstrate the non-transcendental character of Merleau-Ponty’s phenomenology, namely, his claim that a strict division between a priori and a posteriori is an abstraction that derives from a more primordial unity that is given in our lived experience. I will criticize authors such as H. Dreyfus and T. Carman who treat the body and bodily character of our existence as a classical Kantian a priori that functions as a (...)
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  23. The Weight of Others.Donald A. Landes - forthcoming - In Luna Dolezal & Danielle Petherbridge (eds.), Body/Self/Others: The Phenomenology of Social Encounters. SUNY Press.
  24. The Flesh of Negation: Adorno and Merleau-Ponty Contra Heidegger.Daniel Neofetou - forthcoming - Philosophy and Social Criticism.
    Theodor Adorno’s 1960–1961 lecture course Ontology and Dialectics, recently translated into English, provides the most systematic articulation of his critique of Martin Heidegger. When Adorno deliv...
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  25. The Flesh of Negation: Adorno and Merleau-Ponty Contra Heidegger.Daniel Neofetou - forthcoming - Sage Publications Ltd: Philosophy and Social Criticism.
    Philosophy & Social Criticism, Ahead of Print. Theodor Adorno’s 1960–1961 lecture course Ontology and Dialectics, recently translated into English, provides the most systematic articulation of his critique of Martin Heidegger. When Adorno delivered three of the lectures at the Collège de France, Maurice Merleau-Ponty was reportedly scandalised as he was at that time developing his own ontology, informed by Heidegger. However, this article problematises the assumption that Adorno’s negative dialectic and Merleau-Ponty’s late ontology are incompatible. First, Adorno’s criticism of Heidegger’s (...)
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  26. The Flesh of Negation: Adorno and Merleau-Ponty Contra Heidegger.Daniel Neofetou - forthcoming - Philosophy and Social Criticism.
    Theodor Adorno’s 1960–1961 lecture course Ontology and Dialectics, recently translated into English, provides the most systematic articulation of his critique of Martin Heidegger. When Adorno deliv...
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  27. Perception, Expression and History in the Philosophy of Merleau-Ponty.John O'neill - forthcoming - Social Research: An International Quarterly.
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  28. Merleau-Ponty and the Myth Of Bodily Intentionality.Lilly M. Russow - forthcoming - Noûs 22:35-47.
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  29. Merleau-Ponty and Temporalities in the Flesh: Bodies of Expression and Temporalities in the Flesh.Alia A. Saji - forthcoming - Philosophy Today.
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  30. The A Priori: Merleau-Ponty’s ‘New Definition’.Sidra Shahid - forthcoming - Humana Mente.
    Despite the significant amount of debate that Merleau-Ponty’s work has seen over the years, it remains an unresolved issue whether his phenomenology offers what he announces as a ‘new definition of...
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  31. The A Priori: Merleau-Ponty’s ‘New Definition’.Sidra Shahid - forthcoming - International Journal of Philosophical Studies:1-21.
    Despite the significant amount of debate that Merleau-Ponty’s work has seen over the years, it remains an unresolved issue whether his phenomenology offers what he announces as a ‘new definition of...
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  32. L'esthétique de Merleau-ponty.Michaël B. Smith - forthcoming - Les Etudes Philosophiques.
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  33. Merleau-Ponty Et le « Bergsonisme ».Jean-Marie Tréguier - forthcoming - Revue de Métaphysique et de Morale.
    Empruntée à Heidegger et devenue méthode d'histoire de la philosophie, la quête d'un impensé est aussi, chez Merleau-Ponty, ce qui anime et caractérise sa propre recherche. Appliquée à Bergson, une telle méthode dévoile un Bergson se faisant, plus riche et plus complexe que ne le laisse supposer le « bersonisme »; elle révèle en outre des aspects essentiels de la pensée de Merleau-Ponty qu'une référence exclusive à la phénoménologie ne pourrait qu'occulter. Heidegger entliehen und zur Methode der Philosophiegeschichte geworden, ist (...)
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  34. Misfitting, Breakdowns, and the Normal in Merleau-Ponty.Katherine Ward - forthcoming - Human Studies:1-22.
    Distinguishing between normal and non-normal cases of perception and motricity is a key part of Merleau-Ponty’s methodology in Phenomenology of Perception. Many feminist philosophers and disability scholars have criticized this use of the normal/nonnormal binary and the presumptions behind it. Others have embraced his methodology and noted its consonance with contemporary feminist, disability, and philosophy of race scholarship. In this paper, I present my own interpretation of what Merleau-Ponty means by “normal”. I draw on Rosemarie Garland-Thomson’s concept of “fit” and (...)
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  35. Comentário a “Dialéctica de la Experiencia En Merleau-Ponty y Adorno”: Breve Comentário a Favor de Husserl.Abah Andrade - 2022 - Trans/Form/Ação 45 (3):125-128.
  36. Reflection, Objectivity, and the Love of God, A Passage From Merleau‐Ponty's Phenomenology of Perception.Michael Berman - 2022 - Heythrop Journal 63 (4):520-530.
    The Heythrop Journal, Volume 63, Issue 4, Page 520-530, July 2022.
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  37. Deleuze, Bergson, Merleau-Ponty: The Logics and Pragmatics of Creation, Affective Life, and Perception by Dorothea E. Olkowski.Elodie Boublil - 2022 - Review of Metaphysics 76 (1):152-154.
  38. A Comparative Study of Merleau-Ponty and Arnheim's Views in the Field of Visual Perception and Explaining its Approach in Art Education.Somayeh Chatrayi, Marzieh Piravi Vanak, Nader Shayganfar & Parisa Darouei - 2022 - Philosophical Investigations 16 (39):254-268.
    Many attempts to understand the nature of perception and its phenomena have been the result of the thoughts of phenomenologists and Gestalt psychologists. Maurice Merleau-Ponty and Rudolph Arnheim are two of the prominent philosophers and theorists in this field, who’s their opinions are influenced by Gestalt school with a phenomenological approach.The present article aims at achieving a broad cognition of the nature of perception by comparing the opinions of these two philosophers and analyzes these implications in the field of art (...)
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  39. L’autrui dans la sphère la plus originaire.Eun‑Hye Choo - 2022 - Studia Phaenomenologica 22:255-274.
    This paper examines the influence that Husserl’s drive/instinct theory has on Merleau‑Ponty’s late philosophy. Husserl’s interest in the passive realm of life develops into a study of a more profound level which even precedes the emergence of subjectivity. We analyze how it leads Merleau‑Ponty, in his philosophy of flesh, to furnish an ontological explanation regarding the problem of the relationship with others. In this regard, we investigate firstly Husserl’s theory of originary affection and its limits, before scrutinizing the notion of (...)
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  40. Ontology and Attention: Addressing the Challenge of the Amoralist Through Merleau-Ponty’s Phenomenology and Care Ethics.Anya Daly - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (67):67.
    This paper addresses the persistent philosophical problem posed by the amoralist—one who eschews moral values—by drawing on complementary resources within phenomenology and care ethics. How is it that the amoralist can reject ethical injunctions that serve the general good and be unpersuaded by ethical intuitions that for most would require neither explanation nor justification? And more generally, what is the basis for ethical motivation? Why is it that we can care for others? What are the underpinning ontological structures that are (...)
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  41. Ontology and Politics: Interdependence and Radical Contingency in Merleau-Ponty’s Political Interworld.Anya Daly - 2022 - Human Studies 45 (2):341-359.
    This paper takes as its point of departure Merleau-Ponty’s assertion: “everything will have to begin again, in politics as well as in philosophy”. In pursuing his later work, Merleau-Ponty signalled the need for a reconfiguration of his philosophical vision, so it was no longer caught in Cartesianism and the philosophy of consciousness. This required a turn towards ontology through which he consolidated two key ideas: firstly, a pervasive interdependence articulated in his reversibility thesis and the ontology of ‘flesh’; secondly, a (...)
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  42. « Principe Barbare » Et « Il y a ». Lecture Croisée : Merleau-Ponty Et Levinas.Emmanuel Falque - 2022 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 78 (3):673-696.
    “The final task of phenomenology as a philosophy of consciousness,” Merleau-Ponty wrote, “is to understand its relationship with non-phenomenology. That which resists phenomenology in us – natural being, the ‘barbaric principle’ of which Schelling spoke – cannot remain extra-phenomenal and must have its place within it.” The barbaric principle, and the there is – such is the confrontation that must be attempted here. Far from remaining simply pre-reflexive or presupposing the signified, the Nietzschean ‘abyss’, even more radical than the Schellingian (...)
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  43. Dialéctica de la Experiencia En Merleau-Ponty y Adorno.Leonardo Verano Gamboa - 2022 - Trans/Form/Ação 45 (3):105-124.
    Resumen: El texto propone un diálogo entre fenomenología y teoría crítica, concretamente en Merleau-Ponty y Adorno. Sostenemos que la labor asignada por ellos a la filosofía pone en evidencia una concepción dialéctica de la experiencia en la que se reivindica el sentido de ésta como experiencia viva. No obstante las fuertes objeciones dirigidas a la fenomenología por Adorno, Horkheimer y Marcuse, identificamos a modo de introducción la negatividad de la experiencia como rasgo característico en Husserl, Heidegger y Merleau-Ponty. En segundo (...)
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  44. Mathematics Embodied: Merleau-Ponty on Geometry and Algebra as Fields of Motor Enaction.Jan Halák - 2022 - Synthese 200 (1):1-28.
    This paper aims to clarify Merleau-Ponty’s contribution to an embodied-enactive account of mathematical cognition. I first identify the main points of interest in the current discussions of embodied higher cognition and explain how they relate to Merleau-Ponty and his sources, in particular Husserl’s late works. Subsequently, I explain these convergences in greater detail by more specifically discussing the domains of geometry and algebra and by clarifying the role of gestalt psychology in Merleau-Ponty’s account. Beyond that, I explain how, for Merleau-Ponty, (...)
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  45. Gesturing in Language: Merleau-Ponty and Mukařovský at the Phenomenological Limits of Structuralism.Jan Halák - 2022 - Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology 53 (4):415-439.
    This study aims to corroborate Merleau-Ponty’s interpretations of fundamental ideas from Saussure’s linguistics by linking them to works that were independently elaborated by Jan Mukařovský, Czech structuralist aesthetician and literary theorist. I provide a comparative analysis of the two authors’ theories of language and their interpretations of thought as fundamentally determined by language. On this basis, I investigate how they conceive linguistic innovation and its translation into changes in the constituted language and other social codes and institutions. I explain how (...)
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  46. Peter Antich, Motivation and the Primacy of Perception: Merleau-Ponty’s Phenomenology of Knowledge, Athens OH: Ohio UP, 2021, Pp. 264, ISBN 978-0-8214-2432-2 (Hbk) $95.00. [REVIEW]Erica Harris - 2022 - Journal of Transcendental Philosophy 3 (2):289-293.
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  47. La estética de lo cotidiano y la construcción del mundo propio: desde Levinas y Merleau-Ponty.Alfonso Hoyos Morales - 2022 - Enrahonar: Quaderns de Filosofía 69:105-125.
    El siguiente artículo tiene dos intenciones: por un lado, a través de Levinas y Merleau- Ponty, mostrar la relevancia de las herramientas fenomenológicas en el debate actual de la estética de lo cotidiano; por otro, defender la tesis de que lo específico de la estética de lo cotidiano consiste en comprender que nuestra cotidianidad está fundada inherentemente en elementos estéticos que se integran en nuestra vida de forma irreflexiva. A su vez, dichos elementos estéticos, a pesar de su irreflexividad, componen (...)
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  48. Merleau-Ponty’s Concept of the Unconscious in Perception and the Attempt to Model Cognitive Information Processing in Cognitive Science and AI.Bernhard Irrgang - 2022 - Humana Mente 15 (41).
    In L’institution, la passivité. Notes de cours au Collège de France, Maurice Merleau-Ponty develops approaches to a concept of the unconscious that can also be relevant to a mental philosophy from the perspective of cognitive science and AI in the tradition of continental philosophy. I consider this all the more important as previous attempts at an analytical philosophy of AI tend to remain stuck in Cartesian or Platonic dualism, which – as a dream of Silicon Valley – could encourage gnostic (...)
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  49. Phenomenological Physiotherapy: Extending the Concept of Bodily Intentionality.Halák Jan & Petr Kříž - 2022 - Medical Humanities 48 (4):e14.
    This study clarifies the need for a renewed account of the body in physiotherapy to fill sizable gaps between physiotherapeutical theory and practice. Physiotherapists are trained to approach bodily functioning from an objectivist perspective; however, their therapeutic interactions with patients are not limited to the provision of natural-scientific explanations. Physiotherapists’ practice corresponds well to theorisation of the body as the bearer of original bodily intentionality, as outlined by Merleau-Ponty and elaborated upon by enactivists. We clarify how physiotherapeutical practice corroborates Merleau-Ponty’s (...)
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  50. The Primal Scenes of Language and the Gesture.Rajiv Kaushik - 2022 - Studia Phaenomenologica 22:71-86.
    This paper seeks to develop the connection in Merleau‑Ponty’s later ontology between the gesture and language. There is a concerted effort in Merleau‑Ponty’s “middle period” to illustrate that a linguistic system of signs is internally constellated by the body and its movement. This effort seems to give way to an ontology of flesh in the later period. On closer consideration, however, this ontology and the linguistic system of signs—both “diacritical”—are mutually imbricated. This highlights the crucial importance of separation, deviation, and (...)
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