38 found
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  1. Evidence amalgamation, plausibility, and cancer research.Marta Bertolaso & Fabio Sterpetti - 2019 - Synthese 196 (8):3279-3317.
    Cancer research is experiencing ‘paradigm instability’, since there are two rival theories of carcinogenesis which confront themselves, namely the somatic mutation theory and the tissue organization field theory. Despite this theoretical uncertainty, a huge quantity of data is available thanks to the improvement of genome sequencing techniques. Some authors think that the development of new statistical tools will be able to overcome the lack of a shared theoretical perspective on cancer by amalgamating as many data as possible. We think instead (...)
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  2.  47
    Reuniting philosophy and science to advance cancer research.Thomas Pradeu, Bertrand Daignan-Fornier, Andrew Ewald, Pierre-Luc Germain, Samir Okasha, Anya Plutynski, Sébastien Benzekry, Marta Bertolaso, Mina Bissell, Joel S. Brown, Benjamin Chin-Yee, Ian Chin-Yee, Hans Clevers, Laurent Cognet, Marie Darrason, Emmanuel Farge, Jean Feunteun, Jérôme Galon, Elodie Giroux, Sara Green, Fridolin Gross, Fanny Jaulin, Rob Knight, Ezio Laconi, Nicolas Larmonier, Carlo Maley, Alberto Mantovani, Violaine Moreau, Pierre Nassoy, Elena Rondeau, David Santamaria, Catherine M. Sawai, Andrei Seluanov, Gregory D. Sepich-Poore, Vanja Sisirak, Eric Solary, Sarah Yvonnet & Lucie Laplane - 2023 - Biological Reviews 98 (5):1668-1686.
    Cancers rely on multiple, heterogeneous processes at different scales, pertaining to many biomedical fields. Therefore, understanding cancer is necessarily an interdisciplinary task that requires placing specialised experimental and clinical research into a broader conceptual, theoretical, and methodological framework. Without such a framework, oncology will collect piecemeal results, with scant dialogue between the different scientific communities studying cancer. We argue that one important way forward in service of a more successful dialogue is through greater integration of applied sciences (experimental and clinical) (...)
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  3.  24
    Specifically human: Human work and care in the age of machines.Marta Bertolaso & Marta Rocchi - 2020 - Business Ethics: A European Review 31 (3):888-898.
    Business Ethics: A European Review, EarlyView.
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  4.  12
    Philosophy of Cancer: A Dynamic and Relational View.Marta Bertolaso - 2016 - Dordrecht: Imprint: Springer.
    Since the 1970s, the origin of cancer is being explored from the point of view of the Somatic Mutation Theory (SMT), focusing on genetic mutations and clonal expansion of somatic cells. As cancer research expanded in several directions, the dominant focus on cells remained steady, but the classes of genes and the kinds of extra-genetic factors that were shown to have causal relevance in the onset of cancer multiplied. The wild heterogeneity of cancer-related mutations and phenotypes, along with the increasing (...)
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  5.  81
    Emergence in Complex Physiological Processes: The Case of Vitamin B12 Functions in Erythropoiesis.Francesca Bellazzi & Marta Bertolaso - 2024 - Systems 12.
    In this paper, we will explore the relation between molecular structure and functions displayed by biochemical molecules in complex physiological processes by using tools from the philosophy of science and the philosophy of scientific practice. We will argue that biochemical functions are weakly emergent from molecular structure by using an account of weak. In order to explore this thesis, we will consider the role of vitamin B12 in contributing to the process of erythropoiesis. The structure of the paper is the (...)
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  6.  24
    Specifically human: Human work and care in the age of machines.Marta Bertolaso & Marta Rocchi - 2020 - Business Ethics, the Environment and Responsibility 31 (3):888-898.
    Business Ethics, the Environment &Responsibility, Volume 31, Issue 3, Page 888-898, July 2022.
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  7.  32
    Hierarchies and causal relationships in interpretative models of the neoplastic process.Marta Bertolaso - 2011 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 33 (4).
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  8.  87
    Conceptual Challenges in the Theoretical Foundations of Systems Biology.Marta Bertolaso & Emanuele Ratti - 2018 - In Mariano Bizzarri (ed.), Systems Biology. New York: Springer, Humana Press. pp. 1-13.
    In the last decade, Systems Biology has emerged as a conceptual and explanatory alternative to reductionist-based approaches in molecular biology. However, the foundations of this new discipline need to be fleshed out more carefully. In this paper, we claim that a relational ontology is a necessary tool to ground both the conceptual and explanatory aspects of Systems Biology. A relational ontology holds that relations are prior—both conceptually and explanatory—to entities, and that in the biological realm entities are defined primarily by (...)
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  9.  31
    Scientific Practice in Modeling Diseases: Stances from Cancer Research and Neuropsychiatry.Marta Bertolaso & Raffaella Campaner - 2020 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 45 (1):105-128.
    In the last few decades, philosophy of science has increasingly focused on multilevel models and causal mechanistic explanations to account for complex biological phenomena. On the one hand, biological and biomedical works make extensive use of mechanistic concepts; on the other hand, philosophers have analyzed an increasing range of examples taken from different domains in the life sciences to test—support or criticize—the adequacy of mechanistic accounts. The article highlights some challenges in the elaboration of mechanistic explanations with a focus on (...)
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  10.  30
    Personalized Medicine in the Making: Philosophical Perspectives From Biology to Healthcare.Chiara Beneduce & Marta Bertolaso (eds.) - 2021 - Springer.
    This book offers a multidisciplinary look at the much-debated concept of “personalized medicine”. By combining a humanistic and a scientific approach, the book builds up a multidimensional way to understand the limits and potentialities of a personalized approach in medicine and healthcare. The book reflects on personalized medicine and complex diseases, the relationship between personalized medicine and the new bio-technologies, personalized medicine and personalized nutrition, and on some ethical, political, economic, and social implications of personalized medicine. This volume is of (...)
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  11. The Pursuit of Knowledge and the Problem of the Unconceived Alternatives.Fabio Sterpetti & Marta Bertolaso - 2020 - Topoi 39 (4):881-892.
    In the process of scientific discovery, knowledge ampliation is pursued by means of non-deductive inferences. When ampliative reasoning is performed, probabilities cannot be assigned objectively. One of the reasons is that we face the problem of the unconceived alternatives: we are unable to explore the space of all the possible alternatives to a given hypothesis, because we do not know how this space is shaped. So, if we want to adequately account for the process of knowledge ampliation, we need to (...)
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  12.  26
    Towards an Integrated View of the Neoplastic Phenomena in Cancer Research.Marta Bertolaso - 2009 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 31 (1):79 - 97.
    Cancer research has been at the forefront of biomedical activity in recent decades, and advances in molecular biology have provided a growing amount of information on the mechanisms involved in the etiopathogenesis of tumors. Nevertheless, despite these advances, the complexity of cancer is more evident, especially as different levels of phenomena are considered to explain the heterogeneity of the neoplastic process. A synthetic analysis of advances in cancer research illustrates these changes. In attempting to overcome the limits of epistemological reductionism, (...)
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  13.  31
    On the structure of biological explanations: beyond functional ascriptions in cancer research.Marta Bertolaso - 2013 - Epistemologia 36 (1):112-130.
  14.  20
    La comprensión de la biodiversidad desde un punto de vista relacional.Luca Valera & Marta Bertolaso - 2016 - Tópicos: Revista de Filosofía 51:37-54.
    La biodiversidad suele reconocerse en diferentes disciplinas como un valor universal. Ésta apunta a la heterogeneidad de las propiedades que caracterizan al mundo biológico. Sin embargo, a pesar de su uso común, el análisis crítico de la literatura filosófica pone en evidencia cierta dificultad a conceptualizar la biodiversidad, dada una aparente dicotomía entre los elementos normativos y descriptivos del término mismo. En este artículo se sostiene que es necesario considerar el aspecto relacional de la biodiversidad con el n de resolver (...)
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  15.  18
    Some reflections on Mitchell’s pragmatist variant of scientific realism.Marta Bertolaso & Fabio Sterpetti - 2024 - Theoria: Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia 38 (3):389-407.
    This article aims at discussing an interesting variant of scientific realism recently proposed and defended by Sandra Mitchell (forthcoming), namely an affordances-based and pragmatist variant of scientific realism. We firstly place Mitchell’s proposal in the context of the current state of the debate over scientific realism. Secondly, we summarize the salient features of Mitchell’s proposal. Thirdly, we point out some aspects of that proposal that might require some further refinement and clarification in order to make it less prone to criticisms (...)
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  16.  35
    Systems biology reveals biology of systems.Marta Bertolaso, Alessandro Giuliani & Laura De Gara - 2011 - Complexity 16 (6):10-16.
  17.  70
    What and How Do Cancer Systems Biologists Explain?Anya Plutynski & Marta Bertolaso - 2018 - Philosophy of Science 85 (5):942-954.
    In this article, we argue, first, that there are very different research projects that fall under the heading of “systems biology of cancer.” While they share some general features, they differ in their aims and theoretical commitments. Second, we argue that some explanations in systems biology of cancer are concerned with properties of signaling networks and how they may play an important causal role in patterns of vulnerability to cancer. Further, some systems biological explanations are compelling illustrations of how “top-down” (...)
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  18.  8
    Introduction: Issues About Robustness in the Practice of Biological Sciences.Marta Bertolaso, Emanuele Serrelli & Silvia Caianiello - 2018 - In Marta Bertolaso, Silvia Caianiello & Emanuele Serrelli (eds.), Biological Robustness. Emerging Perspectives from within the Life Sciences. Cham: Springer. pp. 1-22.
    Robustness has lately become a bridging notion, in particular across the sciences of the natural and the artificial, crucial for prediction and control of natural and artificial systems in recent scientific practice, in biomedicine, neurobiology and engineering, as well as for risk management, planning and policy in ecology, healthcare, markets and economy. From biological, neurological and societal systems, arising by the interplay of self-organizing dynamics and environmental pressures, to the current sophisticated engineering that aims at artificially reproducing the adaptability and (...)
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  19.  13
    In Silico Modeling: the Human Factor.Marta Bertolaso & Miles MacLeod - 2016 - Humana Mente 9 (30).
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  20.  15
    Thinking in 3 dimensions: philosophies of the microenvironment in organoids and organs-on-chip.Silvia Caianiello, Marta Bertolaso & Guglielmo Militello - 2023 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 45 (2):1-35.
    Organoids and organs-on-a-chip are currently the two major families of 3D advanced organotypic in vitro culture systems, aimed at reconstituting miniaturized models of physiological and pathological states of human organs. Both share the tenets of the so-called “three-dimensional thinking”, a Systems Physiology approach focused on recapitulating the dynamic interactions between cells and their microenvironment. We first review the arguments underlying the “paradigm shift” toward three-dimensional thinking in the in vitro culture community. Then, through a historically informed account of the technical (...)
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  21.  13
    Rethinking “digital”: a genealogical enquiry into the meaning of digital and its impact on individuals and society.Luca Capone, Marta Rocchi & Marta Bertolaso - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-11.
    In the current social and technological scenario, the term digital is abundantly used with an apparently transparent and unambiguous meaning. This article aims to unveil the complexity of this concept, retracing its historical and cultural origin. This genealogical overview allows to understand the reason why an instrumental conception of digital media has prevailed, considering the digital as a mere tool to convey a message, as opposed to a constitutive conception. The constitutive conception places the digital phenomenon in the broader ground (...)
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  22.  14
    A Generative Paradigm for Human Work.Andrea Roncella & Marta Bertolaso - 2022 - Business and Professional Ethics Journal 41 (3):331-351.
    In this paper we have two main goals. The first is to challenge two key elements of reductionist thinking concerning human work inherited from the Information and Communication Technology revolution that have significantly shaped current concepts of work at both the individual and institutional level: the ‘flexible man’ model and the obsession with the objective function of economic productivity. We show how, combined with the logic of productivity as a means for continuous economic growth, these elements justify the overlapping of (...)
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  23.  8
    The machine-like repair of aging. Disentangling the key assumptions of the SENS agenda.Pablo García-Barranquero & Marta Bertolaso - 2022 - Theoria: Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia 37 (3):379-394.
    The possibility of curing aging is currently generating hopes and concerns among entrepreneurs, experts, and the general public. This article aims to clarify some of the key assumptions of the Strategies for Engineered Negligible Senescence agenda, one of the most prominent paradigms for rejuvenation. To do this, we present the three fundamental claims of this research program: (1) aging can be repaired; (2) rejuvenation is possible through the reversal of all molecular damage; (3) and the human organism is a sophisticated (...)
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  24.  17
    Biological Robustness. Emerging Perspectives from within the Life Sciences.Marta Bertolaso, Silvia Caianiello & Emanuele Serrelli (eds.) - 2018 - Cham: Springer.
    This volume reviews examples and notions of robustness at several levels of biological organization. It tackles many philosophical and conceptual issues and casts an outlook on the future challenges of robustness studies in the context of a practice-oriented philosophy of science. The focus of discussion is on concrete case studies. These highlight the necessity of a level-dependent description of robust biological behaviors.Experts from the neurosciences, biochemistry, ecology, biology, and the history and the philosophy of life sciences provide a multiplex perspective (...)
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  25.  6
    Correction to: Stem Cells and the Microenvironment: Reciprocity with Asymmetry in Regenerative Medicine.Marta Bertolaso & Guglielmo Militello - 2022 - Acta Biotheoretica 71 (1):1-1.
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  26.  6
    Etica digitale: verità, responsabilità e fiducia nell'era delle macchine intelligenti.Marta Bertolaso & Giovanni Lo Storto (eds.) - 2021 - Roma: Luiss University Press.
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  27.  25
    Epistemology in life sciences. An integrative approach to a complex system like cancer.Marta Bertolaso - 2011 - Ludus Vitalis 19 (36):245-249.
  28.  20
    La indeterminación biológica y las perspectivas sistémicas de la biología contemporánea.Marta Bertolaso - 2013 - Anuario Filosófico 46 (2):365-386.
    Se muestra cómo la indeterminación característica de la complejidad biológica contribuyó al surgimiento de las perspectivas sistémicas en la biología contemporánea y el modo en el que estas pueden admitir un determinismo biológico. Se mencionan algunas características que adquieren en este contexto las nociones de causalidad y de información biológica, para indicar por qué el estudio del indeterminismo y del determinismo biológico abre el camino hacia una comprensión más amplia de la causalidad.
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  29.  22
    The future of scientific practice: bio-techno-logos.Marta Bertolaso (ed.) - 2015 - London: Pickering & Chatto.
    Focusing on cell dynamics, molecular medicine and robotics, contributors explore the interplay between biological, technological and theoretical ways of thinking. They argue that the direction of modern science means that these areas can no longer be explored independently but must be integrated if we are to better understand the world. The collection makes a strong contribution to current debates in the philosophy of science and the changing role of scientific practice.0.
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  30. The non-reductionist dimension of reductionism in experimental research from molecular models to those systemic in cancer research.Marta Bertolaso - 2012 - Rivista di Filosofia Neo-Scolastica 104 (4):687-705.
     
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  31. The two sides of the hour anal< tic and s< nthetic approaches in cancer research.Marta Bertolaso - 2011 - Ludus Vitalis 19 (3):73-95.
     
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  32.  42
    Uncoupling Mereology and Supervenience: A Dual Framework for Emergence and Downward Causation.Marta Bertolaso - 2017 - Axiomathes 27 (6):705-720.
    The philosophical discussion of emergence is often focused on properties of ‘wholes’ that are evaluated as emergent with respect to the properties of ‘parts’. Downward causation is, consequently, evaluated as some kind of causal influence of whole properties over parts properties. Yet, several important cases in scientific practice seem to be pursuing hypotheses of parts properties emerging from wholes properties, inverting the instinctive association of emergence with wholes. Furthermore, some areas of reflection which are very important for emergence, e.g., the (...)
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  33.  11
    Technological grandparents: how communication technologies can improve the well-being of the elderly?Laura Corti, Maria Rosaria Brizi, Maddalena Pennacchini & Marta Bertolaso - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-8.
    The ageing of the population is one of the most significant social transformations that the twenty first century is showcasing and a challenge that impacts society at large. The elderly, inasmuch as everybody else, are confronted with continuous transformations that are induced by technology, although they seldom benefit from the opportunities that technology entails. The digital divide amongst various segments of the population is often age-related and due to different reasons, including biological, psychological, social and financial ones. There is an (...)
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  34.  14
    The Hand: Perception, Cognition, Action.Nicola Di Stefano & Marta Bertolaso (eds.) - 2017 - Cham: Springer Verlag.
    Drawing on shared research experiences and collaborative projects, this book offers a broad and timely perspective on research on the hand and its current challenges. It especially emphasizes the interdisciplinary context in which researchers need to be trained in contemporary science. From language to psychology, from neurology to the social sciences, and from art to philosophy and religion, the chapters discuss various aspects involved in hand research and therapy. On the basis of concrete and validated case studies, they approach hand (...)
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  35.  24
    Real and Virtual Clinical Trials: A Formal Analysis.Barbara Osimani, Marta Bertolaso, Roland Poellinger & Emanuele Frontoni - 2018 - Topoi 38 (2):411-422.
    If well-designed, the results of a Randomised Clinical Trial can justify a causal claim between treatment and effect in the study population; however, additional information might be needed to carry over this result to another population. RCTs have been criticized exactly on grounds of failing to provide this sort of information Evidence, inference and enquiry. Oxford University Press, New York, 2011), as well as to black-box important details regarding the mechanisms underpinning the causal law instantiated by the RCT result. On (...)
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  36. A Critical Reflection on Automated Science: Will Science Remain Human?Marta Bertolaso & Fabio Sterpetti (eds.) - 2020 - Cham: Springer.
    This book provides a critical reflection on automated science and addresses the question whether the computational tools we developed in last decades are changing the way we humans do science. More concretely: Can machines replace scientists in crucial aspects of scientific practice? The contributors to this book rethink and refine some of the main concepts by which science is understood, drawing a fascinating picture of the developments we expect over the next decades of human-machine co-evolution. The volume covers examples from (...)
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  37.  6
    Verità e Fiducia Nell’Era Del Transumanesimo.Luca Valera & Marta Bertolaso - 2018 - SCIO Revista de Filosofía 15:97-122.
    Riassunto: Nel presente articolo si analizzerà come, a fronte del paradigma transumanista che opera per una progressiva inclusione dell’uomo nel suo stesso processo di ‘miglioramento’ del mondo, è sempre più pressante la domanda sulla dinamica tra verità (truth) e fiducia (trust) nella relazione uomo-macchina e nella riflessione etica degli enti che orientano gli odierni processi di innovazione bio-tecnologica. Le visioni che emergono – frutto rispettivamente del paradigma transumanista e di un’ecologia umana che restituisce all’uomo il senso della sua storia e (...)
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  38.  30
    Evandro Agazzi, Ragioni e limiti del formalismo. Saggi di filosofia della logica e della matematica, a cura e con una Prefazione di Fabio Minazzi, FrancoAngeli, Milano, 2012, pp. 336. Mario Agostinelli, Roberto Meregalli, Pierattilio Tronconi, Cercare il Sole. Dopo Fukushima, Prefazione di Riccardo Petrella, Introduzione di Enrico. [REVIEW]Maria Cristina Amoretti, Rossana Avanzi, Francesco Barone, Marta Bertolaso & Cosimo Caputo - 2012 - Epistemologia 35:347-349.
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