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  1. Metaphors as surrogate variables. The case of adaptive radiation.Alfonso Arroyo-Santos & Mark E. Olson - manuscript
    We develop a new metaphor account where metaphors become surrogate variables for different but related phenomena. As we will argue, subrogation is the result of the interplay between the things inspired by the metaphor and the empirical dynamics that result from such inspiration. In particular, we focus on adaptive radiation, a major concept of evolutionary biology. Our study suggests that there is no distinct phenomenon, process, or pattern in nature than can be identified as adaptive radiation. What we have instead (...)
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  2. How Typical! An Epistemological Analysis of Typicality in Statistical Mechanics.Massimiliano Badino - manuscript
    The recent use of typicality in statistical mechanics for foundational purposes has stirred an important debate involving both philosophers and physicists. While this debate customarily focuses on technical issues, in this paper I try to approach the problem from an epistemological angle. The discussion is driven by two questions: (1) What does typicality add to the concept of measure? (2) What kind of explanation, if any, does typicality yield? By distinguishing the notions of `typicality-as-vast-majority' and `typicality-as-best-exemplar', I argue that the (...)
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  3. Chiasmic Reflection And Confirmation.Ron C. de Weijze - manuscript
    Epistemological monism and ontological dualism, closely parallel philological Postmodernism and philosophical Modernism. As Social Constructionism seems to be a product of Postmodernism from which roots one of its founders, John Shotter now "backs away", "the edge" brings it closer to Modernism. A model is suggested to describe and explain living chiasmic relations on the edge both in monistic and in dualistic terms.
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  4. External Cause of the Universe.Dominik Filipp - manuscript
    The article explains how the primordial singularity can be understood as a cause having brought the Universe into empirical existence. It also addresses the nonempirical nature of such a cause.
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  5. Are There Any Good Reasons?Danny Frederick - manuscript
    David Miller argues that there are no good reasons, either sufficient or insufficient. I show that most of his arguments are invalid or unsound. Several of his arguments depend upon the false claim that every deductively valid argument is circular. I accept one of Miller's arguments for the conclusion that there are no good reasons which are less-than-sufficient. I accept one of his arguments to the conclusion that there are no probative sufficient reasons. But I explain how there are epistemic (...)
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  6. Gettier’s Classic Irrelevance.Danny Frederick - manuscript
    Edmund Gettier’s three-page article is generally regarded as a classic of epistemology. I argue that Gettier cases depend upon three false assumptions and are irrelevant to the theory of knowledge. I suggest that we follow Karl Popper in abandoning subject-centred epistemologies in favour of theories of objective knowledge.
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  7. Opening the black box of commodification: A philosophical critique of actor-network theory as critique.Henrik Rude Hvid - manuscript
    This article argues that actor-network theory, as an alternative to critical theory, has lost its critical impetus when examining commodification in healthcare. The paper claims that the reason for this, is the way in which actor-network theory’s anti-essentialist ontology seems to black box 'intentionality' and ethics of human agency as contingent interests. The purpose of this paper was to open the normative black box of commodification, and compare how Marxism, Habermas and ANT can deal with commodification and ethics in healthcare. (...)
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  8. Linguistic Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics: Quantum Language [Ver. 4].Shiro Ishikawa - manuscript
    Recently we proposed “quantum language" (or,“the linguistic Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics"), which was not only characterized as the metaphysical and linguistic turn of quantum mechanics but also the linguistic turn of Descartes=Kant epistemology. Namely, quantum language is the scientific final goal of dualistic idealism. It has a great power to describe classical systems as well as quantum systems. Thus, we believe that quantum language is the language in which science is written. The purpose of this preprint is to examine (...)
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  9. Contradictions inherent in special relativity: Space varies.Kim Joosoak - manuscript
    Special relativity has changed the fundamental view on space and time since Einstein introduced it in 1905. It substitutes four dimensional spacetime for the absolute space and time of Newtonian mechanics. It is believed that the validities of Lorentz invariants are fully confirmed empirically for the last one hundred years and therefore its status are canonical underlying all physical principles. However, spacetime metric is a geometric approach on nature when we interpret the natural phenomenon. A geometric flaw on this will (...)
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  10. The Integral Construct of Science.Joseph Krecz - manuscript
    A number of general theories of physics provide a model for the fundamental rules that govern our universe, becoming a structural framework to which the new discoveries must conform. The theory of relativity is such a general theory. The theory of relativity is a complex theoretical framework that facilitates the understanding of the universal laws of physics. It is based on the curved space-time continuum fabric abstract concept, and it is well suited for interpreting cosmic events. More so, a general (...)
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  11. Physics and the Philosophy of Science – Diagnosis and analysis of a misunderstanding, as well as conclusions concerning biology and epistemology.Rudolf Lindpointner - manuscript
    For two reasons, physics occupies a preeminent position among the sciences. On the one hand, due to its recognized position as a fundamental science, and on the other hand, due to the characteristic of its obvious certainty of knowledge. For both reasons it is regarded as the paradigm of scientificity par excellence. With its focus on the issue of epistemic certainty, philosophy of science follows in the footsteps of classical epistemology, and this is also the basis of its 'judicial' pretension (...)
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  12. The Dream of the Three Orcas: An Experimental Test.Maxson J. McDowell & E. Roberts Joenine - manuscript
    In an online, participatory class, we interpreted 'The Dream of the Three Orcas' knowing nothing of the dreamer beyond age and gender, and having none of the dreamer’s associations. -/- Our interpretation included nine predictions about the dreamer. When it was complete, we asked the bringer of the dream (who had not been present before our interpretation was complete) to give us more information about the dreamer. Later the dreamer also gave us more information. Our predictions were mostly confirmed. The (...)
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  13. Some Philosophical Implications of Recent Work on Hippocampal Prosthesis.Matt Schuler - manuscript
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  14. HARMONIZING LAW AND INNOVATIONS IN NANOMEDICINE, ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI) AND BIOMEDICAL ROBOTICS: A CENTRAL ASIAN PERSPECTIVE.Ammar Younas & Tegizbekova Zhyldyz Chynarbekovna - manuscript
    The recent progression in AI, nanomedicine and robotics have increased concerns about ethics, policy and law. The increasing complexity and hybrid nature of AI and nanotechnologies impact the functionality of “law in action” which can lead to legal uncertainty and ultimately to a public distrust. There is an immediate need of collaboration between Central Asian biomedical scientists, AI engineers and academic lawyers for the harmonization of AI, nanomedicines and robotics in Central Asian legal system.
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  15. Causal Control: A Rationale for Causal Selection.Lauren N. Ross - 2015
    Causal selection has to do with the distinction we make between background conditions and “the” true cause or causes of some outcome of interest. A longstanding consensus in philosophy views causal selection as lacking any objective rationale and as guided, instead, by arbitrary, pragmatic, and non-scientific considerations. I argue against this position in the context of causal selection for disease traits. In this domain, causes are selected on the basis of the type of causal control they exhibit over a disease (...)
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  16. Experimentation on Analogue Models.Susan G. Sterrett - 2015
    Summary Analogue models are actual physical setups used to model something else. They are especially useful when what we wish to investigate is difficult to observe or experiment upon due to size or distance in space or time: for example, if the thing we wish to investigate is too large, too far away, takes place on a time scale that is too long, does not yet exist or has ceased to exist. The range and variety of analogue models is too (...)
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  17. Idealization and Structural Explanation in Physics.Martin King - 2014
  18. Idealization and the structure of theories in biololgy.Alfonso Arroyo-Santos & Xavier De Donato-Rodríguez - 2008
    In this paper we present a new framework of idealization in biology. We characterize idealizations as a network of counterfactual conditionals that can exhibit different degrees of contingency. We use the idea of possible worlds to say that, in departing more or less from the actual world, idealizations can serve numerous epistemic, methodological or heuristic purposes within scientific research. We defend that, in part, it is this structure what helps explain why idealizations, despite being deformations of reality, are so successful (...)
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  19. Productive Theory-Ladenness in fMRI.Emrah Aktunc - forthcoming - Synthese.
    Several developments for diverse scientific goals, mostly in physics and physiology, had to take place, which eventually gave us fMRI as one of the central research paradigms of contemporary cognitive neuroscience. This technique stands on solid foundations established by the physics of magnetic resonance and the physiology of hemodynamics and is complimented by computational and statistical techniques. I argue, and support using concrete examples, that these foundations give rise to a productive theory-ladenness in fMRI, which enables researchers to identify and (...)
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  20. The Pragmatist Challenge: Pragmatist Metaphysics for Philosophy of Science.H. K. Andersen & Sandra D. Mitchell (eds.) - forthcoming - Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    This volume offers a collection of in-depth explorations of pragmatism as a framework for discussions in philosophy of science and metaphysics. Each chapter involves explicit reflection on what it means to be pragmatist, and how to use pragmatism as a guiding framework in addressing topics such as realism, unification, fundamentality, truth, laws, reduction, and more. -/- .
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  21. Emily Herring, Kevin Matthew Jones, Konstantin S. Kiprijanov, and Laura M. Sellers, eds., The Past, Present, and Future of Integrated History and Philosophy of Science. [REVIEW]Kate Dorsch - forthcoming - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science.
  22. Review of 'Causation in Science' by Yemima Ben-Menahem. [REVIEW]Matt Farr - forthcoming - Mind.
  23. Carnap's Formal Philosophy of Science.Hans P. Halvorson - forthcoming - In Christian Damböck & Georg Schiemer (eds.), Rudolf Carnap Handbuch. Metzler Verlag.
  24. Recent Progress in Philosophy of Science: Perspectives and Foundational Problems. The Third European Philosophy of Science Association Proceedings.Vassilios Karakostas & Dennis Dieks (eds.) - forthcoming - Springer.
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  25. Feyerabend, Science, and Scientism.Ian James Kidd - forthcoming - In Karim Bschir & Jamie Shaw (eds.), Interpreting Feyerabend. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    I argue that we can profitably understanding Feyerabend’s work in at least the latter half of his career in terms of a series of experiments with ways of conceptualising and criticising scientism, under the aegis of a ‘critique of scientific reason’. The critique of science’s self-understanding was the more sophisticated and successful, while the critique of scientific modernity was more erratic and less effective, due mainly to the failure to take up the necessary resources.
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  26. Humility, Contingency, and Pluralism in the Sciences.Ian James Kidd - forthcoming - In Mark Alfano, Michael Lynch & Alessandra Tanesini (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of the Philosophy of Humility. New York: Routledge. pp. 346-358.
    A chapter exploring the relations between humility and the sciences.
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  27. Conceptions of Philosophy and the Challenges of Scientism.Ian James Kidd - forthcoming - In Scientism: For and Against. New York:
    I suspect many philosophers feel the deep reason the topic of scientism matters is that it wrongly questions or impugns the integrity and significance of the discipline of philosophy. Such metaphilosophical concerns may not always be at the forefront during debates about scientism. Sometimes, though, we should engage much broader metaphilosophical issues.
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  28. On how to distinguish critique from an infringement of academic freedom.Maria Kronfeldner - forthcoming - Journal Philosophy and Theory of Higher Education.
    To have a well-functioning principle of academic freedom, we need to distin-guish critique from an infringement of academic freedom. To achieve this goal, this paper presents three necessary conditions for something to be an infringe-ment of academic freedom. These conditions allow to delineate cases in which at least one of the three conditions is not fulfilled. These are contrast cases that might – at first glance – look like infringements of academic freedom but are, in fact, not so. I will (...)
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  29. Empfehlen und Vertrauen.Jon Leefmann - forthcoming - In Wissensproduktion und Wissenstransfer in Zeiten der Pandemie. Der Einfluss der Corona-Krise auf die Erzeugung und Vermittlung von Wissen.
    Der Erfolg von Maßnahmen zur Eindämmung der COVID-19-Pandemie ist abhängig vom Vertrauen der Öffentlichkeit in wissenschaftliche Experten. Zwar ist Vertrauen als Einstellung gegenüber Experten im Zusammenhang mit der Pandemie bereits viel Aufmerksamkeit zuteilgeworden, allerdings meist in Bezug auf das Vertrauen, das Laien Äußerungen wie Behauptungen und Mitteilungen entgegenbringen, die ihnen das Wissen der Experten zugänglich machen sollen. Dieser Aufsatz stellt dagegen eine andere Art der Äußerung in den Mittelpunkt: die Empfehlung. Im Zusammenhang mit der Pandemie haben Forderungen gegenüber der Politik (...)
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  30. Science Communication and the Problematic Impact of Descriptive Norms.Uwe Peters - forthcoming - British Journal for Philosophy of Science.
    When scientists or science reporters communicate research results to the public, this often involves ethical and epistemic risks. One such a risk arises when scientific claims cause cognitive or behavioral changes in the audience that contribute to the self-fulfillment of these claims. Focusing on such effects, I argue that the ethical and epistemic problem that they pose is likely to be much broader than hitherto appreciated. Moreover, it is often due to a psychological phenomenon that has been neglected in the (...)
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  31. Purely Probabilistic Measures of Explanatory Power – A Critique.William Roche & Elliott Sober - forthcoming - Philosophy of Science:1-53.
    All extant purely probabilistic measures of explanatory power satisfy the following technical condition: if Pr(E | H1) > Pr(E | H2) and Pr(E | ~H1) < Pr(E | ~H2), then H1’s explanatory power with respect to E is greater than H2’s explanatory power with respect to E. We argue that any measure satisfying this condition faces three serious problems – the Problem of Temporal Shallowness, the Problem of Negative Causal Interactions, and the Problem of Non-Explanations. We further argue that many (...)
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  32. Science, dualities and the phenomenological map.H. G. Solari & Mario Natiello - forthcoming - Foundations of Science:1-28.
    We present an epistemological schema of natural sciences inspired by Peirce's pragmaticist view, stressing the role of the \emph{phenomenological map}, that connects reality and our ideas about it. The schema has a recognisable mathematical/logical structure which allows to explore some of its consequences. We show that seemingly independent principles as the requirement of reproducibility of experiments and the Principle of Sufficient Reason are both implied by the schema, as well as Popper's concept of falsifiability. We show that the schema has (...)
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  33. Current Debates in Philosophy of Science: In Honor of Roberto Torretti.Cristian Soto (ed.) - forthcoming - Synthese Library Series, Springer.
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  34. Inductive Risk and Values in Composite Outcome Measures.Roger Stanev - forthcoming - In Kevin Elliot & Ted Richards (eds.), Exploring Inductive Risk. Oxford University Press.
    The use of composite outcomes is becoming widespread in clinical trials. By combining individual outcome measures into a composite, researchers claim a composite can increase statistical precision and trial efficiency, expediting the trial by reducing sample size and cost, and consequently enabling researchers to answer questions that could not otherwise be answered. Another rationale given for using a composite is that it provides a measure of the net effect of the intervention that is more patient-relevant than any single outcome measure. (...)
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  35. Science advice: making credences accurate.Simon Blessenohl & Deniz Sarikaya - 2022 - Synthese 200 (2).
    Policy-makers often rely on scientists to inform their decisions. When advising policy-makers, what should scientists say? One view says that scientists ought to say what they have a high credence in. Another view says that scientists ought to say what they expect to lead to good policy outcomes. We explore a third view: scientists ought to say what they expect to make the policy-makers’ credences accurate.
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  36. How Does Hands-On Making Attitude Predict Epistemic Curiosity and Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Career Interests? Evidence From an International Exhibition of Young Inventors.Yuting Cui, Jon-Chao Hong, Chi-Ruei Tsai & Jian-Hong Ye - 2022 - Frontiers in Psychology 13:859179.
    Whether the hands-on experience of creating inventions can promote Students’ interest in pursuing a science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) career has not been extensively studied. In a quantitative study, we drew on the attitude-behavior-outcome framework to explore the correlates between hands-on making attitude, epistemic curiosities, and career interest. This study targeted students who joined the selection competition for participating in the International Exhibition of Young Inventors (IEYI) in Taiwan. The objective of the invention exhibition is to encourage young students (...)
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  37. Behind Civilization: the fundamental rules in the universe.Huang Gavin - 2022 - Sydney, Australia: Gavin Huang.
    In this new edition, a hypothesis is put forward for the first time to unify the Big Bang theory and the evolutionary theory by showing both events following the same set of fundamental interrelationships. As the evolution of life is a part of the evolutions of the universe, these two events express many fundamental similarities (this is self-similarity, which means a part of the system is similar to the whole system). Based on the same principle, the evolution of multicellular organisms, (...)
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  38. How Does a Theoretical Term Refer?Ataollah Hashemi - 2022 - Axiomathes 32 (6):957-968.
    This paper deals with the question of what the most appropriate semantic theory for theoretical terms would be. Traditionally, in the contemporary literature of philosophy of language, there have been two widely held semantic theories: the descriptivist theory and the causal theory. Comparing theoretical terms with natural kind terms, I attempt to show that the causal theory of reference applies to natural kinds owing to certain ontological and epistemological assumptions of natural kinds realism. I argue that there is no reason (...)
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  39. Recent Work in the Philosophy of Medicine: An Essay Review. [REVIEW]John E. Huss - 2022 - Philosophy of Science 89 (1):193-201.
  40. The rise of logical empiricist philosophy of science and the fate of speculative philosophy of science.Joel Katzav & Krist Vaesen - 2022 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 12 (2):000-000.
    This paper contributes to explaining the rise of logical empiricism in mid-twentieth century (North) America and to a better understanding of American philosophy of science before the dominance of logical empiricism. We show that, contrary to a number of existing histories, philosophy of science was already a distinct subfield of philosophy, one with its own approaches and issues, even before logical empiricists arrived in America. It was a form of speculative philosophy with a concern for speculative metaphysics, normative issues relating (...)
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  41. Bold because humble, humble because bold. Yann LeCun's path.Giovanni Landi - 2022 - Www.Intelligenzaartificialecomefilosofia.Com.
  42. Why is Information Retrieval a Scientific Discipline?Robert W. P. Luk - 2022 - Foundations of Science 27 (2):427-453.
    It is relatively easy to state that information retrieval is a scientific discipline but it is rather difficult to understand why it is science because what is science is still under debate in the philosophy of science. To be able to convince others that IR is science, our ability to explain why is crucial. To explain why IR is a scientific discipline, we use a theory and a model of scientific study, which were proposed recently. The explanation involves mapping the (...)
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  43. Sketching a Theology based on Historical Science.Robert W. P. Luk - 2022 - Science and Philosophy 10 (1):21-44.
    St. Thomas Aquinas envisaged theology to be a kind of scientia which was considered as a kind of first cause science. However, science of that time is different from “modern” science. Recently, a theory of scientific study is developed, which outlines science by a theory and some models similar to knowledge in physics. According to this theory, sciences organize their knowledge consisting of theories, models and experiments interacting with physical situations. Perhaps, it is possible to organize knowledge of Christian theology (...)
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  44. Making Scientific Discoveries. Editor's Introduction.Jan G. Michel - 2022 - In Making Scientific Discoveries: Interdisciplinary Reflections. Paderborn, Deutschland: pp. 1-8.
  45. Selective Abduction in the Selection of Hypotheses and its Relationship with Inference to the Best Explanation (IBE).Seyed Ahmad Mirsanei - 2022 - Analytic Philosophy 19 (41):325-344.
    Selective abduction is in contrast with creative abduction as well as Inference to the Best Explanation (IBE). There are two types of selective abduction: Either hypotheses are selected among new and conjectural hypotheses without any prior knowledge ( Pierce s' selective abduction), or the selection of the best hypotheses and explanations is among a large number of possible hypotheses and explanations already known (L. Magnani's selective abduction and G. Schurz's factual abduction). According to both views, as well as an alternative (...)
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  46. Editorial introduction to “Digital Studies of Digital Science”.Charles H. Pence & Luca Rivelli - 2022 - Synthese 200:328.
    (Editorial introduction to a special issue of Synthese.).
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  47. The "Who Am I?" Question.Cosmin Visan - 2022 - Journal of Consciousness Exploration & Research 13 (3):334-342.
    Before even getting to do science, basic principles need to be established, such as what is it that we want to achieve by science. In this paper, I will argue how the ultimate question of science is the “Who Am I?” question, which also acts as an ontological principle of creation, bringing into existence all the possible experiences that consciousness can have.
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  48. Czy jest prawdą, że filozofia rosyjska nie jest naukowa?Nikołaj Onufrijewicz Łosski, Alicja Pietras & Pylyp Bilyi - 2022 - Theofos 8 (8):183-191.
    Tłumaczenie artykułu N. O. Łosskiego pt. Czy jest prawdą, że filozofia rosyjska nie jest naukowa? opublikowanego w gazecie „Nowe ruskie słowo” («Новое русское слово») 1 czerwca 1952 roku. Tłumaczenie z języka rosyjskiego: Pylyp Bilyi i Alicja Pietras.
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  49. Problemas semánticos en filosofía de la lógica.Sergio Aramburu - 2021 - Actas y Comunicaciones UNGS 6:193-211.
    Este texto presenta, y en cierta medida analiza, ambigüedades existentes en textos de lógica y filosofía de la lógica (como la interpretación de los llamados principios, postulados, leyes o verdades lógicas, la coexistencia de la tesis de que toda relación presupone la existencia de al menos dos relata y la de que una cosa puede relacionarse consigo misma, o la llamada "paradoja del mentiroso") bajo el supuesto de que, dado que la lógica no es anterior a la semántica, un análisis (...)
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  50. Science and Politics in a Time of Pandemic: Some Epistemological and Political Lessons from the Italian Story.Federico Boem & Emanuele Ratti - 2021 - Humana Mente 14 (40).
    Making public policy choices based on available scientific evidence is an ideal condition for any policy making. However, the mechanisms governing these scenarios are complex, non-linear, and, alongside the medical-health and epidemiological issues, involve socio-economic, political, communicative, informational, ethical and epistemological aspects. In this article we analyze the role of scientific evidence when implementing political decisions that strictly depend on it, as in the case of the COVID-19 pandemic. In carrying out this analysis, we will focus above all on the (...)
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