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Robyn Bluhm [59]Robyn L. Bluhm [1]
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Robyn Bluhm
Michigan State University
  1.  23
    What we (Should) Talk about when we Talk about Deep Brain Stimulation and Personal Identity.Robyn Bluhm, Laura Cabrera & Rachel McKenzie - 2020 - Neuroethics 13 (3):289-301.
    A number of reports have suggested that patients who undergo deep brain stimulation may experience changes to their personality or sense of self. These reports have attracted great philosophical interest. This paper surveys the philosophical literature on personal identity and DBS and draws on an emerging empirical literature on the experiences of patients who have undergone this therapy to argue that the existing philosophical discussion of DBS and personal identity frames the problem too narrowly. Much of the discussion by neuroethicists (...)
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  2. From Hierarchy to Network: A Richer View of Evidence for Evidence-Based Medicine.Robyn Bluhm - 2005 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 48 (4):535-547.
  3. Reason and Value: Making Reasoning Fit for Practice.Michael Loughlin, Robyn Bluhm, Stephen Buetow, Ross E. G. Upshur, Maya J. Goldenberg, Kirstin Borgerson, Vikki Entwistle & Elselijn Kingma - 2012 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 18 (5):929-937.
    Editors' introduction to 3rd thematic issue on philosophy of medicine.
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  4.  16
    It’s Not Just Counting that Counts: a Reply to Gilbert, Viaña, and Ineichen.Robyn Bluhm & Laura Y. Cabrera - 2021 - Neuroethics 14 (1):23-26.
    Gilbert et al. argue that discussions of self-related changes in patients undergoing DBS are overblown. They show that there is little evidence that these changes occur frequently and make recommendations for further research. We point out that their framing of the issue, their methodology, and their recommendations do not attend to other important questions about these changes.
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  5. Philosophy, Ethics, Medicine and Health Care: The Urgent Need for Critical Practice.Michael Loughlin, Ross E. G. Upshur, Maya J. Goldenberg, Robyn Bluhm & Kirstin Borgerson - 2010 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 16 (2):249-259.
  6.  14
    Neurofeminism: Issues at the Intersection of Feminist Theory and Cognitive Science.Robyn Bluhm, Anne Jaap Jacobson & Heidi Lene Maibom (eds.) - 2012 - Palgrave-Macmillan.
    Going beyond the hype of recent fMRI "findings," this interdisciplinary collection examines such questions as: Do women and men have significantly different brains? Do women empathize, while men systematize? Is there a "feminine" ethics? What does brain research on intersex conditions tell us about sex and gender?
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  7.  41
    The Need for New Ontologies in Psychiatry.Robyn Bluhm - 2017 - Philosophical Explorations 20 (2):146-159.
    Although researchers in psychiatry have been trying for decades to elucidate the pathophysiology underlying mental disorders, relatively little progress has been made. One explanation for this failure is that diagnostic categories in psychiatry are unlikely to track underlying neurological mechanisms. Because of this, the US National Institutes of Mental Health has recently developed a novel ontology to guide research in biological psychiatry: the Research Domain Criteria. In this paper, I argue that while RDoC may lead to better neuroscientific explanations for (...)
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  8.  53
    Physiological Mechanisms and Epidemiological Research.Robyn Bluhm - 2013 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 19 (3):422 - 426.
  9. Diseases, Patients and the Epistemology of Practice: Mapping the Borders of Health, Medicine and Care.Michael Loughlin, Robyn Bluhm, Jonathan Fuller, Stephen Buetow, Benjamin R. Lewis & Brent M. Kious - 2015 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 21 (3):357-364.
    Last year saw the 20th anniversary edition of JECP, and in the introduction to the philosophy section of that landmark edition, we posed the question: apart from ethics, what is the role of philosophy ‘at the bedside’? The purpose of this question was not to downplay the significance of ethics to clinical practice. Rather, we raised it as part of a broader argument to the effect that ethical questions – about what we should do in any given situation – are (...)
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  10. Evidence-Based Medicine.Robyn Bluhm & Kirstin Borgerson - 2011 - In Fred Gifford (ed.), Philosophy of Medicine. Elsevier.
     
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  11. Self‐Fulfilling Prophecies: The Influence of Gender Stereotypes on Functional Neuroimaging Research on Emotion.Robyn Bluhm - 2013 - Hypatia 28 (4):870-886.
    Feminist scholars have shown that research on sex/gender differences in the brain is often used to support gender stereotypes. Scientists use a variety of methodological and interpretive strategies to make their results consistent with these stereotypes. In this paper, I analyze functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) research that examines differences between women and men in brain activity associated with emotion and show that these researchers go to great lengths to make their results consistent with the view that women are more (...)
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  12.  48
    The Bloomsbury Companion to Philosophy of Psychiatry.Serife Tekin & Robyn Bluhm - 2019 - London: Bloomsbury.
    This book explores the central questions and themes lying at the heart of a vibrant area of philosophical inquiry. Aligning core issues in psychiatry with traditional philosophical areas, it presents a focused overview of the historical and contemporary problems dominating the philosophy of psychiatry. -/- Beginning with an introduction to research issues, it addresses what psychiatry is and distinguishes it from other areas of medical practice, other health care professions and psychology. With each section of the companion corresponding to a (...)
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  13. New Directions in Philosophy of Medicine.Jacob Stegenga, Ashley Kennedy, Serife Tekin, Saana Jukola & Robyn Bluhm - forthcoming - In James Marcum (ed.), Bloomsbury Companion to Contemporary Philosophy of Medicine. Bloomsbury Academic. pp. 343-367.
    The purpose of this chapter is to describe what we see as several important new directions for philosophy of medicine. This recent work (i) takes existing discussions in important and promising new directions, (ii) identifies areas that have not received sufficient and deserved attention to date, and/or (iii) brings together philosophy of medicine with other areas of philosophy (including bioethics, philosophy of psychiatry, and social epistemology). To this end, the next part focuses on what we call the “epistemological turn” in (...)
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  14. New Research, Old Problems: Methodological and Ethical Issues in fMRI Research Examining Sex/Gender Differences in Emotion Processing.Robyn Bluhm - 2013 - Neuroethics 6 (2):319-330.
    Neuroscience research examining sex/gender differences aims to explain behavioral differences between men and women in terms of differences in their brains. Historically, this research has used ad hoc methods and has been conducted explicitly in order to show that prevailing gender roles were dictated by biology. I examine contemporary fMRI research on sex/gender differences in emotion processing and argue that it, too, both uses problematic methods and, in doing so, reinforces gender stereotypes.
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  15.  30
    Reasoning, Evidence, and Clinical Decision-Making: The Great Debate Moves Forward.Michael Loughlin, Robyn Bluhm, Stephen Buetow, Kirstin Borgerson & Jonathan Fuller - 2017 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 23 (5):905-914.
    When the editorial to the first philosophy thematic edition of this journal was published in 2010, critical questioning of underlying assumptions, regarding such crucial issues as clinical decision making, practical reasoning, and the nature of evidence in health care, was still derided by some prominent contributors to the literature on medical practice. Things have changed dramatically. Far from being derided or dismissed as a distraction from practical concerns, the discussion of such fundamental questions, and their implications for matters of practical (...)
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  16.  15
    The (Dis)Unity of Nursing Science.Robyn L. Bluhm - 2014 - Nursing Philosophy 15 (4):250-260.
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  17.  68
    Explanation, Understanding, Objectivity and Experience.Michael Loughlin, Robyn Bluhm, Drozdstoj S. Stoyanov, Stephen Buetow, Ross E. G. Upshur, Kirstin Borgerson, Maya J. Goldenberg & Elselijn Kingma - 2013 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 19 (3):415-421.
  18.  40
    Some Observations on “Observational” Research.Robyn Bluhm - 2009 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 52 (2):252-263.
    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) ranks different medical research methods on a hierarchy, at the top of which are randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and systematic reviews or meta-analyses of RCTs. Any study that does not randomly assign patients to a treatment or a control group is automatically placed at a lower level on the hierarchy. This article argues that what matters is whether the treatment and control groups are similar with respect to potential confounding factors, not whether they got that way through (...)
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  19.  90
    The Epistemology and Ethics of Chronic Disease Research: Further Lessons From Ecmo.Robyn Bluhm - 2010 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 31 (2):107-122.
    Robert Truog describes the controversial randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) therapy in newborns. Because early results with ECMO indicated that it might be a great advance, saving many lives, Truog argues that ECMO should not have been tested using RCTs, but that a long-term, large-scale observational study of actual clinical practice should have been conducted instead. Central to Truog’s argument, however, is the idea that ECMO is an unusual case. Thus, it is an open question whether (...)
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  20. Virtue, Progress and Practice.Michael Loughlin, Robyn Bluhm, Stephen Buetow, Ross E. G. Upshur, Maya J. Goldenberg, Kirstin Borgerson & Vikki Entwistle - 2011 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 17 (5):839-846.
  21.  32
    Evidence‐Based Medicine and Philosophy of Science.Robyn Bluhm - 2010 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 16 (2):363-364.
  22.  27
    Comparison of Philosophical Concerns Between Professionals and the Public Regarding Two Psychiatric Treatments.Laura Yenisa Cabrera, Marisa Brandt, Rachel McKenzie & Robyn Bluhm - forthcoming - Ajob Empirical Bioethics:1-15.
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  23. Beyond Neurosexism : Is It Possible to Defend the Female Brain?Robyn Bluhm - 2012 - In Robyn Bluhm, Anne Jaap Jacobson & Heidi Lene Maibom (eds.), Neurofeminism: Issues at the Intersection of Feminist Theory and Cognitive Science. Palgrave-Macmillan.
     
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  24.  13
    Evidence-Based Medicine and Patient Autonomy.Robyn Bluhm - 2009 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 2 (2):134-151.
  25.  22
    An Epistemic Argument for Research-Practice Integration in Medicine.Robyn Bluhm & Kirstin Borgerson - 2018 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 43 (4):469-484.
    Arguments in favor of greater research-practice integration in medicine have tended to be ethical, political, or pragmatic. There are good epistemic reasons to pursue greater integration, and it is important to think through these reasons in order to avoid inadvertently designing new systems in ways that replicate the epistemic elitism common within current systems. Meaningful transformation within health care is possible with close attention to all reasons in favor of greater research-practice integration, including epistemic reasons.
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  26. Philosophy, Medicine and Health Care – Where We Have Come From and Where We Are Going.Michael Loughlin, Robyn Bluhm, Jonathan Fuller, Stephen Buetow, Ross E. G. Upshur, Kirstin Borgerson, Maya J. Goldenberg & Elselijn Kingma - 2014 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 20 (6):902-907.
  27. Introduction.Robyn Bluhm, Anne Jaap Jacobson & Heidi Maibom - 2012 - In Robyn Bluhm, Anne Jaap Jacobson & Heidi Lene Maibom (eds.), Neurofeminism: Issues at the Intersection of Feminist Theory and Cognitive Science. Palgrave-Macmillan.
  28.  68
    Vulnerability, Health, and Illness.Robyn Bluhm - 2012 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 5 (2):147-161.
    It seems clear that being sick makes people vulnerable. Not only can even relatively mild, transient illnesses such as colds or flus serve as an unpleasant reminder of the vulnerability of the usual state of health that many of us are fortunate enough to enjoy, but more serious, chronic conditions can force individuals to adapt—or even abandon—life plans or projects, and can also alter their self-conception. Yet philosophical theories of health and disease do not discuss vulnerability, nor does it have (...)
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  29.  3
    Fostering Neuroethics Integration: Disciplines, Methods, and Frameworks.Laura Y. Cabrera & Robyn Bluhm - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 11 (3):194-196.
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  30.  79
    The Nature of Evidence in Evidence-Based Medicine: Guest Editors' Introduction.Maya J. Goldenberg, Kirstin Borgerson & Robyn Bluhm - 2009 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 52 (2):164-167.
  31. No Need for Alarm: A Critical Analysis of Greene’s Dual-Process Theory of Moral Decision-Making.Robyn Bluhm - 2014 - Neuroethics 7 (3):299-316.
    Joshua Greene and his colleagues have proposed a dual-process theory of moral decision-making to account for the effects of emotional responses on our judgments about moral dilemmas that ask us to contemplate causing direct personal harm. Early formulations of the theory contrast emotional and cognitive decision-making, saying that each is the product of a separable neural system. Later formulations emphasize that emotions are also involved in cognitive processing. I argue that, given the acknowledgement that emotions inform cognitive decision-making, a single-process (...)
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  32.  6
    Research Problems and Methods in the Philosophy of Medicine.Michael Loughlin, Robyn Bluhm & Mona Gupta - 2016 - In James Marcum (ed.), Bloomsbury Companion to Contemporary Philosophy of Medicine. Bloomsbury Academic. pp. 29-62.
    Philosophy of medicine encompasses a broad range of methodological approaches and theoretical perspectives—from the uses of statistical reasoning and probability theory in epidemiology and evidence-based medicine to questions about how to recognize the uniqueness of individual patients in medical humanities, person-centered care, and values-based practice; and from debates about causal ontology to questions of how to cultivate epistemic and moral virtue in practice. Apart from being different ways of thinking about medical practices, do these different philosophical approaches have anything in (...)
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  33.  11
    Capacities in Psychiatry: A Commentary on Hubbeling.Robyn Bluhm - 2012 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 18 (5):1019-1019.
  34.  1
    Knowing and Acting in Medicine.Robyn Bluhm (ed.) - 2016 - Rowman & Littlefield International.
    The first volume in the rapidly growing field of philosophy of medicine to focus on the relationship between knowledge and clinical practice and policy.
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  35. Research Problems and Methods in the Philosophy of Medicine.Michael Loughlin, Robyn Bluhm & Mona Gupta - 2017 - In .
    Philosophy of medicine encompasses a broad range of methodological approaches and theoretical perspectives—from the uses of statistical reasoning and probability theory in epidemiology and evidence-based medicine to questions about how to recognize the uniqueness of individual patients in medical humanities, person-centered care, and values-based practice; and from debates about causal ontology to questions of how to cultivate epistemic and moral virtue in practice. Apart from being different ways of thinking about medical practices, do these different philosophical approaches have anything in (...)
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  36.  22
    Theory, Experience and Practice.Michael Loughlin, Jonathan Fuller, Robyn Bluhm, Stephen Buetow & Kirstin Borgerson - 2016 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 22 (4):459-465.
    Despite its potential hazards, the activity of questioning theoretical frameworks and and proposing solutions is necessary if progress is even to be possible. Intellectual history has by no means ended so we cannot expect to have all the answers, and from time to time the activity of critical questioning will be frustrating. But intellectual progress requires us to continue the process of asking fundamental questions. The alternative to thinking in this way is indeed unthinkable.
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  37.  69
    Beyond the Basics: The Evolution and Development of Human Emotions.Robyn Bluhm - 2006 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 36 (sup1):73-94.
  38.  86
    Gender Differences in Depression: Explanations From Feminist Ethics.Robyn Bluhm - 2011 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 4 (1):69.
    Feminist bioethics is committed to recognizing the way that power differentials arising from differences in social location shape health and health care, and also to ensuring that women's experiences inform bioethical analyses (Sherwin 1992, 1998; Scully et al. 2010). Yet there may be a tension between these two points of emphasis, not because they are incompatible but because they require very different perspectives. In this article, I argue that feminist analyses of the relationship between gender and mental disorder have tended (...)
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  39.  79
    In Conversation: Ruth Macklin, Alison Reiheld, Robyn Bluhm, Sidney Callahan, and Frances Kissling Discuss the Marlise Munoz Case, Advance Directives, and Pregnant Women.Ruth Macklin, Alison Reiheld, Robyn Bluhm, Sidney Callahan & Frances Kissling - 2015 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 8 (1):156-167.
    Feminist bioethicists of a variety of persuasions discuss the 2013 case of Marlise Munoz, a pregnant woman whose medical care was in dispute after she became brain dead.
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  40.  46
    Jeremy Howick: The Philosophy of Evidence-Based Medicine: Wiley-Blackwell, West Sussex, UK, 2011, 229 Pp, $58.95 , ISBN: 9781405196673. [REVIEW]Robyn Bluhm - 2011 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 32 (6):423-427.
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  41.  48
    Neurosexism and Neurofeminism.Ginger A. Hoffman & Robyn Bluhm - 2016 - Philosophy Compass 11 (11):716-729.
    As neuroscience has gained an increased ability to enchant the general public, it has become more and more common to appeal to it as an authority on a wide variety of questions about how humans do and should act. This is especially apparent with the question of gender roles. The term ‘neurosexism’ has been coined to describe the phenomenon of using neuroscientific practices and results to promote sexist conclusions; its feminist response is called ‘neurofeminism’. Here, our aim is to survey (...)
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  42. Marcum, James A., An Introductory Philosophy of Medicine: Humanizing Modern Medicine: Springer, New York, 2008, 376 Pp., $149 , 1-40-2067968.Robyn Bluhm - 2010 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 31 (5):391-393.
  43. Clinical Trials as Nomological Machines: Implications for Evidence-Based Medicine.Robyn Bluhm - 2007 - In Harold Kincaid Jennifer McKitrick (ed.), Establishing Medical Reality: Essays In The Metaphysics And Epistemology Of Biomedical Science. Springer.
  44. Beyond the Basics.Robyn Bluhm - 2008 - In Luc Faucher & Christine Tappolet (eds.), The Modularity of Emotions. University of Calgary Press.
     
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  45. 2. From the Editors From the Editors (Pp. 1-10).Jennifer L. Hansen, Jennifer Radden, Nancy Nyquist Potter, Lisa Cosgrove, Carol Steinberg Gould, Gwen Adshead, Robyn Bluhm, Ginger A. Hoffman, Elleke Landeweer & Tineke A. Abma - 2011 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 4 (1).
     
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  46.  12
    Interpreting Patients’ Beliefs About Deep Brain Stimulation for Treatment-Resistant Depression: The Need for Caution and for Context.Laura Y. Cabrera & Robyn Bluhm - 2018 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 9 (4):230-232.
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  47.  37
    Feminist Bioethics: At the Center, on the Margins. [REVIEW]Robyn Bluhm - 2011 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 4 (2):154-159.
    Feminist Bioethics: At the Center, on the Margins is a collection of essays that “reflect on the positioning of feminist bioethics” (xi). The volume editors suggest that the discipline of feminist bioethics, twenty years after it began, faces tension between becoming incorporated into mainstream bioethics, which would mean that it has greater influence on bioethics as a whole, and remaining “on the margins,” where it can perhaps better continue its critical project of drawing attention to the ways in which “dominant (...)
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  48.  34
    Evidence Based Medicine: Editors' Overview and Introduction.Kirstin Borgerson & Robyn Bluhm - 2005 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 48 (4):475-476.
  49.  4
    Challenges and Opportunities of Creating Conceptual Maps.Laura Y. Cabrera & Robyn Bluhm - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 12 (2-3):187-189.
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  50.  1
    Editors' Note.Robyn Bluhm, Anna Gotlib & Jackie Leach Scully - 2022 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 15 (1):97-97.
    This section of the journal consists of reflections on the COVID-19 pandemic by feminist bioethicists. We wanted to have a record in IJFAB of the ways in which feminist bioethicists/feminist bioethics were and are affected by the pandemic and also record how our community sees feminist approaches to bioethics as providing resources for understanding and addressing ethical themes raised by the pandemic. The contributions we received cover a wide range of personal, professional, and theoretical issues and approach them in different (...)
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