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Philosophers of medicine have sought to explain and analyse the reasoning processes involved in diagnosis and the status of diagnostic criteria. Recent work has examined how advances in medical technologies – ranging from increasingly sophisticated imaging to computational techniques relying on machine learning and data-mining – can increase accuracy and enable earlier diagnosis, but also change diagnostic criteria or their interpretation, and potentially even alter medical concepts. Bioethicists and medical humanities disciplines offer social and ethical analyses of the diagnostic process including potential for (harmful or beneficial) medicalisation and labelling.

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  1. An Ethical Enquiry that Questions Whether Psychiatrists Truly are Mental Health/Disability Experts? Reasons to Doubt!Giuseppe Naimo - forthcoming - In Patricia Hanna (ed.), An Anthology of Philosophical Studies, vol. 14. Athens, Greece: Athens Institute for Education and Research. pp. Chapter 13 pp. 143-158.
    The observation that a crisis of confidence regarding Psychiatry exists is a notion shared even among psychiatrists themselves. Psychiatry has a checkered history and its alliance with the pharmaceutical industry, aka Big-Pharma, continues to reinforce a need for healthy skepticism. Why? Mainly, an over-reliance on the questionable expertise and authority afforded psychiatry as the specialists of mental health. I contend that the authority of psychiatry is misplaced and too often harmful. Since the criteria required to justify and satisfy psychiatric expertise (...)
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  2. Reconstructing truth, deconstructing ADHD : Badiou, onto-epistemological violence and the diagnosis of "ADHD".Mattias Nilsson Sjöberg - forthcoming - Critical Studies in Education 62 (2):243-257.
    Psychiatric/neurodevelopmental diagnoses have expanded in number and scale with increased influence over matters of education and upbringing. One of the most common psychiatric diagnoses among children and adolescents is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The dominant perspective of ADHD is biomedical, where ADHD is defined as a neurogenetic dysfunction and disorder of the brain. Due to the absence of biological markers, the diagnosis is legitimized on the basis of a humanitarian principle: as an ideology. Through the diagnosis, which is construed (...)
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  3. Disease: An Ill-Founded Concept at Odds with the Principle of Patient-Centred Medicine.Arandjelovic Ognjen - forthcoming - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice.
    Background: Despite the at least decades long record of philosophical recognition and interest, the intricacy of the deceptively familiar appearing concepts of ‘disease’, ‘disorder’, ‘disability’, etc., has only recently begun showing itself with clarity in the popular discourse wherein its newly emerging prominence stems from the liberties and restrictions contingent upon it. Whether a person is deemed to be afflicted by a disease or a disorder governs their ability to access health care, be it free at the point of use (...)
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  4. “The ultimate risk:” How clinicians assess the value and meaning of genetic data in cardiology.Kellie Owens - forthcoming - Clinical Ethics:147775092095956.
    In modern medicine, health risks are often managed through the collection of health data and subsequent intervention. One of the goals of clinical genetics, for example, is to identify genetic predisposition to disease so that individuals can intervene to prevent potential harms. But recently, some clinicians have suggested that patients should undergo less testing and monitoring in an effort to reduce overdiagnosis and overtreatment. In this paper, I explore how clinicians navigate the tension between identifying real disease risks for their (...)
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  5. Fuzzy Logic-Based Formalisms for Gynecology Disease Diagnosis.Anjali Sardesai, Vilas Kharat, Pradip Sambarey & Ashok Deshpande - forthcoming - Journal of Intelligent Systems.
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  6. A Proposed Expert System for Vertigo Diseases Diagnosis.Dina F. Al-Borno & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2023 - International Journal of Academic Information Systems Research (IJAISR) 7 (6):1-9.
    Vertigo is a common symptom that can result from various underlying diseases and conditions, ranging from benign to severe. Accurate and timely diagnosis of the cause of vertigo is crucial for appropriate management and treatment. In this research, we propose the development of an expert system for vertigo diseases diagnosis, utilizing artificial intelligence (AI) and the proposed Expert System which was produced to help assist healthcare professionals in diagnosing the cause of vertigo based on a patient's symptoms, medical history, and (...)
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  7. Development and Evaluation of an Expert System for Diagnosing Tinnitus Disease.Mohammed M. Almzainy, Shahd J. Albadrasawi, Jehad M. Altayeb, Hassam Eleyan & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2023 - International Journal of Academic Information Systems Research (IJAISR) 7 (6):46-52.
    Tinnitus is a common condition characterized by the perception of sound in the absence of an external source, with potential negative physical and psychological impacts. Accurate and efficient diagnosis of tinnitus is crucial for appropriate treatment and management. Traditional diagnostic methods have limitations in terms of time, cost, and accuracy. To address these challenges, expert systems have emerged as a promising tool for tinnitus diagnosis. This paper explores the application of expert systems in tinnitus diagnosis, highlighting their potential to improve (...)
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  8. Using meconium to establish prenatal alcohol exposure in the UK: ethical, legal and social considerations.Rachel Arkell & Ellie Lee - 2023 - Journal of Medical Ethics 49 (8):531-535.
    An expanding policy framework aimed at monitoring alcohol consumption during pregnancy has emerged. The primary justification is prevention of harm from what is termed ‘prenatal alcohol exposure’ (PAE), by enabling more extensive diagnosis of the disability labelled fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Here we focus on proposals to include biomarkers as a PAE ‘screening tool’, specifically those found in meconium (the first newborn excrement), which are discussed as an ‘objective’ measure of PAE.We ask the overarching question, ‘Can routine screening of (...)
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  9. Pathways to antisocial behavior: a framework to improve diagnostics and tailor therapeutic interventions.Brenda De Wit-De Visser, Madeleine Rijckmans, Jeroen K. Vermunt & Arno van Dam - 2023 - Frontiers in Psychology.
    The Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD), and antisocial behavior (ASB) in general, is associated with significant impact on individuals themselves, their environment, and society. Although various interventions show promising results, no evidence-based treatments are available for individuals with ASPD. Therefore, making informed choices about which treatment can be applied to an individual patient is complicated. Furthermore, contradictory findings on therapy effectiveness and underlying factors of ASB, such as cognitive impairments and personality traits, fuel the debate whether the conceptualization of ASPD in (...)
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  10. The New Hysteria: Borderline Personality Disorder and Epistemic Injustice.Natalie Dorfman & Joel Michael Reynolds - 2023 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 16 (2):162-181.
    The diagnostic category of borderline personality disorder (BPD) has come under increasing criticism in recent years. In this paper, we analyze the role and impact of epistemic injustice, specifically testimonial injustice, in relation to the diagnosis of BPD. We first offer a critical sociological and historical account, detailing and expanding a range of arguments that BPD is problematic nosologically. We then turn to explore the epistemic injustices that can result from a BPD diagnosis, showing how they can lead to experiences (...)
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  11. Self-illness ambiguity and anorexia nervosa.Anna Drożdżowicz - 2023 - Philosophical Explorations 26 (1):127-145.
    Self-illness ambiguity is a difficulty to distinguish the ‘self’ or ‘who one is’ from one's mental disorder or diagnosis. Although self-illness ambiguity in a psychiatric context is often deemed to be a negative phenomenon, it may occasionally have a positive role too. This paper investigates whether and in what sense self-illness ambiguity could have a positive role in the process of recovery and self-development in some psychiatric contexts by focusing on a specific case of mental disorder – anorexia nervosa.
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  12. A Proposed Expert System for Diagnosis of Migraine.Malak S. Hammad, Raja E. N. Altarazi, Rawan N. Al Banna, Dina F. Al Borno & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2023 - International Journal of Academic Engineering Research (IJAER) 7 (6):1-8.
    Migraine is a complex neurological disorder characterized by recurrent moderate to severe headaches, accompanied by additional symptoms such as nausea, sensitivity to light and sound, and visual disturbances. Accurate and timely diagnosis of migraines is crucial for effective management and treatment. However, the diverse range of symptoms and overlapping characteristics with other headache disorders pose challenges in the diagnostic process. In this research, we propose the development of an expert system for migraine diagnosis using artificial intelligence and the CLIPS (C (...)
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  13. Temporal uncertainty in disease diagnosis.Bjørn Hofmann - 2023 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 26 (3):401-411.
    There is a profound paradox in modern medical knowledge production: The more we know, the more we know that we (still) do not know. Nowhere is this more visible than in diagnostics and early detection of disease. As we identify ever more markers, predictors, precursors, and risk factors of disease ever earlier, we realize that we need knowledge about whether they develop into something experienced by the person and threatening to the person’s health. This study investigates how advancements in science (...)
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  14. Knowledge Based System for Diagnosing Lung Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment.Mohammed N. Jamala & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2023 - International Journal of Academic Information Systems Research (IJAISR) 7 (6):38-45.
    Lung cancer is a serious and deadly disease that affects the lungs, which are responsible for taking in oxygen and expelling carbon dioxide from the body. The disease can develop in any part of the lungs and is usually caused by smoking or exposure to certain chemicals. The main Objective: of this expert system is to provide an accurate diagnosis of lung cancer and the appropriate treatment options. In this paper, Methods: we present the design and implementation of an expert (...)
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  15. Mild Cognitive Impairment in Relation to Alzheimer’s Disease: An Investigation of Principles, Classifications, Ethics, and Problems.Joseph Lee - 2023 - Neuroethics 16 (2):1-18.
    Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is a diagnostic category indicating cognitive impairment which does not meet diagnostic criteria for dementia such as Alzheimer’s disease. There are public health concerns about Alzheimer’s disease (AD) prompting intervention strategies to respond to predictions about the impacts of ageing populations and cognitive decline. This relationship between MCI and AD rests on three interrelated principles, namely, that a relationship exists between AD and MCI, that MCI progresses to AD, and that there is a reliable system of (...)
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  16. Narratives of Space and Time in Multiple Sclerosis Diagnosis.Paula Leverage - 2023 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 66 (1):160-178.
    Abstractabstract:This article examines the complexity of narratives of space and time which support the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis, and the consequences for patients disadvantaged by deficits in social cognition or socioeconomic status in areas relating to literacy. In the context of demonstrating the significance of narratives of space and time in the diagnostic process for multiple sclerosis, the article discusses new strategies for treatment that engage the arts and humanities and presents a brief history of the disease and current diagnostic (...)
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  17. An Expert System for Diagnosing Mouth Ulcer Disease Using CLIPS.Walid F. Murad & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2023 - International Journal of Academic Engineering Research (IJAER) 7 (6):30-37.
    Mouth ulcers, also known as canker sores, are a common oral health issue affecting a significant portion of the population. Early and accurate diagnosis of mouth ulcers is crucial for effective treatment and prevention of complications. This paper presents an expert system developed using CLIPS (C Language Integrated Production System) to diagnose mouth ulcer disease. The expert system utilizes a rule-based approach, incorporating a comprehensive knowledge base consisting of symptoms, risk factors, and medical literature related to mouth ulcers. By employing (...)
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  18. Caregiver Burden and the Impact of Diagnostic Disclosure of Dementia: Why Primary Care Physicians Have a Moral Responsibility to Disclose.Noelle Ohanesian - 2023 - Journal of Clinical Ethics 34 (2):128-137.
    Currently, the number of individuals affected by Alzheimer’s disease is rapidly increasing, expected to reach 14 million in the United States within 30 years. In spite of this impending crisis, less than 50 percent of primary care physicians disclose the diagnosis of dementia to their patients. This failure negatively impacts not only patients but also caregivers, whom dementia patients require to help them meet their needs and who often serve as important decision makers, either as surrogates or as designated healthcare (...)
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  19. Rare Disease Research.Francesc Palau & Carmen Ayuso - 2023 - In Erick Valdés & Juan Alberto Lecaros (eds.), Handbook of Bioethical Decisions. Volume I: Decisions at the Bench. Springer Verlag. pp. 123-143.
    We address ethical issues in the field of rare diseases (RDs) focusing on four aspects that are relevant for research and translation into clinical practice. First, the reuse of personal, health and genomic data, for research purposes, beyond the main purpose for which they were collected. Later, three aspects related to fundamental parts of clinical medicine such as diagnosis, treatment and prevention in relation to RDs. In this context, we address ethical aspects of research and its practical application that have (...)
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  20. Developing an Expert System to Diagnose Malaria.Alaa N. N. Qaoud & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2023 - International Journal of Engineering and Information Systems (IJEAIS) 7 (6):9-18.
    Malaria is a life-threatening disease spread to humans by some types of mosquitoes. It is mostly found in tropical countries. It is preventable and curable. The infection is caused by a parasite and does not spread from person to person. Symptoms can be mild or life-threatening. Mild symptoms are fever, chills and headache. Severe symptoms include fatigue, confusion, seizures, and difficulty breathing. Infants, children under 5 years, pregnant women, travelers and people with HIV or AIDS are at higher risk of (...)
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  21. Ludwig wittgenstein’s philosophy in the light of the diagnosis of Autism.Gustavo Augusto Fonseca Silva - 2023 - Griot 23 (1):39-58.
    Psychiatrists such as Michael Fitzgerald, Christopher Gillberg and Yoshiki Ishisaka diagnosed Ludwig Wittgenstein posthumously with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Taking this diagnosis into account, the present paper discusses how Wittgenstein's philosophy reveals his cognitive difficulties. Wittgenstein's grammatical inquiries are particularly investigated here, highlighting his misunderstandings concerning the use of words – specially, his misunderstandings concerning analogies, which he tended to interpret literally.
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  22. Three-Stage Hybrid Clustering System for Diagnosing Children with Primary Headache Disorder.Svetlana Simić, Slađana Sakač, Zorana Banković, José R. Villar, José Luis Calvo-Rolle, Svetislav D. Simić & Dragan Simić - 2023 - Logic Journal of the IGPL 31 (2):300-313.
    Headache disorders can be considered as the predominant neurological condition. In the field of neurological diseases, migraine was estimated to cost a total of €27 billion per year for the loss through reduced work productivity in the European Community. Medical data and information in turn provide knowledge based on which physicians make scientific decisions for diagnosis and treatments. It is, therefore, very useful to create diagnostic tools to help physicians make better decisions. This paper is focused on a new hybrid (...)
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  23. Rule Based System for Diagnosing Bean Diseases and Treatment.Mohammed H. S. Abueleiwa, Fadi E. S. Harara, Mustafa M. K. Al-Ghoul, Sami M. Okasha & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2022 - International Journal of Engineering and Information Systems (IJEAIS) 6 (5):67-74.
    Background: A bean is the seed of one of several genera of the flowering plant family Fabaceae, which are used as vegetables for human or animal food. They can be cooked in many different ways, including boiling, frying, and baking, and are used in many traditional dishes throughout the world. Beans are one of the longest-cultivated plants. Broad beans, also called fava beans, in their wild state the size of a small fingernail, were gathered in Afghanistan and the Himalayan foothills. (...)
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  24. Knowledge Based System for Diagnosing Custard Apple Diseases and Treatment.Mustafa M. K. Al-Ghoul, Mohammed H. S. Abueleiwa, Fadi E. S. Harara, Samir Okasha & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2022 - International Journal of Academic Engineering Research (IJAER) 6 (5):41-45.
    There is no doubt that custard apple diseases are among the important reasons that destroy the Custard Apple plant and its agricultural crops. This leads to obvious damage to these plants and they become inedible. Discovering these diseases is a good step to provide the appropriate and correct treatment. Determining the treatment with high accuracy depends on the method used to correctly diagnose the disease, expert systems can greatly help in avoiding damage to these plants. The expert system correctly diagnoses (...)
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  25. Developing an Expert System to Diagnose Tomato Diseases.Mohanad H. Al-Qadi, Mohammed F. El-Habibi, Mosa M. M. Megdad, Mohammed J. A. AlQatrawi, Raed Z. Sababa & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2022 - International Journal of Academic Engineering Research (IJAER) 6 (5):34-40.
    There is no doubt that tomato diseases are one of the important reasons that destroy the tomato plant and its crops. This leads to clear damage to these plants and they become inedible. Discovering these diseases after a good step for proper and correct treatment. Determining the treatment with high accuracy depends on the method used in the diagnosis. Correctly, expert systems can greatly help to avoid damage to these plants. The expert system diagnoses tomato disease correctly to facilitate farmers (...)
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  26. A Knowledge Based System for Cucumber Diseases Diagnosis.Nora J. H. Al-Saloul, Hadeel A. El-Hamarnah, Ola I. A. LAfi, Hanan I. A. Radwan & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2022 - International Journal of Academic Information Systems Research (IJAISR) 6 (5):29-45.
    The cucumber is a creeping vine that roots in the ground and grows up trellises or other supporting frames, wrapping around supports with thin, spiraling tendrils. The plant may also root in a soilless medium, whereby it will sprawl along the ground in lieu of a supporting structure. The vine has large leaves that form a canopy over the fruits. Among these common diseases, we single out the diseases that affect the cucumber, which is affected by about 22 diseases, with (...)
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  27. Prediction of Heart Disease Using a Collection of Machine and Deep Learning Algorithms.Ali M. A. Barhoom, Abdelbaset Almasri, Bassem S. Abu-Nasser & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2022 - International Journal of Engineering and Information Systems (IJEAIS) 6 (4):1-13.
    Abstract: Heart diseases are increasing daily at a rapid rate and it is alarming and vital to predict heart diseases early. The diagnosis of heart diseases is a challenging task i.e. it must be done accurately and proficiently. The aim of this study is to determine which patient is more likely to have heart disease based on a number of medical features. We organized a heart disease prediction model to identify whether the person is likely to be diagnosed with a (...)
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  28. Prediction of Heart Disease Using a Collection of Machine and Deep Learning Algorithms.Ali M. A. Barhoom, Abdelbaset Almasri, Bassem S. Abu-Nasser & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2022 - International Journal of Engineering and Information Systems (IJEAIS) 6 (4):1-13.
    Abstract: Heart diseases are increasing daily at a rapid rate and it is alarming and vital to predict heart diseases early. The diagnosis of heart diseases is a challenging task i.e. it must be done accurately and proficiently. The aim of this study is to determine which patient is more likely to have heart disease based on a number of medical features. We organized a heart disease prediction model to identify whether the person is likely to be diagnosed with a (...)
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  29. Osteoporosis and risk of fracture: reference class problems are real.Nicholas Binney - 2022 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 43 (5):375-400.
    Elselijn Kingma argues that Christopher Boorse’s biostatistical theory does not show how the reference classes it uses—namely, age groups of a sex of a species—are objective and naturalistic. Boorse has replied that this objection is of no concern, because there are no examples of clinicians’ choosing to use reference classes other than the ones he suggests. Boorse argues that clinicians use the reference classes they do because these reflect the natural classes of organisms to which their patients belong. Drawing on (...)
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  30. The Multidisciplinary Guidelines for Diagnosis and Referral in Cerebral Visual Impairment.Frouke N. Boonstra, Daniëlle G. M. Bosch, Christiaan J. A. Geldof, Catharina Stellingwerf & Giorgio Porro - 2022 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 16.
    IntroductionCerebral visual impairment is an important cause of visual impairment in western countries. Perinatal hypoxic-ischemic damage is the most frequent cause of CVI but CVI can also be the result of a genetic disorder. The majority of children with CVI have cerebral palsy and/or developmental delay. Early diagnosis is crucial; however, there is a need for consensus on evidence based diagnostic tools and referral criteria. The aim of this study is to develop guidelines for diagnosis and referral in CVI according (...)
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  31. Differential Diagnosis of Akinetic Mutism and Disorder of Consciousness Using Diffusion Tensor Tractography: A Case Report.Dong Hyun Byun & Sung Ho Jang - 2022 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 16.
    This paper presents a case in whom a differential diagnosis of akinetic mutism with a disorder of consciousness was made using diffusion tensor tractography. A 69-year-old female patient was diagnosed with subarachnoid hemorrhage, intraventricular hemorrhage, and intracerebral hemorrhage produced by the subarachnoid hemorrhage. She exhibited impaired consciousness with a Coma Recovery Scale-Revised score of 13 until 1 month after onset. Her impaired consciousness recovered slowly to a normal state according to the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised at 7 weeks after onset. On (...)
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  32. Challenges and recommendations for wearable devices in digital health: Data quality, interoperability, health equity, fairness.Stefano Canali, Viola Schiaffonati & Andrea Aliverti - 2022 - PLOS Digital Health 1 (10):e0000104.
    Wearable devices are increasingly present in the health context, as tools for biomedical research and clinical care. In this context, wearables are considered key tools for a more digital, personalised, preventive medicine. At the same time, wearables have also been associated with issues and risks, such as those connected to privacy and data sharing. Yet, discussions in the literature have mostly focused on either technical or ethical considerations, framing these as largely separate areas of discussion, and the contribution of wearables (...)
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  33. Classification of Anomalies in Gastrointestinal Tract Using Deep Learning.Ibtesam M. Dheir & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2022 - International Journal of Academic Engineering Research (IJAER) 6 (3):15-28.
    Automatic detection of diseases and anatomical landmarks in medical images by the use of computers is important and considered a challenging process that could help medical diagnosis and reduce the cost and time of investigational procedures and refine health care systems all over the world. Recently, gastrointestinal (GI) tract disease diagnosis through endoscopic image classification is an active research area in the biomedical field. Several GI tract disease classification methods based on image processing and machine learning techniques have been proposed (...)
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  34. A Proposed Expert System for Obstetrics & Gynecology Diseases Diagnosis.Mohammed F. El-Habibi, Mosa M. M. Megdad, Mohanad H. Al-Qadi, Mohammed J. A. AlQatrawi, Raed Z. Sababa & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2022 - International Journal of Academic Multidisciplinary Research (IJAMR) 6 (5):305-321.
    Background: Obstetrics and gynaecology are many and common, where a woman suffers from problems related to pregnancy or her reproductive organs. Any part of her body may be affected due to some symptoms that are completely related to the reproductive organs when she is in a critical period for her, whether in her menstrual cycle, pregnancy, or disease conditions. The bulk of cases of diseases related to women and childbirth are dealt with great care and special care, as all diseases (...)
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  35. Retina Diseases Diagnosis Using Deep Learning.Abeer Abed ElKareem Fawzi Elsharif & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2022 - International Journal of Academic Engineering Research (IJAER) 6 (2):11-37.
    There are many eye diseases but the most two common retinal diseases are Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD), which the sharp, central vision and a leading cause of vision loss among people age 50 and older, there are two types of AMD are wet AMD and DRUSEN. Diabetic Macular Edema (DME), which is a complication of diabetes caused by fluid accumulation in the macula that can affect the fovea. If it is left untreated it may cause vision loss. Therefore, early detection (...)
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  36. The Value of Categorical Polythetic Diagnoses in Psychiatry.Sam Fellowes - 2022 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 73 (4):941-963.
    Some critics argue that the types of psychiatric diagnosis found in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and International Classification of Disease are superfluous and should be abandoned. These are known as categorical polythetic psychiatric diagnoses. To receive a categorical polythetic psychiatric diagnosis an individual need only exhibit some, rather than all, of the symptoms on the diagnostic criteria. Consequently, categorical polythetic psychiatric diagnoses only associate an individual with a range of symptoms rather than specify which symptoms they (...)
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  37. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: A pilot study for symptom assessment and diagnosis in children in Chile.Isabella Fioravante, José Antonio Lozano-Lozano & Diana Martella - 2022 - Frontiers in Psychology 13.
    BackgroundAttention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders among school-age children and is characterized by varying degrees of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Diagnosis, which currently relies on the DSM-V criteria, is complex. This research proposes an integrated procedure for ADHD diagnosis in children, improving the diagnostic process and scientific research on etiopathology.Materials and methodsWe conducted a clinical report on ADHD diagnosis in children between the ages of 8 and 13, based on the results of the application (...)
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  38. Nosological Diagnosis, Theories of Categorization, and Argumentations by Analogy.Francesco Gagliardi - 2022 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 47 (2):311-330.
    The nosological diagnosis is a particular type of nontheoretical diagnosis consisting of identifying the disease that afflicts the patient without explaining the underlying etiopathological mechanisms. Its origins are within the essentialist point of view on the nature of diseases, which dates back at least to 18th-century taxonomy studies. In this article, we propose a model of nosological diagnosis as a two-phase process composed of the categorization of inductive inferences and argumentations by analogy. In the inductive phase, disease entities are identified (...)
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  39. La médicalisation de la détresse prémenstruelle et les injustices épistémiques.Anne-Marie Gagné-Julien - 2022 - Philosophiques 49 (1):81.
    La création récente du diagnostic de trouble dysphorique prémenstruel (TDPM) dans le DSM-5 a été contestée sous de multiples angles. Les principales critiques mettent en avant les lacunes en faveur de la validité du TDPM, ainsi que le risque de pathologisation et de stigmatisation des changements physiques et comportementaux vécus par les femmes pendant leur phase prémenstruelle. Pour éclairer cette controverse, j’emprunte certains outils du cadre conceptuel des injustices épistémiques (IE) développé par Miranda Fricker. Plus précisément, je vais me baser (...)
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  40. Doubt, Delusion and Diagnosis.Huw Green - 2022 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 29 (1):21-23.
    A team of professionals considers whether a patient in her early 50s is developing Alzheimer’s. The patient is not experiencing the memory symptoms typical of that disease, with so far a few years of sporadic attentional lapses as the predominant cognitive complaint. Her most dramatic symptom is her impression that two versions of her husband live with her. One is her real husband, the other a “fake.” There is no elaborated story about who the fake is or why he is (...)
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  41. Potentially disabled?Hilkje C. Hänel - 2022 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy.
    Ten years ago, I was diagnosed with a rare illness called Myasthenia Gravis. Myasthenia Gravis is a long-term neuromuscular autoimmune disease where antibodies block or destroy specific receptors at the junction between nerve and muscle; hence, nerve impulses fail to trigger muscle contractions. The disease leads to varying degrees of muscle weakness. Currently, I have only minor symptoms, I am not seriously impaired, and I do not suffer from any social disadvantage because of my illness. Yet, my life and my (...)
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  42. Case Report: Mechanisms in Misdiagnosis of Autism as Borderline Personality Disorder.Stine Iversen & Arvid Nikolai Kildahl - 2022 - Frontiers in Psychology 13.
    Autistic individuals without intellectual disabilities are sometimes not diagnosed until adolescence/adulthood. Due to increased risk of co-occurring mental health problems, these individuals may initially be referred to general, mental health services and not always be identified as autistic; some may be misdiagnosed with personality disorder prior to identification of autism. To explore possible mechanisms in misdiagnosis of autism, we report on the case of a young man with severe, non-suicidal self-injury and attention deficit disorder who had been diagnosed with and (...)
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  43. Death Sentences.Stephen John - 2022 - Philosophy of Medicine 3 (1).
    There are many analogies between medical and judicial practice. This article explores one such analogy, between “medicalization” and “criminalization.” Specifically, drawing on an analogy between a judge’s speech act of delivering a verdict and a physician’s speech act of giving a diagnosis, it suggests a novel account of the phenomenon of “overdiagnosis.” Using this approach, we can make some headway in understanding debates over the early detection of cancer. The final section outlines the relationship between this approach and familiar debates (...)
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  44. “First, Do No Harm”?Stephen John & Joseph Wu - 2022 - Social Theory and Practice 48 (3):525-551.
    Screening for asymptomatic disease is a routine aspect of contemporary public health practice. However, it is also controversial, because it leads to overdiagnosis and overtreatment, with many arguing that programmes are “ineffective,” i.e., the “costs” outweigh the “benefits.” This paper explores a more fundamental objection to screening programmes: that, even if they are effective, they are ethically impermissible because they breach the principle of non-maleficence. In so doing, it suggests a new approach to the ethics of risk, justifying a concern (...)
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  45. ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENT BASED COMPUTATIONAL MODEL FOR DETECTING CHRONIC-KIDNEY DISEASE.K. Jothimani & S. Thangamani - 2022 - Journal of Science Technology and Research (JSTAR) 3 (1):15-27.
    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global health problem with high morbidity and mortality rate, and it induces other diseases. There are no obvious incidental effects during the starting periods of CKD, patients routinely disregard to see the sickness. Early disclosure of CKD enables patients to seek helpful treatment to improve the development of this disease. AI models can effectively assist clinical with achieving this objective on account of their fast and exact affirmation execution. In this appraisal, proposed a Logistic (...)
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  46. “I don’t think people are ready to trust these algorithms at face value”: trust and the use of machine learning algorithms in the diagnosis of rare disease.Angeliki Kerasidou, Christoffer Nellåker, Aurelia Sauerbrei, Shirlene Badger & Nina Hallowell - 2022 - BMC Medical Ethics 23 (1):1-14.
    BackgroundAs the use of AI becomes more pervasive, and computerised systems are used in clinical decision-making, the role of trust in, and the trustworthiness of, AI tools will need to be addressed. Using the case of computational phenotyping to support the diagnosis of rare disease in dysmorphology, this paper explores under what conditions we could place trust in medical AI tools, which employ machine learning.MethodsSemi-structured qualitative interviews with stakeholders who design and/or work with computational phenotyping systems. The method of constant (...)
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  47. A Proposed Expert System for Broccoli Diseases Diagnosis.Ola I. A. LAfi, Hadeel A. El-Hamarnah, Nora J. H. Al-Saloul, Hanan I. A. Radwan & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2022 - International Journal of Engineering and Information Systems (IJEAIS) 6 (5):43-51.
    Background: Broccoli is an edible green plant in the cabbage family (family Brassicaceae, genus Brassica) whose large flowering head, stalk and small associated leaves are eaten as a vegetable. A leaf of Broccoli might be affected of Several Diseases descriped in this paper . When symptoms is encountered, it requires some kind of medical care. If appropriate Survival of Broccoli Diseases is not taken quickly, it can lead to Broccoli to die . Objectives: The main goal of this expert system (...)
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  48. Challenges to the Diagnosis of Functional Neurological Disorder: Feigning, Intentionality, and Responsibility.Xenos L. Mason - 2022 - Neuroethics 16 (1):1-8.
    The diagnosis of Functional Neurological Disorder (FND) requires differentiation from other neurologic diseases/syndromes, and from the comparatively rare diagnosis of feigning (Malingering and Factitious Disorder). Analyzing the process of diagnosing FND reveals a necessary element of presumption, which I propose underlies some of the uncertainty, discomfort, and stigma associated with this diagnosis. A conflict between the neurologist’s natural social cognition and professional judgement (cognitive dissonance) can be understood by applying a framework originally designed for the determination of moral responsibility. Understanding (...)
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  49. Mint Expert System Diagnosis and Treatment.Mosa M. M. Megdad, Mohammed N. Ayyad, Mohanad H. Al-Qadi, Mohammed F. El-Habibi, Mohammed J. A. AlQatrawi, Raed Z. Sababa & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2022 - International Journal of Academic Information Systems Research (IJAISR) 6 (5):22-28.
    Background: Mint is a grassy, perennial plant, belonging to the oral platoon, fast growing and spreading, its leaves are green in color, fragrant, tart, refreshing, square-shaped leg, bifurcated, erect, ranging in height from (10 - 201 cm). Home to Europe and Asia. The mint plant has many benefits, the most important of which are pain relief, treatment of gallbladder disorders, the expulsion of gases, anti-inflammatory, and relaxing nerves. While the mint plant is the ideal option for the start of gardens, (...)
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  50. Systematic Framework to Predict Early-Stage Liver Carcinoma Using Hybrid of Feature Selection Techniques and Regression Techniques.Marium Mehmood, Nasser Alshammari, Saad Awadh Alanazi & Fahad Ahmad - 2022 - Complexity 2022:1-11.
    The liver is the human body’s mandatory organ, but detecting liver disease at an early stage is very difficult due to the hiddenness of symptoms. Liver diseases may cause loss of energy or weakness when some irregularities in the working of the liver get visible. Cancer is one of the most common diseases of the liver and also the most fatal of all. Uncontrolled growth of harmful cells is developed inside the liver. If diagnosed late, it may cause death. Treatment (...)
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