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Summary

Philosophers of medicine have sought to explain and analyse the reasoning processes involved in diagnosis and the status of diagnostic criteria. Recent work has examined how advances in medical technologies – ranging from increasingly sophisticated imaging to computational techniques relying on machine learning and data-mining – can increase accuracy and enable earlier diagnosis, but also change diagnostic criteria or their interpretation, and potentially even alter medical concepts. Bioethicists and medical humanities disciplines offer social and ethical analyses of the diagnostic process including potential for (harmful or beneficial) medicalisation and labelling.

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  1. Using Meconium to Establish Prenatal Alcohol Exposure in the UK: Ethical, Legal and Social Considerations.Rachel Arkell & Ellie Lee - forthcoming - Journal of Medical Ethics.
    An expanding policy framework aimed at monitoring alcohol consumption during pregnancy has emerged. The primary justification is prevention of harm from what is termed ‘prenatal alcohol exposure’, by enabling more extensive diagnosis of the disability labelled fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Here we focus on proposals to include biomarkers as a PAE ‘screening tool’, specifically those found in meconium, which are discussed as an ‘objective’ measure of PAE.We ask the overarching question, ‘Can routine screening of meconium to establish PAE be ethically (...)
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  2. An Ethical Enquiry That Questions Whether Psychiatrists Truly Are Mental Health/Disability Experts? Reasons to Doubt!Giuseppe Naimo - forthcoming - In Patricia Hanna (ed.), An Anthology of Philosophical Studies, vol. 14. Athens, Greece: Athens Institute for Education and Research. pp. Chapter 13 pp. 143-158.
    The observation that a crisis of confidence regarding Psychiatry exists is a notion shared even among psychiatrists themselves. Psychiatry has a checkered history and its alliance with the pharmaceutical industry, aka Big-Pharma, continues to reinforce a need for healthy skepticism. Why? Mainly, an over-reliance on the questionable expertise and authority afforded psychiatry as the specialists of mental health. I contend that the authority of psychiatry is misplaced and too often harmful. Since the criteria required to justify and satisfy psychiatric expertise (...)
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  3. Reconstructing Truth, Deconstructing ADHD : Badiou, Onto-Epistemological Violence and the Diagnosis of "ADHD".Mattias Nilsson Sjöberg - forthcoming - Critical Studies in Education.
    Psychiatric/neurodevelopmental diagnoses have expanded in number and scale with increased influence over matters of education and upbringing. One of the most common psychiatric diagnoses among children and adolescents is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The dominant perspective of ADHD is biomedical, where ADHD is defined as a neurogenetic dysfunction and disorder of the brain. Due to the absence of biological markers, the diagnosis is legitimized on the basis of a humanitarian principle: as an ideology. Through the diagnosis, which is construed in (...)
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  4. “The Ultimate Risk:” How Clinicians Assess the Value and Meaning of Genetic Data in Cardiology.Kellie Owens - forthcoming - Clinical Ethics:147775092095956.
    In modern medicine, health risks are often managed through the collection of health data and subsequent intervention. One of the goals of clinical genetics, for example, is to identify genetic predisposition to disease so that individuals can intervene to prevent potential harms. But recently, some clinicians have suggested that patients should undergo less testing and monitoring in an effort to reduce overdiagnosis and overtreatment. In this paper, I explore how clinicians navigate the tension between identifying real disease risks for their (...)
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  5. Fuzzy Logic-Based Formalisms for Gynecology Disease Diagnosis.Anjali Sardesai, Vilas Kharat, Pradip Sambarey & Ashok Deshpande - forthcoming - Journal of Intelligent Systems.
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  6. A Three-Stage Hybrid Clustering System for Diagnosing Children with Primary Headache Disorder.Svetlana Simić, Slađana Sakač, Zorana Banković, José R. Villar, José Luis Calvo-Rolle, Svetislav D. Simić & Dragan Simić - forthcoming - Logic Journal of the IGPL.
    Headache disorders can be considered as the predominant neurological condition. In the field of neurological diseases, migraine was estimated to cost a total of €27 billion per year for the loss through reduced work productivity in the European Community. Medical data and information in turn provide knowledge based on which physicians make scientific decisions for diagnosis and treatments. It is, therefore, very useful to create diagnostic tools to help physicians make better decisions. This paper is focused on a new hybrid (...)
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  7. Rule Based System for Diagnosing Bean Diseases and Treatment.Mohammed H. S. Abueleiwa, Fadi E. S. Harara, Mustafa M. K. Al-Ghoul, Sami M. Okasha & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2022 - International Journal of Engineering and Information Systems (IJEAIS) 6 (5):67-74.
    Background: A bean is the seed of one of several genera of the flowering plant family Fabaceae, which are used as vegetables for human or animal food. They can be cooked in many different ways, including boiling, frying, and baking, and are used in many traditional dishes throughout the world. Beans are one of the longest-cultivated plants. Broad beans, also called fava beans, in their wild state the size of a small fingernail, were gathered in Afghanistan and the Himalayan foothills. (...)
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  8. Knowledge Based System for Diagnosing Custard Apple Diseases and Treatment.Mustafa M. K. Al-Ghoul, Mohammed H. S. Abueleiwa, Fadi E. S. Harara, Samir Okasha & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2022 - International Journal of Academic Engineering Research (IJAER) 6 (5):41-45.
    There is no doubt that custard apple diseases are among the important reasons that destroy the Custard Apple plant and its agricultural crops. This leads to obvious damage to these plants and they become inedible. Discovering these diseases is a good step to provide the appropriate and correct treatment. Determining the treatment with high accuracy depends on the method used to correctly diagnose the disease, expert systems can greatly help in avoiding damage to these plants. The expert system correctly diagnoses (...)
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  9. Developing an Expert System to Diagnose Tomato Diseases.Mohanad H. Al-Qadi, Mohammed F. El-Habibi, Mosa M. M. Megdad, Mohammed J. A. AlQatrawi, Raed Z. Sababa & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2022 - International Journal of Academic Engineering Research (IJAER) 6 (5):34-40.
    There is no doubt that tomato diseases are one of the important reasons that destroy the tomato plant and its crops. This leads to clear damage to these plants and they become inedible. Discovering these diseases after a good step for proper and correct treatment. Determining the treatment with high accuracy depends on the method used in the diagnosis. Correctly, expert systems can greatly help to avoid damage to these plants. The expert system diagnoses tomato disease correctly to facilitate farmers (...)
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  10. A Knowledge Based System for Cucumber Diseases Diagnosis.Nora J. H. Al-Saloul, Hadeel A. El-Hamarnah, Ola I. A. LAfi, Hanan I. A. Radwan & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2022 - International Journal of Academic Information Systems Research (IJAISR) 6 (5):29-45.
    The cucumber is a creeping vine that roots in the ground and grows up trellises or other supporting frames, wrapping around supports with thin, spiraling tendrils. The plant may also root in a soilless medium, whereby it will sprawl along the ground in lieu of a supporting structure. The vine has large leaves that form a canopy over the fruits. Among these common diseases, we single out the diseases that affect the cucumber, which is affected by about 22 diseases, with (...)
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  11. Prediction of Heart Disease Using a Collection of Machine and Deep Learning Algorithms.Ali M. A. Barhoom, Abdelbaset Almasri, Bassem S. Abu-Nasser & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2022 - International Journal of Engineering and Information Systems (IJEAIS) 6 (4):1-13.
    Abstract: Heart diseases are increasing daily at a rapid rate and it is alarming and vital to predict heart diseases early. The diagnosis of heart diseases is a challenging task i.e. it must be done accurately and proficiently. The aim of this study is to determine which patient is more likely to have heart disease based on a number of medical features. We organized a heart disease prediction model to identify whether the person is likely to be diagnosed with a (...)
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  12. Prediction of Heart Disease Using a Collection of Machine and Deep Learning Algorithms.Ali M. A. Barhoom, Abdelbaset Almasri, Bassem S. Abu-Nasser & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2022 - International Journal of Engineering and Information Systems (IJEAIS) 6 (4):1-13.
    Abstract: Heart diseases are increasing daily at a rapid rate and it is alarming and vital to predict heart diseases early. The diagnosis of heart diseases is a challenging task i.e. it must be done accurately and proficiently. The aim of this study is to determine which patient is more likely to have heart disease based on a number of medical features. We organized a heart disease prediction model to identify whether the person is likely to be diagnosed with a (...)
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  13. Osteoporosis and Risk of Fracture: Reference Class Problems Are Real.Nicholas Binney - 2022 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 43 (5):375-400.
    Elselijn Kingma argues that Christopher Boorse’s biostatistical theory does not show how the reference classes it uses—namely, age groups of a sex of a species—are objective and naturalistic. Boorse has replied that this objection is of no concern, because there are no examples of clinicians’ choosing to use reference classes other than the ones he suggests. Boorse argues that clinicians use the reference classes they do because these reflect the natural classes of organisms to which their patients belong. Drawing on (...)
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  14. The Multidisciplinary Guidelines for Diagnosis and Referral in Cerebral Visual Impairment.Frouke N. Boonstra, Daniëlle G. M. Bosch, Christiaan J. A. Geldof, Catharina Stellingwerf & Giorgio Porro - 2022 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 16.
    IntroductionCerebral visual impairment is an important cause of visual impairment in western countries. Perinatal hypoxic-ischemic damage is the most frequent cause of CVI but CVI can also be the result of a genetic disorder. The majority of children with CVI have cerebral palsy and/or developmental delay. Early diagnosis is crucial; however, there is a need for consensus on evidence based diagnostic tools and referral criteria. The aim of this study is to develop guidelines for diagnosis and referral in CVI according (...)
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  15. Differential Diagnosis of Akinetic Mutism and Disorder of Consciousness Using Diffusion Tensor Tractography: A Case Report.Dong Hyun Byun & Sung Ho Jang - 2022 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 16.
    This paper presents a case in whom a differential diagnosis of akinetic mutism with a disorder of consciousness was made using diffusion tensor tractography. A 69-year-old female patient was diagnosed with subarachnoid hemorrhage, intraventricular hemorrhage, and intracerebral hemorrhage produced by the subarachnoid hemorrhage. She exhibited impaired consciousness with a Coma Recovery Scale-Revised score of 13 until 1 month after onset. Her impaired consciousness recovered slowly to a normal state according to the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised at 7 weeks after onset. On (...)
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  16. Challenges and Recommendations for Wearable Devices in Digital Health: Data Quality, Interoperability, Health Equity, Fairness.Stefano Canali, Viola Schiaffonati & Andrea Aliverti - 2022 - PLOS Digital Health 1 (10):e0000104.
    Wearable devices are increasingly present in the health context, as tools for biomedical research and clinical care. In this context, wearables are considered key tools for a more digital, personalised, preventive medicine. At the same time, wearables have also been associated with issues and risks, such as those connected to privacy and data sharing. Yet, discussions in the literature have mostly focused on either technical or ethical considerations, framing these as largely separate areas of discussion, and the contribution of wearables (...)
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  17. Classification of Anomalies in Gastrointestinal Tract Using Deep Learning.Ibtesam M. Dheir & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2022 - International Journal of Academic Engineering Research (IJAER) 6 (3):15-28.
    Automatic detection of diseases and anatomical landmarks in medical images by the use of computers is important and considered a challenging process that could help medical diagnosis and reduce the cost and time of investigational procedures and refine health care systems all over the world. Recently, gastrointestinal (GI) tract disease diagnosis through endoscopic image classification is an active research area in the biomedical field. Several GI tract disease classification methods based on image processing and machine learning techniques have been proposed (...)
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  18. A Proposed Expert System for Obstetrics & Gynecology Diseases Diagnosis.Mohammed F. El-Habibi, Mosa M. M. Megdad, Mohanad H. Al-Qadi, Mohammed J. A. AlQatrawi, Raed Z. Sababa & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2022 - International Journal of Academic Multidisciplinary Research (IJAMR) 6 (5):305-321.
    Background: Obstetrics and gynaecology are many and common, where a woman suffers from problems related to pregnancy or her reproductive organs. Any part of her body may be affected due to some symptoms that are completely related to the reproductive organs when she is in a critical period for her, whether in her menstrual cycle, pregnancy, or disease conditions. The bulk of cases of diseases related to women and childbirth are dealt with great care and special care, as all diseases (...)
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  19. Retina Diseases Diagnosis Using Deep Learning.Abeer Abed ElKareem Fawzi Elsharif & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2022 - International Journal of Academic Engineering Research (IJAER) 6 (2):11-37.
    There are many eye diseases but the most two common retinal diseases are Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD), which the sharp, central vision and a leading cause of vision loss among people age 50 and older, there are two types of AMD are wet AMD and DRUSEN. Diabetic Macular Edema (DME), which is a complication of diabetes caused by fluid accumulation in the macula that can affect the fovea. If it is left untreated it may cause vision loss. Therefore, early detection (...)
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  20. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Pilot Study for Symptom Assessment and Diagnosis in Children in Chile.Isabella Fioravante, José Antonio Lozano-Lozano & Diana Martella - 2022 - Frontiers in Psychology 13.
    BackgroundAttention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders among school-age children and is characterized by varying degrees of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Diagnosis, which currently relies on the DSM-V criteria, is complex. This research proposes an integrated procedure for ADHD diagnosis in children, improving the diagnostic process and scientific research on etiopathology.Materials and methodsWe conducted a clinical report on ADHD diagnosis in children between the ages of 8 and 13, based on the results of the application (...)
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  21. Nosological Diagnosis, Theories of Categorization, and Argumentations by Analogy.Francesco Gagliardi - 2022 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 47 (2):311-330.
    The nosological diagnosis is a particular type of nontheoretical diagnosis consisting of identifying the disease that afflicts the patient without explaining the underlying etiopathological mechanisms. Its origins are within the essentialist point of view on the nature of diseases, which dates back at least to 18th-century taxonomy studies. In this article, we propose a model of nosological diagnosis as a two-phase process composed of the categorization of inductive inferences and argumentations by analogy. In the inductive phase, disease entities are identified (...)
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  22. La médicalisation de la détresse prémenstruelle et les injustices épistémiques.Anne-Marie Gagné-Julien - 2022 - Philosophiques 49 (1):81.
    La création récente du diagnostic de trouble dysphorique prémenstruel dans le DSM-5 a été contestée sous de multiples angles. Les principales critiques mettent en avant les lacunes en faveur de la validité du TDPM, ainsi que le risque de pathologisation et de stigmatisation des changements physiques et comportementaux vécus par les femmes pendant leur phase prémenstruelle. Pour éclairer cette controverse, j’emprunte certains outils du cadre conceptuel des injustices épistémiques développé par Miranda Fricker. Plus précisément, je vais me baser sur de (...)
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  23. Doubt, Delusion and Diagnosis.Huw Green - 2022 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 29 (1):21-23.
    A team of professionals considers whether a patient in her early 50s is developing Alzheimer’s. The patient is not experiencing the memory symptoms typical of that disease, with so far a few years of sporadic attentional lapses as the predominant cognitive complaint. Her most dramatic symptom is her impression that two versions of her husband live with her. One is her real husband, the other a “fake.” There is no elaborated story about who the fake is or why he is (...)
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  24. Case Report: Mechanisms in Misdiagnosis of Autism as Borderline Personality Disorder.Stine Iversen & Arvid Nikolai Kildahl - 2022 - Frontiers in Psychology 13.
    Autistic individuals without intellectual disabilities are sometimes not diagnosed until adolescence/adulthood. Due to increased risk of co-occurring mental health problems, these individuals may initially be referred to general, mental health services and not always be identified as autistic; some may be misdiagnosed with personality disorder prior to identification of autism. To explore possible mechanisms in misdiagnosis of autism, we report on the case of a young man with severe, non-suicidal self-injury and attention deficit disorder who had been diagnosed with and (...)
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  25. Death Sentences.Stephen John - 2022 - Philosophy of Medicine 3 (1).
    There are many analogies between medical and judicial practice. This article explores one such analogy, between “medicalization” and “criminalization.” Specifically, drawing on an analogy between a judge’s speech act of delivering a verdict and a physician’s speech act of giving a diagnosis, it suggests a novel account of the phenomenon of “overdiagnosis.” Using this approach, we can make some headway in understanding debates over the early detection of cancer. The final section outlines the relationship between this approach and familiar debates (...)
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  26. “First, Do No Harm”?Stephen John & Joseph Wu - 2022 - Social Theory and Practice 48 (3):525-551.
    Screening for asymptomatic disease is a routine aspect of contemporary public health practice. However, it is also controversial, because it leads to overdiagnosis and overtreatment, with many arguing that programmes are “ineffective,” i.e., the “costs” outweigh the “benefits.” This paper explores a more fundamental objection to screening programmes: that, even if they are effective, they are ethically impermissible because they breach the principle of non-maleficence. In so doing, it suggests a new approach to the ethics of risk, justifying a concern (...)
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  27. ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENT BASED COMPUTATIONAL MODEL FOR DETECTING CHRONIC-KIDNEY DISEASE.K. Jothimani & S. Thangamani - 2022 - Journal of Science Technology and Research (JSTAR) 3 (1):15-27.
    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global health problem with high morbidity and mortality rate, and it induces other diseases. There are no obvious incidental effects during the starting periods of CKD, patients routinely disregard to see the sickness. Early disclosure of CKD enables patients to seek helpful treatment to improve the development of this disease. AI models can effectively assist clinical with achieving this objective on account of their fast and exact affirmation execution. In this appraisal, proposed a Logistic (...)
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  28. A Proposed Expert System for Broccoli Diseases Diagnosis.Ola I. A. LAfi, Hadeel A. El-Hamarnah, Nora J. H. Al-Saloul, Hanan I. A. Radwan & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2022 - International Journal of Engineering and Information Systems (IJEAIS) 6 (5):43-51.
    Background: Broccoli is an edible green plant in the cabbage family (family Brassicaceae, genus Brassica) whose large flowering head, stalk and small associated leaves are eaten as a vegetable. A leaf of Broccoli might be affected of Several Diseases descriped in this paper . When symptoms is encountered, it requires some kind of medical care. If appropriate Survival of Broccoli Diseases is not taken quickly, it can lead to Broccoli to die . Objectives: The main goal of this expert system (...)
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  29. Challenges to the Diagnosis of Functional Neurological Disorder: Feigning, Intentionality, and Responsibility.Xenos L. Mason - 2022 - Neuroethics 16 (1):1-8.
    The diagnosis of Functional Neurological Disorder requires differentiation from other neurologic diseases/syndromes, and from the comparatively rare diagnosis of feigning. Analyzing the process of diagnosing FND reveals a necessary element of presumption, which I propose underlies some of the uncertainty, discomfort, and stigma associated with this diagnosis. A conflict between the neurologist’s natural social cognition and professional judgement can be understood by applying a framework originally designed for the determination of moral responsibility. Understanding the source of this cognitive dissonance may (...)
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  30. Mint Expert System Diagnosis and Treatment.Mosa M. M. Megdad, Mohammed N. Ayyad, Mohanad H. Al-Qadi, Mohammed F. El-Habibi, Mohammed J. A. AlQatrawi, Raed Z. Sababa & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2022 - International Journal of Academic Information Systems Research (IJAISR) 6 (5):22-28.
    Background: Mint is a grassy, perennial plant, belonging to the oral platoon, fast growing and spreading, its leaves are green in color, fragrant, tart, refreshing, square-shaped leg, bifurcated, erect, ranging in height from (10 - 201 cm). Home to Europe and Asia. The mint plant has many benefits, the most important of which are pain relief, treatment of gallbladder disorders, the expulsion of gases, anti-inflammatory, and relaxing nerves. While the mint plant is the ideal option for the start of gardens, (...)
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  31. Systematic Framework to Predict Early-Stage Liver Carcinoma Using Hybrid of Feature Selection Techniques and Regression Techniques.Marium Mehmood, Nasser Alshammari, Saad Awadh Alanazi & Fahad Ahmad - 2022 - Complexity 2022:1-11.
    The liver is the human body’s mandatory organ, but detecting liver disease at an early stage is very difficult due to the hiddenness of symptoms. Liver diseases may cause loss of energy or weakness when some irregularities in the working of the liver get visible. Cancer is one of the most common diseases of the liver and also the most fatal of all. Uncontrolled growth of harmful cells is developed inside the liver. If diagnosed late, it may cause death. Treatment (...)
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  32. La classification des maladies entre faits et valeurs : le cas de l’obésité.Pierre-Olivier Méthot - 2022 - Philosophiques 49 (1):61-80.
    L’obésité est aujourd’hui reconnue par de nombreuses associations médicales comme un état pathologique. Dans cet article, je m’intéresse d’abord à la construction des entités nosologiques avant d’aborder les étapes ayant conduit à la médicalisation de l’obésité au siècle dernier. J’examine ensuite les principales approches en philosophie de la médecine pour déterminer si elles offrent des arguments qui sont en faveur ou qui vont à l’encontre de la thèse selon laquelle l’obésité est une maladie. Je soutiens que l’approche naturaliste, plus sensible (...)
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  33. A Hybrid Particle Swarm Optimization with Multi-Objective Clustering for Dermatologic Diseases Diagnosis.R. Nagaraja & Ravinder Reddy Baireddy - 2022 - Journal of Intelligent Systems 31 (1):876-890.
    Effective and personalized treatment relies heavily on skin disease categorization. In the stratification of skin disorders, it is crucial to identify the subtypes of illnesses to provide an efficient therapy. To attain this aim, researchers have focused their attention on cluster algorithms for the stratification of skin disorders in recent decades. But, cluster algorithms have real-world drawbacks, including experimental noises, a large number of dimensions, and a poor ability to comprehend. Cluster algorithms, in particular, determine the quality of clusters using (...)
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  34. A Knowledge Based System for Diagnosing Persimmon Diseases.Sami M. Okasha, Fadi E. S. Harara, Mustafa M. K. Al-Ghoul & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2022 - Nternational Journal of Academic and Applied Research (IJAAR) 6 (6):53-60.
    Background: Persimmon is a grassy, perennial plant, belonging to the oral platoon, square-shaped leg, bifurcated, erect, and ranging in height from (10 - 201 cm). Home to Europe and Asia. The Persimmon plant has many benefits, the most important of which are pain relief, treatment of gallbladder disorders, the expulsion of gases, anti-inflammatory, and relaxing nerves. While the Persimmon plant is the ideal option for the start of gardens, it is prone to some common diseases that affect the plant's growth. (...)
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  35. Diagnosis and Psychotherapeutic Needs by Early Maladaptive Schemas in Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease.Cornelia Rada, Dan Gheonea, Cristian George Ţieranu & Denisa Elena Popa - 2022 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    Inflammatory bowel disease is chronic and incurable. Imperious diarrhea, rectal bleeding, fatigue, and weight loss, the main manifestations, cause a decrease in the quality of the patient’s personal and professional life. The objectives of this study were to identify a possible relationship between early maladaptive schemas and disease activity status using logistic regression, to identify the prevalence of early maladaptive schemes in patients and to propose a psychotherapeutic intervention plan. The following were found in a sample of 46 patients aged (...)
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  36. A Proposed Expert System for Passion Fruit Diseases.Hanan I. A. Radwan, Hadeel A. El-Hamarnah, Nora J. H. Al-Saloul, Ola I. A. LAfi & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2022 - International Journal of Academic Engineering Research (IJAER) 6 (5):24-33.
    Plant diseases are numerous in the world of agriculture. These diseases cause a lot of trouble to most farmers. Among these common diseases, we single out the diseases that affect the Passion fruit, which is affected by about seven diseases, with different symptoms for each disease. Today, technology is facilitating human life in all areas of life, and among these facilities are expert system, a computer program that uses artificial-intelligence methods to solve problems within a specialized domain that ordinarily requires (...)
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  37. A Proposed Expert System for Strawberry Diseases Diagnosis.Raed Z. Sababa, Mohammed F. El-Habibi, Mosa M. M. Megdad, Mohammed J. A. AlQatrawi, Mohanad H. Al-Qadi & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2022 - International Journal of Engineering and Information Systems (IJEAIS) 6 (5):52-66.
    Background: There is no doubt that strawberry diseases are one of the most important reasons that led to the destruction of strawberry plants and their crops. This leads to obvious damage to these plants and they become inedible. Discovering these diseases after a good step for proper and correct treatment. Determining the treatment with high accuracy depends on the method used in the diagnosis. Correctly, expert systems can greatly help in avoiding damage to these plants. The expert system correctly diagnoses (...)
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  38. Should Doctors Offer Biomarker Testing to Those Afraid to Develop Alzheimer’s Dementia?: Applying the Method of Reflective Equilibrium for a Clinical Dilemma.Marthe Smedinga, Eline M. Bunnik, Edo Richard & Maartje H. N. Schermer - 2022 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 19 (2):287-297.
    An increasing number of people seek medical attention for mild cognitive symptoms at older age, worried that they might develop Alzheimer’s disease. Some clinical practice guidelines suggest offering biomarker testing in such cases, using a brain scan or a lumbar puncture, to improve diagnostic certainty about Alzheimer’s disease and enable an earlier diagnosis. Critics, on the other hand, point out that there is no effective Alzheimer treatment available and argue that biomarker tests lack clinical validity. The debate on the ethical (...)
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  39. A Novel Deep Learning Approach for Diagnosing Alzheimer's Disease Based on Eye-Tracking Data.Jinglin Sun, Yu Liu, Hao Wu, Peiguang Jing & Yong Ji - 2022 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 16.
    Eye-tracking technology has become a powerful tool for biomedical-related applications due to its simplicity of operation and low requirements on patient language skills. This study aims to use the machine-learning models and deep-learning networks to identify key features of eye movements in Alzheimer's Disease under specific visual tasks, thereby facilitating computer-aided diagnosis of AD. Firstly, a three-dimensional visuospatial memory task is designed to provide participants with visual stimuli while their eye-movement data are recorded and used to build an eye-tracking dataset. (...)
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  40. Screening is Not Always Healthy: An Ethical Analysis of Health Screening Packages in Singapore.Teck Chuan Voo, Mee Lian Wong & Sarah Ee Fang Yong - 2022 - BMC Medical Ethics 23 (1):1-21.
    BackgroundHealth screening is undertaken to identify individuals who are deemed at higher risk of disease for further diagnostic testing so that they may possibly benefit from interventions to modify the natural course of disease. In Singapore, screening tests are widely available in the form of a package, which bundles multiple tests in one session and commonly includes non-recommended tests. There are various ethical issues associated with such testing as they may not be clinically appropriate and can result in more harm (...)
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  41. Enhancing Gender.Hazem Zohny, Brian D. Earp & Julian Savulescu - 2022 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 19 (2):225-237.
    Transgender healthcare faces a dilemma. On the one hand, access to certain medical interventions, including hormone treatments or surgeries, where desired, may be beneficial or even vital for some gender dysphoric trans people. But on the other hand, access to medical interventions typically requires a diagnosis, which, in turn, seems to imply the existence of a pathological state—something that many transgender people reject as a false and stigmatizing characterization of their experience or identity. In this paper we argue that developments (...)
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  42. Identification of Efficient COVID-19 Diagnostic Test Through Artificial Neural Networks Approach − Substantiated by Modeling and Simulation.Rabia Afrasiab, Asma Talib Qureshi, Fariha Imtiaz, Syed Fasih Ali Gardazi & Mustafa Kamal Pasha - 2021 - Journal of Intelligent Systems 30 (1):836-854.
    Soon after the first COVID-19 positive case was detected in Wuhan, China, the virus spread around the globe, and in no time, it was declared as a global pandemic by the WHO. Testing, which is the first step in identifying and diagnosing COVID-19, became the first need of the masses. Therefore, testing kits for COVID-19 were manufactured for efficiently detecting COVID-19. However, due to limited resources in the densely populated countries, testing capacity even after a year is still a limiting (...)
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  43. Expert System for Neck Pain Diagnosis.Amjad H. Alfarra, Lamis F. Samhan & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2021 - International Journal of Academic Information Systems Research (IJAISR) 5 (7):1-8.
    In fact, people get neck problems due to something such as sports or woke and Wrong sleep habits. In this paper an expert system was designed to help users to correctly diagnose neck problems world (muscle spasm, Muscle aches, Meningitis, herniated cervical disc, Fibromyalgia, Cervical spondylosis, Trigger points) with some information about the disease and self-care. Java language was used to design and implement this expert system.
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  44. Tooth Problems Knowledge Based System.Azmi H. Alsaqqa, Mohammed A. Alkahlout & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2021 - International Journal of Academic Information Systems Research (IJAISR) 5 (5):17-22.
    Abstract: background: Dental and oral health is an essential part of your overall health and well-being. Poor oral hygiene can lead to dental cavities and gum disease, and has also been linked to heart disease, cancer, and diabetes. Maintaining healthy teeth and gums is a lifelong commitment. The earlier you learn proper oral hygiene habits — such as brushing, flossing, and limiting your sugar intake — the easier it’ll be to avoid costly dental procedures and long-term health issues. (Healthline, n.d.) (...)
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  45. On the Origin of Sensitivity and Specificity.Nicholas Binney - 2021 - Annals of Internal Medicine 174:401–407.
    Although it is commonly said that the notions of sensitivity and specificity were first defined by Jacob Yerushalmy in 1947, the sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic tests have been assessed as far back as the early 1900s. These notions share a common origin with the development of serology. They were originally immunologic concepts, closely associated with the development of complement fixation reactions for syphilis. Here, the authors trace how immunologic sensitivity and specificity were transformed into diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. By (...)
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  46. “Lights and Shadows”: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis of the Lived Experience of Being Diagnosed With Breast Cancer During Pregnancy.Federica Facchin, Giovanna Scarfone, Giancarlo Tamanza, Silvia Ravani, Federica Francini, Fedro Alessandro Peccatori, Eugenia Di Loreto, Andrea Dell’Acqua & Emanuela Saita - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    Cancer diagnosed during pregnancy is a rare event. The most common type of malignancy diagnosed in pregnant women is breast cancer, whose incidence is expected to raise in the next future due to delayed childbirth, as well as to the increased occurrence of the disease at young age. Pregnant women diagnosed with breast cancer are exposed to multiple sources of stress, which may lead to poorer obstetric outcomes, such as preterm birth and low birth weight. In addition, pregnancy involves physiological (...)
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  47. Philosophical Reflections on New Foundations of Mental Health: The Personality Modulation Clinic.Alireza Farnam, Masumeh Zamanlu, Bahareh Deljou & Arash Mohagheghi - 2021 - Philosophical Investigations 15 (36):92-103.
    To date, of essential goals in psychiatry and establishment of future medical centers is creating therapeutic environments with the aim of improving clinical outcomes, preventing the progression of personality difficulties to serious psychiatric disorders, increasing self-satisfaction in society, facilitating personal growth and actualization, as well as reducing high medical costs. In this regard, the Personality Modulation Clinic in 2016 in Tabriz University of Medical Sciences was established, with the aim of providing appropriate mental health services for clients who do not (...)
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  48. Using Multioutput Learning to Diagnose Plant Disease and Stress Severity.Gianni Fenu & Francesca Maridina Malloci - 2021 - Complexity 2021:1-11.
    Early diagnosis of leaf diseases is a fundamental tool in precision agriculture, thanks to its high correlation with food safety and environmental sustainability. It is proven that plant diseases are responsible for serious economic losses every year. The aim of this work is to study an efficient network capable of assisting farmers in recognizing pear leaf symptoms and providing targeted information for rational use of pesticides. The proposed model consists of a multioutput system based on convolutional neural networks. The deep (...)
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  49. Wrongful Medicalization and Epistemic Injustice in Psychiatry: The Case of Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder.Anne-Marie Gagné-Julien - 2021 - European Journal of Analytic Philosophy 17 (2):(S4)5-36.
    In this paper, my goal is to use an epistemic injustice framework to extend an existing normative analysis of over-medicalization to psychiatry and thus draw attention to overlooked injustices. Kaczmarek has developed a promising bioethical and pragmatic approach to over-medicalization, which consists of four guiding questions covering issues related to the harms and benefits of medicalization. In a nutshell, if we answer “yes” to all proposed questions, then it is a case of over-medicalization. Building on an epistemic injustice framework, I (...)
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  50. Expert System for Hair Loss Diagnosis and Treatment Using CLIPS.Mohammed Hazem M. Hamadaqa & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2021 - International Journal of Academic Engineering Research (IJAER) 5 (5):37-42.
    Abstract: Background: Hair loss is often a concern for women, men and children. It is normal to lose between 50 and 100 hairs a day, without us noticing it. Usually hair loss is a sign of a medical condition, some of them are hereditary, and some of them are temporary due to disease, stress, cancer treatment, weight loss, and iron deficiency. Objectives: The main goal of this expert system is to obtain an appropriate diagnosis of the cause of hair loss. (...)
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