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631 found
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  1. Reverse Quantum Mechanics: Ontological Path.Michele Caponigro - manuscript
    This paper is essentially a quantum philosophical challenge: starting from simple assumptions, we argue about an ontological approach to quantum mechanics. In this paper, we will focus only on the assumptions. While these assumptions seems to solve the ontological aspect of theory many others epistemological problems arise. For these reasons, in order to prove these assumptions, we need to find a consistent mathematical context (i.e. time reverse problem, quantum entanglement, implications on quantum fields, Schr¨odinger cat states, the role of observer, (...)
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  2. A Regimented and Concise Exposition of Karl Popper’s Critical Rationalist Epistemology (Version 2).Danny Frederick - manuscript
    Criticisms of Karl Popper’s critical rationalist epistemology are often confused and misleading. In part that is due to Popper’s somewhat lax use of language, in which technical terms are used in more than one sense. I attempt to clarify Popper’s views by regimenting his terminology. The result is offered as a clear and concise exposition of the main points of Popper’s epistemology. This is an updated version of a paper that was published in Cosmos + Taxis 6 (6+7): 49-54 (2019).
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  3. Divination by Science.Dois Koh - manuscript
    This paper attempts to decipher what we really mean when we use the word "Science" by briefly exploring the criterion of "predictive power" with respect to the demarcation problem. It is essentially an articulation of Lakatos' view of Science and attempts to show that predictive power is quintessential to science.
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  4. Intelligible Gunk.Dan Kurth - manuscript
    -/- Abstract . In an earlier paper ‘The Topos of Emergence’ (‘TheTopos of Emrgence’, in: Boundaries - The Scientifc Aspects of ANPA 24, (ed. Keith G. Bowden), London 2003, pp 236 –250; cf.also:http://www.academia.edu/1549400/The_Topos_of_Emergence) I introduced a mathematical structure called the topos PrePhys consisting of an ever propagating emergent hierarchy made of a strict n-categorical unfolding of automorphic objects obAM .Later I came to the conclusion that this topos PrePhys perfectly matchs the concept of Gunk introduced under this name by DavidLewis. (...)
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  5. Philosophical Autobiography, Meaning and Self-Discovery.Tony Summer - manuscript
    A human life is meaningful to the extent that it connects with something greater than itself in a way that produces good for others and provides future challenges, past achievements, interpersonal connection and fulfilment for the person whose life it is. Self-fulfilment depends upon self-discovery. Adapting the logic of scientific discovery I suggest that a person can best discover who she is by employing an organised and critical process of conjecture and refutation, testing kinds of life by living them and (...)
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  6. The UNBELIEVABLE Similar Ideas Between Theise and Menas’ Ideas (2016) and My Ideas (2002-2008) in Physics and Cognitive Neuroscience and Philosophy (the Mind-Brain Problem, Quantum Mechanics, Etc.).Gabriel Vacariu - manuscript
    The UNBELIEVABLE similar ideas between Theise and Menas’ ideas (2016) and my ideas (2002-2008) in Physics and Cognitive Neuroscience and Philosophy (the mind-brain problem, quantum mechanics, etc.) -/- (2016) Theise D. Neil (Department of Pathology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA) and Kafatos C. Menas (bDepartment of Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA; cSchmid College of Science & Technology, Chapman University, Orange, CA, USA) (2016), REVIEW - Fundamental awareness: A (...)
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  7. What's Wrong with Zeno.Andrew Wutke - manuscript
    There was a time in my school years when I have learned about Achilles and Tortoise “paradox” originated from Zeno. It was then clear that the ancient Greeks were arguing about this problem but contemporary science has clarified the issue. Yet to my surprise the problem is still debated over and over, despite the fact there exist mathematical proofs. I feel like reminding myself why this is not a paradox beyond reasonable doubt. This is a draft to a section of (...)
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  8. Experimentation on Analogue Models.Susan G. Sterrett - 2015
    Summary Analogue models are actual physical setups used to model something else. They are especially useful when what we wish to investigate is difficult to observe or experiment upon due to size or distance in space or time: for example, if the thing we wish to investigate is too large, too far away, takes place on a time scale that is too long, does not yet exist or has ceased to exist. The range and variety of analogue models is too (...)
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  9. Notes on the Reality of the Quantum State.Shan Gao - 2014
    Based on an analysis of protective measurements, we show that the quantum state represents the physical state of a single quantum system. This result is more definite than the PBR theorem [Pusey, Barrett, and Rudolph, Nature Phys. 8, 475 (2012)].
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  10. Comment on "How to Protect the Interpretation of the Wave Function Against Protective Measurements" by Jos Uffink.Shan Gao - 2011
    It is shown that Uffink's attempt to protect the interpretation of the wave function against protective measurements fails due to several errors in his arguments.
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  11. The Wave Function and Its Evolution.Shan Gao - 2011
    The meaning of the wave function and its evolution are investigated. First, we argue that the wave function in quantum mechanics is a description of random discontinuous motion of particles, and the modulus square of the wave function gives the probability density of the particles being in certain locations in space. Next, we show that the linear non-relativistic evolution of the wave function of an isolated system obeys the free Schrödinger equation due to the requirements of spacetime translation invariance and (...)
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  12. On The Poetry and Music of Science: Whose Poetry, Whose Music?Babette Babich - forthcoming - Interdisciplinary Science Reviews.
    Tom McLeish’s Music and Poetry of Science adds to along and complex literature looking at the creative powers of human genius. In addition to his own scientific field, McLeish draws on art, poetry, novels, music, and BBC television productions. Although positioned in the line of the ‘two cultures’ debate typically associated with C. P. Snow, McLeish reprises William Beveridge’s earlier contribution to that tradition, perhaps, to be aligned,although this McLeish does not do, with Peter Pesic’s Music and the Making of (...)
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  13. Positivism in Action: The Case of Louis Rougier.Fons Dewulf & Massimiliano Simons - forthcoming - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 11 (2).
    In this paper, we investigate how the life and work of Louis Rougier relate to the broader political dimension of logical empiricist philosophy. We focus on three practical projects of Rougier in the 1930s and 1940s. First, his attempts to integrate French-speaking philosophers into an international network of scientific philosophers by organizing two Unity of Science conferences in Paris. Second, his role in the renewal of liberalism through the organization of the Walter Lippmann Colloquium. Third, Rougier’s attempts at political negotiations (...)
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  14. Sullying Sights.Ryan P. Doran - forthcoming - Philosophical Psychology.
    In this article, an account of the architecture of the cognitive contamination system is offered, according to which the contamination system can generate contamination representations in circumstances that do not satisfy the norms of contamination, including in cases of mere visual contact with disgusting objects. It is argued that this architecture is important for explaining the content, logic, distribution, and persistence of maternal impression beliefs—according to which foetal defects are caused by the pregnant mother’s experiences and actions—which in turn provide (...)
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  15. Brentano's Conception of Philosophy as Rigorous Science.Wolfgang Huemer - forthcoming - Brentano Studien 16 (1).
    Abstract: Brentano’s conception of scientific philosophy had a strong influence on his students and on the intellectual atmosphere of Vienna in the late nineteenth century. The aim of this article is to expose Brentano’s conception and to contrast his views with that of two traditions he is said to have considerably influenced: phenomenology and analytic philosophy. I will shed light on the question of how and to what extent Brentano’s conception of philosophy as a rigorous science has had an impact (...)
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  16. Conceptions of Philosophy and the Challenges of Scientism.Ian James Kidd - forthcoming - In Scientism: For and Against. New York:
    I suspect many philosophers feel the deep reason the topic of scientism matters is that it wrongly questions or impugns the integrity and significance of the discipline of philosophy. Such metaphilosophical concerns may not always be at the forefront during debates about scientism. Sometimes, though, we should engage much broader metaphilosophical issues.
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  17. Cognition and Natural Disasters: Stimulating an Environmental Historical Debate.Niki Pfeifer - forthcoming - In E. Vaz, A. Melo & C. J. de Melo (eds.), Proceedings of the Second World Congress of Environmental History. Environmental History in the Making. Springer.
    Modern cognitive and clinical psychology offer insight into how people deal with natural disasters. In my methodological paper, I make a strong case for incorporating experimental findings and theoretical concepts of modern psychology into environmental historical disaster research. I show how psychological factors may influence the production and interpretation of historical sources with respect to perceptions of and responses to disasters. While previous psychological approaches to history mostly involve psychoanalysis, I focus on empirical psychology. Specifically, I review a number of (...)
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  18. Mechanistic Explanation in Psychology.Mark Povich - forthcoming - In Hank Stam & Huib Looren De Jong (eds.), The SAGE Handbook of Theoretical Psychology. (Eds.) Hank Stam and Huib Looren de Jong. Sage.
    Philosophers of psychology debate, among other things, which psychological models, if any, are (or provide) mechanistic explanations. This should seem a little strange given that there is rough consensus on the following two claims: 1) a mechanism is an organized collection of entities and activities that produces, underlies, or maintains a phenomenon, and 2) a mechanistic explanation describes, represents, or provides information about the mechanism producing, underlying, or maintaining the phenomenon to be explained (i.e. the explanandum phenomenon) (Bechtel and Abrahamsen (...)
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  19. The Meaning of Hume's Necessary Connexions.Constantine Sandis - forthcoming - In Keith Allen & Tom Stoneham (eds.), Causation and Modern Philosophy.
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  20. What Cost Naturalism?Martin Stokhof & Michiel van Lambalgen - forthcoming - In Wiebke Petersen & Kata Balogh (eds.), BRIDGE 2014 Proceedings. University of Duesselfors Press.
    The paper traces some of the assumptions that have informed conservative naturalism in linguistic theory, critically examines their justification, and proposes a more liberal alternative.
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  21. The Importance of Pluralism for Psychiatry.Elly Vintiadis - forthcoming - In Maria Kanellopoulou-Botti & Fereniki Panagopoulou (eds.), Βιοηθικοί Προβληματισμοί ΙΙ (Bioethical Reflections II). Papazisis.
  22. Robert A. Millikan Meets the Credibility Revolution.Nathaniel T. Wilcox - forthcoming - Journal of Economic Methodology.
  23. For and Against Scientism: Science, Methodology, and the Future of Philosophy.Moti Mizrahi (ed.) - 2022 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    The term scientism is used in several ways. It is used to denote an epistemological thesis according to which science is the source of our knowledge about the world and ourselves. Relatedly, it is used to denote a methodological thesis according to which the methods of science are superior to the methods of non-scientific fields or areas of inquiry, or even used to put forward a metaphysical thesis that what exists is what science says exists. In recent decades, the term (...)
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  24. Science and Politics in a Time of Pandemic: Some Epistemological and Political Lessons From the Italian Story.Federico Boem & Emanuele Ratti - 2021 - Humana Mente 14 (40).
    Making public policy choices based on available scientific evidence is an ideal condition for any policy making. However, the mechanisms governing these scenarios are complex, non-linear, and, alongside the medical-health and epidemiological issues, involve socio-economic, political, communicative, informational, ethical and epistemological aspects. In this article we analyze the role of scientific evidence when implementing political decisions that strictly depend on it, as in the case of the COVID-19 pandemic. In carrying out this analysis, we will focus above all on the (...)
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  25. Data models, representation and adequacy-for-purpose.Alisa Bokulich & Wendy Parker - 2021 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 11 (1):1-26.
    We critically engage two traditional views of scientific data and outline a novel philosophical view that we call the pragmatic-representational view of data. On the PR view, data are representations that are the product of a process of inquiry, and they should be evaluated in terms of their adequacy or fitness for particular purposes. Some important implications of the PR view for data assessment, related to misrepresentation, context-sensitivity, and complementary use, are highlighted. The PR view provides insight into the common (...)
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  26. Two Approaches to Natural Kinds.Judith K. Crane - 2021 - Synthese 199 (5-6):12177-12198.
    Philosophical treatments of natural kinds are embedded in two distinct projects. I call these the philosophy of science approach and the philosophy of language approach. Each is characterized by its own set of philosophical questions, concerns, and assumptions. The kinds studied in the philosophy of science approach are projectible categories that can ground inductive inferences and scientific explanation. The kinds studied in the philosophy of language approach are the referential objects of a special linguistic category—natural kind terms—thought to refer directly. (...)
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  27. The Language Essence of Rational Cognition with Some Philosophical Consequences.Boris Culina - 2021 - Tesis (Lima) 14 (19):631-656.
    The essential role of language in rational cognition is analysed. The approach is functional: only the results of the connection between language, reality, and thinking are considered. Scientific language is analysed as an extension and improvement of everyday language. The analysis gives a uniform view of language and rational cognition. The consequences for the nature of ontology, truth, logic, thinking, scientific theories, and mathematics are derived.
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  28. How Scientific Instruments Speak: Postphenomenology and Technological Mediations in Neuroscientific Practice.Bas de Boer - 2021 - Lexington Books.
    Science is highly dependent on the technologies needed to observe scientific objects. In How Scientific Instruments Speak, Bas de Boer develops a philosophical account of instruments in scientific practice, focusing on the cognitive neurosciences. He argues for an understanding of scientific instruments as mediating technology.
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  29. A Filosofia da Ciência de Bas van Fraassen e o Seu Voluntarismo Epistêmico, de Kathleen Okruhlik.Alessio Gava - 2021 - Trans/Form/Ação 44 (4):399-416.
    This is the Portuguese translation of Kathleen Okruhlik's paper "Bas van Fraassen’s Philosophy of Science and His Epistemic Voluntarism" (2014) -/- Bas van Fraassen’s anti-realist account of science has played a major role in shaping recent philosophy of science. His constructive empiricism, in particular, has been widely discussed and criticized in the journal literature and is a standard topic in philosophy of science course curricula. Other aspects of his empiricism are less well known, including his empiricist account of scientific laws, (...)
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  30. Can Constructive Empiricists Believe in Exoplanets Too?Alessio Gava - 2021 - Dissertatio 51:167-182.
    Bas van Fraassen maintains that the actual function of optical instruments is producing images. Still, the output of a telescope is different from that of a microscope, for in the latter case it is not possible to empirically investigate the geometrical relations between the observer, the image and the detected entity, while in the former it is - at least in principle. In this paper I argue that this is a weak argument to support the belief in the existence of (...)
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  31. On the Epistemological Significance of Arguments From Non Transitive Similarity.Friedrich Wilhelm Grafe - 2021 - Archive.Org.
    This paper aims to argue for, else illustrate the epistemological significance of the use of non transitive similarity relations, mapping only to "types", as methodologically being on a par with the use of transitive similarity relations (equivalence relations), mapping as well to "predicates". -/- In this paper the sketch of an exact but simple geometrical model of the above construct is followed by mentioning respective use cases for non transitive similarity relations from science and humanities. A well known metaphysics example (...)
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  32. Why Be Random?Thomas Icard - 2021 - Mind 130 (517):fzz065.
    When does it make sense to act randomly? A persuasive argument from Bayesian decision theory legitimizes randomization essentially only in tie-breaking situations. Rational behaviour in humans, non-human animals, and artificial agents, however, often seems indeterminate, even random. Moreover, rationales for randomized acts have been offered in a number of disciplines, including game theory, experimental design, and machine learning. A common way of accommodating some of these observations is by appeal to a decision-maker’s bounded computational resources. Making this suggestion both precise (...)
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  33. Zur modernen Naturphilosophie bei Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker und Rupert Riedl.Roman Otto Jordan - 2021 - Aufklärung Und Kritik 28 (2):38-57.
    Dieser Aufsatz behandelt moderne "Naturphilosophie" am Beispiel von Rupert Riedls evolutionärer Erkenntnistheorie und Carl Friedrich von Weizsäckers Philosophie der Physik. Es wird darin im Anschluss das menschliche Erkennen im Hinblick auf die Ordnung der Natur reflektiert. Schließlich wird das Phänomen der Erkenntnis sowohl im von Weizsäcker und Riedl erschlossenen Zugang zur Realität als auch in wissenschaftsphilosophischer Hinsicht erfasst.
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  34. Thoughts on the Scientific Study of Phenomenal Consciousness.Stan Klein - 2021 - Psychology of Consciousness: Theory, Research, and Practice 8 (74-80).
    This Target paper is about the hard problem of phenomenal consciousness (i.e., how is subjective experience possible given the scientific presumption that everything from molecules to minerals to minds is wholly physical?). I first argue that one of the most valuable tools in the scientific arsenal (metaphor) cannot be recruited to address the hard problem due to the inability to forge connections between the stubborn fact of subjective experience and physically grounded models of scientific explanation. I then argue that adherence (...)
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  35. Is Truth the Gold Standard of Inquiry? A Comment on Elgin’s Argument Against Veritism.Moti Mizrahi - 2021 - Foundations of Science 26 (2):275-280.
    In True enough,, Elgin argues against veritism, which is the view that truth is the paramount epistemic objective. Elgin’s argument against veritism proceeds from considering the role that models, idealizations, and thought experiments play in science to the conclusion that veritism is unacceptable. In this commentary, I argue that Elgin’s argument fails as an argument against veritism. I sketch a refutation by logical analogy of Elgin’s argument. Just as one can aim at gold medals and still find approximations to gold, (...)
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  36. Philosophical Sentiments Toward Scientism: A Reply to Bryant.Moti Mizrahi - 2021 - Social Epistemology Review and Reply Collective 10 (11):19-24.
    In a reply to Mizrahi (2019), Bryant (2020) raises several methodological concerns regarding my attempt to test hypotheses about the observation that academic philosophers tend to find “scientism” threatening empirically using quantitative, corpus based methods. Chief among her methodological concerns is that numbers of philosophical publications that mention “scientism” are a “poor proxy for scholarly sentiment” (Bryant 2020, 31). In reply, I conduct a sentiment analysis that is designed to find out whether academic philosophers have negative, positive, or neutral sentiments (...)
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  37. In Defense of Relative Realism: A Reply to Park.Moti Mizrahi - 2021 - Social Epistemology Review and Reply Collective 10 (1):1-6.
    In this paper, I reply to Seungbae Park’s (2020) critique of the view I defend in Chapter 6 of The Relativity of Theory: Key Positions and Arguments in the Contemporary Scientific Realism/Antirealism Debate (Cham: Springer, 2020), namely, Relative Realism. Relative Realism is the view that, of a set of competing scientific theories, the more predictively successful theory is comparatively true. Comparative truth is a relation between competing theories. So, to say that T1 is comparatively true is to say that T1 (...)
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  38. Prototypes, Poles, and Topological Tessellations of Conceptual Spaces.Thomas Mormann - 2021 - Synthese 199:3675 - 3710.
    Abstract. The aim of this paper is to present a topological method for constructing discretizations (tessellations) of conceptual spaces. The method works for a class of topological spaces that the Russian mathematician Pavel Alexandroff defined more than 80 years ago. Alexandroff spaces, as they are called today, have many interesting properties that distinguish them from other topological spaces. In particular, they exhibit a 1-1 correspondence between their specialization orders and their topological structures. Recently, a special type of Alexandroff spaces was (...)
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  39. Models in Engineering and Design: Modeling Relations and Directions of Fit.Michael Poznic - 2021 - In Diane Michelfelder & Neelke Doorn (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of the Philosophy of Engineering. Routledge. pp. 383-393.
    This chapter distinguishes two different modeling relations between vehicles and targets: design relation and representation relation. The relations are characterized by their different directions of fit. Three examples of modeling enterprises are discussed: a bioengineering model, called the “lung chip,” an architectural model, called the “weekend cottage,” and an engineering design model, called the “jet engine.” The two modeling relations with different directions of fit are analyzed in the three examples. The lung chip is standing in a representation relation to (...)
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  40. An 'Aristotelian' Philosophy of the Internet.Laszlo Ropolyi - 2021 - WebSci '21: 13th ACM Web Science Conference 2021June 2021 (ACM Digital Library).
    The paper argues for the necessity of building up a philosophy of the internet and proposes a version of it, an ‘Aristotelian’ philosophy of the internet. First, a short overview of some recent trends in the internet research is presented. This train of thoughts leads to a proposal of understanding the nature of the internet in the spirit of the Aristotelian philosophy i.e., to conceive “the internet as the internet”, as a totality of its all aspects, as a whole entity. (...)
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  41. Evidence, Defeasibility, and Metaphors in Diagnosis and Diagnosis Communication.Pietro Salis & Francesca Ervas - 2021 - Topoi 40 (2):327–341.
    The paper investigates the epistemological and communicative competences the experts need to use and communicate evidence in the reasoning process leading to diagnosis. The diagnosis and diagnosis communication are presented as intertwined processes that should be jointly addressed in medical consultations, to empower patients’ compliance in illness management. The paper presents defeasible reasoning as specific to the diagnostic praxis, showing how this type of reasoning threatens effective diagnosis communication and entails that we should understand diagnostic evidence as defeasible as well. (...)
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  42. Andrea Strazzoni. Dutch Cartesianism and the Birth of Philosophy of Science: From Regius to ’s Gravesande. Ix + 245 Pp., Notes, Bibl., Index. Boston: De Gruyter, 2018. $114.99 (Cloth); ISBN 9783110567823. Paperback and E-Book Available. [REVIEW]Klaas van Berkel - 2020 - Isis 111 (4):881-882.
  43. Logical Analysis of the Concept of Beauty.Fabio Maia Bertato & Gabriel San Martin - 2020 - Edukacja Filozoficzna 70:121-141.
  44. Understanding Scientific Types: Holotypes, Stratotypes, and Measurement Prototypes.Alisa Bokulich - 2020 - Biology and Philosophy 35 (5):1-28.
    At the intersection of taxonomy and nomenclature lies the scientific practice of typification. This practice occurs in biology with the use of holotypes (type specimens), in geology with the use of stratotypes, and in metrology with the use of measurement prototypes. In this paper I develop the first general definition of a scientific type and outline a new philosophical theory of types inspired by Pierre Duhem. I use this general framework to resolve the necessity-contingency debate about type specimens in philosophy (...)
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  45. Towards a Contextual Approach to Data Quality.Stefano Canali - 2020 - Data 4 (5):90.
    In this commentary, I propose a framework for thinking about data quality in the context of scientific research. I start by analyzing conceptualizations of quality as a property of information, evidence and data and reviewing research in the philosophy of information, the philosophy of science and the philosophy of biomedicine. I identify a push for purpose dependency as one of the main results of this review. On this basis, I present a contextual approach to data quality in scientific research, whereby (...)
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  46. Resenha do livro Imagens de natureza, imagens de ciência (2ª edição revista e ampliada. Rio de Janeiro: Eduerj, 2016), de Paulo C. Abrantes. [REVIEW]Bruno Camilo de Oliveira - 2020 - Revista Helius 3:1250-1263.
    The second edition of the work of the Brazilian physicist Paulo C. Abrantes (2016), entitled Images of nature, images of science, is a good alternative for students of history and philosophy of science. The reason is Abrantes' thesis in this work: to defend that the development of scientific knowledge is dependent on the influence of different images of "nature" and "science" existing during the history of Western scientific-philosophical thought; and an advocate for the historian of science Studying as reasons that (...)
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  47. Emily Herring, Kevin Matthew Jones, Konstantin S. Kiprijanov, and Laura M. Sellers, Eds. The Past, Present, and Future of Integrated History and Philosophy of Science. London: Routledge, 2019. Pp. Xii+255. $155.00 (Cloth). ISBN 978-0-815-37985-0. [REVIEW]Kate Dorsch - 2020 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 10 (2):598-601.
  48. Falsificationism and the Pragmatic Problem of Induction.Danny Frederick - 2020 - Organon F: Medzinárodný Časopis Pre Analytickú Filozofiu 27 (4):494-503.
    I explain how Karl Popper resolved the problem of induction but not the pragmatic problem of induction. I show that Popper’s solution to the pragmatic problem of induction is inconsistent with his solution to the problem of induction. I explain how Popper’s falsificationist epistemology can solve the pragmatic problem of induction in the same negative way that it solves the problem of induction.
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  49. How Thin Rational Choice Theory Explains Choices.Roberto Fumagalli - 2020 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 83:63-74.
    The critics of rational choice theory (RCT) frequently build on the contrast between so-called thick and thin applications of RCT to argue that thin RCT lacks the potential to explain the choices of real-world agents. In this paper, I draw on often-cited RCT applications in several decision sciences to demonstrate that despite this prominent critique there are at least two different senses in which thin RCT can explain real-world agents’ choices. I then defend this thesis against the most influential objections (...)
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  50. When Ecology Needs Economics and Economics Needs Ecology: Interdisciplinary Exchange During the Anthropocene.S. Andrew Inkpen & C. Tyler DesRoches - 2020 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 23 (2):203-221.
    ABSTRACT Evidence that humans play a dominant role in most ecosystems forces scientists to confront systems that contain factors transgressing traditional disciplinary boundaries. However, it is an open question whether this state of affairs should encourage interdisciplinary exchange or integration. With two case studies, we show that exchange between ecologists and economists is preferable, for epistemological and policy-oriented reasons, to their acting independently. We call this “exchange gain.” Our case studies show that theoretical exchanges can be less disruptive to current (...)
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