About this topic
Summary The philosophy of information is the branch of philosophy devoted to the thematic study of information in all its forms, and to the application of informational methods to new and traditional philosophical problems. The philosophy of information is not limited to any particular doctrine or methodology; rather, it is unified by its central focus on information as it plays out in both theory and practice. Examples of topics addressed by the philosophy of information include, among others: the nature of information; the modalities of information processing; the relations between information, knowledge, and meaning; the informational nature of mental life; the informational interpretation of reality; the value of information; the role of information in society and human interactions; and the politics of information.
Key works Though the Philosophy of Information as discipline is fairly new, works that can be labelled as belonging to one or more of the related sub-disciplines can be found at least since the Sixties. In particular for the relation with knowledge and logic: Bar-Hillel & Carnap 1953 and Dretske 1981. For a comprehensive approach of the current debates see Adriaans & van Benthem 2008 and Floridi 2011.
Introductions Adriaans 2012; Introduction in Adriaans & van Benthem 2008 and Floridi 2011; Floridi 2010; Floridi 2002.
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  1. Racial Injustice and Information Flow.Eric Bayruns Garcia - forthcoming - Feminist Philosophy Quarterly.
    I submit that the critical epistemology of race and standpoint literature has not explicitly focused on the properties of information about, say, racial or gender injustice in a way similar to how epistemologists have focused on propositions and information when they describe propositional justification. I describe information in the racial-injustice-information domain in a way similar to how epistemologists describe propositional justification. To this end, I argue (C1) that if subjects in racially unjust societies tend to violate norms that promote a (...)
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  2. Quantum Reality.Ilexa Yardley - 2021 - Https://Medium.Com/the-Circular-Theory.
    Reality at any scale (a singularity of singularities) involves the conservation of a circle. This is because zero and one (modern) (yin and yang) (ancient) are, technically, and, thus 'realistically' (literally), circumference and diameter. This means we are, always, tokenizing space, explaining 'the matrix,' 'information,' 'information systems,' and algorithms (mathematics and technology). This is because, what humans label, 'mind' and 'matter,' like any X and X (X and Y) (X and X') articulate, and, thus, conserve an always-present (totally prescient) circular-linear (...)
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  3. Il pensiero come relazione o intero semantico? Intorno alla filosofia di Luciano Floridi.Leonardo Manna - 2021 - Phenomenology and Mind 20 (2021):164-174.
    In Pensare l’infosfera La filosofia come design concettuale, Luciano Floridi states the value of a correct analysis and philosophical responses within the information age we are living in. The aim of this paper is to suggest several ideas for reflecting on some of Floridi’s topics such as the analysis of presence, relationship and semantization. In the second paragraph, after a brief introduction about the author, I will analyse philosophical insights on the relationship between being and determination. In the third paragraph, (...)
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  4. Skepticism, Relativism, and Identity: The Origins of Conservatism.Kevin E. Dodson - 2019 - In Christine M. Battista & Melissa R. Sande (eds.), Critical Theory and the Humanities in the Age of the Alt-Right. Springer Verlag. pp. 121-136.
    In the 1950s and 1960s, Conservatives themselves sought to distinguish an authentic conservatism from what Peter Viereck called “Reactionary Nationalism” and George Nash termed “The Radical Right.” In The National Review, William F. Buckley sought to expel the John Birch Society and Ayn Rand from the emerging Conservative movement. Perhaps most famously, the renowned historian Richard Hofstadter distinguished between Conservatism on the one hand and Pseudo-Conservatism on the other, which exhibited an opposition to the broad consensus of American society and (...)
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  5. Introduction to CAT4. Part 2. CAT2.Andrew Thomas Holster - manuscript
    CAT4 is proposed as a general method for representing information, enabling a powerful programming method for large-scale information systems. It enables generalised machine learning, software automation and novel AI capabilities. It is based on a special type of relation called CAT4, which is interpreted to provide a semantic representation. This is Part 2 of a five-part introduction. The focus here is on defining key mathematical properties of CAT2, identifying the topology and defining essential functions over a coordinate system. The analysis (...)
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  6. Uploads, Faxes, and You: Can Personal Identity Be Transmitted?Jonah Goldwater - 2021 - American Philosophical Quarterly 58 (3):233–250.
    Abstract. Could a person or mind be uploaded—transmitted to a computer or network—and thereby survive bodily death? I argue ‘mind uploading’ is possible only if a mind is an abstract object rather than a concrete particular. Two implications are notable. One, if someone can be uploaded someone can be multiply-instantiated, such that there could be as many instances of a person as copies of a book. Second, mind uploading’s possibility is incompatible with the leading theories of personal identity, insofar as (...)
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  7. On the Foundation of the Philosophy of Information.Luciano Floridi - unknown
    Philosophers have recently begun to address the new intellectual challenges arising from the world of information and the information society. Consequently, a new and vitally important area of research has begun to emerge, the philosophy of information (PI). This paper is the first attempt to analyse the potential nature of PI systematically. The paper aims to explain (1) what PI is (2) how PI has emerged (3) why there should be a new philosophical discipline such as PI, (4) what PI’s (...)
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  8. LIS as Applied Philosophy of Information: A Reappraisal. Invited Contribution to the Special Issue of Library Trends Dedicated to the Philosophy of Information.Luciano Floridi - 2004 - Library Trends 52 (3):658–665.
    Library information science (LIS) should develop its foundation in terms of a philosophy of information (PI). This seems a rather harmless suggestion. In Floridi (2002a), I have articulated some of the reasons why I believe that PI can fulfill the foundationalist needs better than SE can. In this contribution, I clarify some aspects of my proposal (Floridi, 2002a) in favor of the interpretation of LIS as applied PI. The aim of the article is to remove some ambiguities and possible misunderstandings (...)
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  9. The Philosophy of Information: A Methodological Point of View.Luciano Floridi - 2005 - Professional Knowledge Management - Experiences and Visions, Contributions to the 3rd Conference Professional Knowledge Management - Experiences and Visions, April 10-13, 2005, Kaiserslautern, Germany.
    The Philosophy of Information is a new area of research at the intersection of philosophy and computer science [4]. It concerns (a) the critical investigation of the conceptual nature and basic principles of information, including its dynamics (especially computation), utilization (especially computer ethics) and sciences; and (b) the elaboration and application of computational and information-theoretic methodologies to philosophical problems. Past work by members of our group has concentrated on (a), and in this paper we explore (b). In a nutshell, we (...)
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  10. Misreading Skepticism in the Long Eighteenth Century: Studies in the Rhetoric of Assent.Adam Sneed - 2018 - Dissertation, University of Michigan
    “Misreading Skepticism in the Long Eighteenth Century: Studies in the Rhetoric of Assent” revisits the intellectual historical conditions that contributed to the widespread internalization of skepticism as an error-reduction strategy during the Enlightenment. To do so, it abandons a longstanding emphasis the special philosophical tradition of epistemological skepticism associated with the Scottish philosopher David Hume and pursues an alternative intellectual history of Enlightenment skepticism centered on the Anglophone tradition of “constructive skepticism” that informed not only Hume’s skeptical habits but those (...)
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  11. Review of Peter S. Fosl, Hume's Scepticism: Pyrrhonian and Academic. [REVIEW]Charles Goldhaber - forthcoming - Hume Studies.
    Peter Fosl's new monograph offers a bold reading of Hume as a "radical," "coherent," and "hybrid" skeptic, who draws influence from both the Pyrrhonian and Academic skeptical traditions. I press some concerns about whether Fosl's reading of Hume can accommodate his scientific ambitions.
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  12. Ο χάρτης πορείας ενός γενετιστή για τη λογική κατανόηση του σύμπαντος.Gilbert B. Côté - manuscript
    Translation in Greek of "A Geneticist's Roadmap to Sanity" (2019) by G.B. Côté. Μεταφράστηκε και στα Γαλλικά από τους Gilbert B. Côté και Roger Lapalme και προστέθηκε η βιβλιογραφία στις 28 του Απρίλη 2020: Pour comprendre le monde et revenir à la raison. La théorie du tout d'un généticien. Η ώθηση για τη συγγραφή ήταν η ανήθικη προεδρία του Donald J. Trump. Σε αυτό το κείμενο, θέλω να εξερευνήσω τα θεμέλια της ύπαρξής μας. Θα θίξω σύντομα την ενσυνείδηση, την ελεύθερη (...)
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  13. Philosophy and Digitization: Dangers and Possibilities in the New Digital Worlds.Esther Oluffa Pedersen & Maria Brincker - 2021 - SATS 22 (1):1-9.
    Our world is under going an enormous digital transformation. Nearly no area of our social, informational, political, economic, cultural, and biological spheres are left unchanged. What can philosophy contribute as we try to under- stand and think through these changes? How does digitization challenge past ideas of who we are and where we are headed? Where does it leave our ethical aspirations and cherished ideals of democracy, equality, privacy, trust, freedom, and social embeddedness? Who gets to decide, control, and harness (...)
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  14. What is the Philosophy of Information?Luciano Floridi - 2002 - Metaphilosophy 33 (1-2):123–145.
    Computational and information-theoretic research in philosophy has become increasingly fertile and pervasive, giving rise to a wealth of interesting results. In consequence, a new and vitally important field has emerged, the philosophy of information (PI). This essay is the first attempt to analyse the nature of PI systematically. PI is defined as the philosophical field concerned with the critical investigation of the conceptual nature and basic principles of information, including its dynamics, utilisation, and sciences, and the elaboration and application of (...)
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  15. Can Knowledge Be Quantified and Qualified?Farshad Badie - 2021 - Journal of Knowledge Structures and Systems 1 (2):63-67.
    The opinion defended in this paper is that the interrelationships between the phenomena of data and information can provide a strong basis for analyzing knowledge as a quantified and qualified construction. As other models (e.g., Augusto’s General Theory of Knowledge) suggest, it is important to distinguish knowledge from both data and information in the complicated trio composed of data, information, and knowledge (DIK). However, data and information can be combined into informative data. Taking into account quantified and qualified informative data, (...)
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  16. Trends in the Philosophy of Information.Luciano Floridi - 2008 - In Pieter Adriaans & Johan van Bentham (eds.), Philosophy of Information. Amsterdam, Netherlands: pp. 113–131.
    This chapter reviews some interesting research trends in the philosophy of information (PI). First, PI is defined; then, a series of open problems in PI on which philosophers are currently working is considered. The conclusion highlights the innovative character of this new area of research.
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  17. Turing's Three Philosophical Lessons and the Philosophy of Information.Luciano Floridi - 2012 - Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A 370 (1971):3536-3542.
    In this article, I outline the three main philosophical lessons that we may learn from Turing’s work, and how they lead to a new philosophy of information. After a brief introduction, I discuss his work on the method of levels of abstraction (LoA), and his insistence that questions could be meaningfully asked only by specifying the correct LoA. I then look at his second lesson, about the sort of philosophical questions that seem to be most pressing today. Finally, I focus (...)
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  18. Varieties of Artifacts: Embodied, Perceptual, Cognitive, and Affective.Richard Heersmink - 2021 - Topics in Cognitive Science (4):1-24.
    The primary goal of this essay is to provide a comprehensive overview and analysis of the various relations between material artifacts and the embodied mind. A secondary goal of this essay is to identify some of the trends in the design and use of artifacts. First, based on their functional properties, I identify four categories of artifacts co-opted by the embodied mind, namely (1) embodied artifacts, (2) perceptual artifacts, (3) cognitive artifacts, and (4) affective artifacts. These categories can overlap and (...)
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  19. Logic for Lunatics.Gregory Wheeler - manuscript
    A sound and complete axiomatization of two tabloid blogs is presented, Leiter Logic (KB) and Deontic Leiter Logic (KDB), the latter of which can be extended to Shame Game Logic for multiple agents. The (B) schema describes the mechanism behind this class of tabloids, and illustrates the perils of interpreting a provability operator as an epistemic modal. To mark this difference, and to avoid sullying Brouwer's good name, the (B) schema for epistemic modals should be called the Blog Schema.
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  20. Innovation on the Reservation: Information Technology and Health Systems Research Among the Papago Tribe of Arizona, 1965–1980.Jeremy A. Greene, Victor Braitberg & Gabriella Maya Bernadett - 2020 - Isis 111 (3):443-470.
  21. The History and Philosophy of Taxonomy as an Information Science.Catherine Kendig & Joeri Witteveen - 2020 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 42 (3):1-9.
    We undeniably live in an information age—as, indeed, did those who lived before us. After all, as the cultural historian Robert Darnton pointed out: ‘every age was an age of information, each in its own way’ (Darnton 2000: 1). Darnton was referring to the news media, but his insight surely also applies to the sciences. The practices of acquiring, storing, labeling, organizing, retrieving, mobilizing, and integrating data about the natural world has always been an enabling aspect of scientific work. Natural (...)
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  22. Why is Information Retrieval a Scientific Discipline?Robert W. P. Luk - 2020 - Foundations of Science:1-27.
    It is relatively easy to state that information retrieval is a scientific discipline but it is rather difficult to understand why it is science because what is science is still under debate in the philosophy of science. To be able to convince others that IR is science, our ability to explain why is crucial. To explain why IR is a scientific discipline, we use a theory and a model of scientific study, which were proposed recently. The explanation involves mapping the (...)
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  23. James Dougal Fleming. The Mirror of Information in Early Modern England: John Wilkins and the Universal Character. Xiii + 292 Pp., Figs., Bibl., Index. Cham, Switzerland: Palgrave Macmillan, 2017. €106.99 (Cloth). ISBN 9783319403007. [REVIEW]Richard Oosterhoff - 2020 - Isis 111 (2):394-395.
  24. Body, Environment, Technics: An Ethological Approach to Information.Christopher Joseph Loughnane - 2020 - Dissertation, University of Glasgow
    In this thesis I describe an ethological approach to the study of information which moves from the traditional ethological binary of body + environment in creating a subjective world, called an Umwelt, to include a third element, technics. In moving from a dyadic to a triadic relationship, I show the fundamental interconnectedness of these three elements of being inthe- world in the specific grounding context of information and demonstrate how we form and interact with new environments through media, computing and (...)
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  25. A Formal Ontology for Conception Representation in Terminological Systems.Farshad Badie - 2020 - In Mariusz Urbański, Tomasz Skura & Paweł Łupkowski (eds.), Reasoning: Logic, Cognition, and Games. pp. 137-156.
    I have supposed that we need a formal system to represent and explain humans' conceptions of the world. According to this research, such a formal system is representable based on a Conception Language (CL) that is a terminological knowledge representation formalism. In this research, I will offer a formal ontology for conception representation in terminological systems. Such a CL-based ontology will specify the conceptualization of humans' conceptions as well as of the effects of their conceptions on the world.
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  26. Consciousness as Information System of the Human Body.Florin Gaiseanu - 2016 - Physics of Consciousness and Life 1 (1):14-25.
    Starting from the observation of the binary character YES/NOT of our decisions in relation to the information received from the environment, determining both our life and specie evolution by adaptation, it is defined the info-creational field and thought as an information operator on this field, allowing to describe the individual EGO as a receiver and producer information system, based on an operational and a programmed informational subsystem. Consciousness appears thus be an integrated information system which allows the adaptation to the (...)
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  27. The Notion of Information in Early Cybernetics and in Gilbert Simondon's Philosophy.Juho Rantala - manuscript
    This paper will examine the notion of information in the early cybernetics and in Gilbert Simondon’s philosophy. First, we will be outlining the notion of information of early (or first-order) cyberneticians. Secondly, we will summarize Simondon’s concept of information. Finally, the last part of the paper will be dealing shortly with the present understanding of information which has expanded since the beginning of the 20th century. -/- Presented at Doctoral Congress in Philosophy 22.–24.10.2018, University of Tampere, Finland.
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  28. On the Foundations of Computing.Giuseppe Primiero - 2019 - Oxford University Press.
    Computing, today more than ever before, is a multi-faceted discipline which collates several methodologies, areas of interest, and approaches: mathematics, engineering, programming, and applications. Given its enormous impact on everyday life, it is essential that its debated origins are understood, and that its different foundations are explained. On the Foundations of Computing offers a comprehensive and critical overview of the birth and evolution of computing, and it presents some of the most important technical results and philosophical problems of the discipline, (...)
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  29. Privacy, Autonomy, and Personalised Targeting: Rethinking How Personal Data is Used.Karina Vold & Jessica Whittlestone - 2019 - In Carissa Véliz (ed.), Report on Data, Privacy, and the Individual in the Digital Age.
    Technological advances are bringing new light to privacy issues and changing the reasons for why privacy is important. These advances have changed not only the kind of personal data that is available to be collected, but also how that personal data can be used by those who have access to it. We are particularly concerned with how information about personal attributes inferred from collected data (such as online behaviour), can be used to tailor messages and services to specific individuals or (...)
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  30. Philosophy and Methodology of Information: The Study of Information in the Transdisciplinary Perspective.Gordana Dodig Crnkovic - 2019 - Singapore: World Scientific.
    The book gives up-to-date, multi-aspect exposition of the philosophy and methodology of information, and related areas within the nascent field of the study of information. It presents the most recent achievements, ideas and opinions of leading researchers in this domain, as well as from physicists, biologists and social scientists. Collaboration of researchers from different areas and fields opens new perspectives for the understanding of information essential in the innovative development of science, technology and society. -/- The book is meant for (...)
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  31. Information Research, Practice, and Education Continue to Invite and Benefit From Philosophy.Jesse David Dinneen - 2017 - Education for Information 33 (1):1-2.
    It has become easy to make a case for the relevance, richness, and importance of philosophical thinking for information research and practice. [Introduction to a special issue].
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  32. La politica nell’era di internet. Vantaggi e pericoli.Elisa Grimi - 2015 - Quaderni Della Fondazione Professor Paolo Michele Erede 8 (a cura di M. Marsonet):65-77.
    --- abstract is not requested by the Editor.
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  33. The Total Archive: Data, Subjectivity, Universality.Boris Jardine & Matthew Drage - 2018 - History of the Human Sciences 31 (5):3-22.
    The complete system of knowledge is a standard trope of science fiction, a techno-utopian dream and an aesthetic ideal. It is Solomon’s House, the Encyclopaedia and the Museum. It is also an ideology – of Enlightenment, High Modernism and absolute governance. Far from ending the dream of a total archive, 20th-century positivist rationality brought it ever closer. From Paul Otlet’s ‘Mundaneum’ to Mass-Observation, from the Unity of Science movement to Wikipedia, the dream of universal knowledge dies hard. As a political (...)
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  34. The Problem of the Base and the Nature of Information.C. Montemayor - 2017 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 24 (9-10):91-102.
    I present three problems regarding the Problem of the Base. They concern the nature of information, the kind of Platonism that physicalists allegedly confront, and the constraints imposed by causal principles. These problems focus on the notion of information and its relation to the Problem of the Base. I also highlight the importance of Schneider's paper, particularly its relevance for future debates.
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  35. What an Entangled Web We Weave: An Information-Centric Approach to Time-Evolving Socio-Technical Systems.Markus Luczak-Roesch, Kieron O’Hara, Jesse David Dinneen & Ramine Tinati - 2018 - Minds and Machines 28 (4):709-733.
    A new layer of complexity, constituted of networks of information token recurrence, has been identified in socio-technical systems such as the Wikipedia online community and the Zooniverse citizen science platform. The identification of this complexity reveals that our current understanding of the actual structure of those systems, and consequently the structure of the entire World Wide Web, is incomplete, which raises novel questions for data science research but also from the perspective of social epistemology. Here we establish the principled foundations (...)
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  36. Applying a Technological Integration Decision Framework to Innovation Governance.Dr Robert E. Davis - 2018 - ISACA Journal 2:22-27.
    Business manager-leaders face constant pressure to achieve and sustain a competitive advantage. Therefore, manager-leaders need to address the pros and cons of innovation strategies in their markets. Using strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats analysis enable the creation and defining of objectives tailored to the firm’s environment, after assessing current capabilities. Subsequently, an enterprise’s innovation strategy converges on managing the envisioned destiny and achieving the articulated objectives. My Journal article integrates business, and IT platform strategies as a means to generate appropriate (...)
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  37. Knowledge and the Flow of Information. Fred I. Dretske.Barry Loewer - 1982 - Philosophy of Science 49 (2):297-300.
  38. Environments of Intelligence. From Natural Information to Artficial Interaction.Hajo Greif - 2017 - London: Routledge.
    What is the role of the environment, and of the information it provides, in cognition? More specifically, may there be a role for certain artefacts to play in this context? These are questions that motivate "4E" theories of cognition (as being embodied, embedded, extended, enactive). In his take on that family of views, Hajo Greif first defends and refines a concept of information as primarily natural, environmentally embedded in character, which had been eclipsed by information-processing views of cognition. He continues (...)
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  39. Ontology.Barry Smith - 2003 - In Luciano Floridi (ed.), Blackwell Guide to the Philosophy of Computing and Information. Oxford: Blackwell. pp. 155-166.
    Ontology as a branch of philosophy is the science of what is, of the kinds and structures of objects, properties, events, processes and relations in every area of reality. ‘Ontology’ in this sense is often used by philosophers as a synonym of ‘metaphysics’ (a label meaning literally: ‘what comes after the Physics’), a term used by early students of Aristotle to refer to what Aristotle himself called ‘first philosophy’. But in recent years, in a development hardly noticed by philosophers, the (...)
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  40. Questions as Information Types.Ivano Ciardelli - 2018 - Synthese 195 (1):321-365.
    This paper argues that questions have an important role to to play in logic, both semantically and proof-theoretically. Semantically, we show that by generalizing the classical notion of entailment to questions, we can capture not only the standard relation of logical consequence, which holds between pieces of information, but also the relation of logical dependency, which holds between information types. Proof-theoretically, we show that questions may be used in inferences as placeholders for arbitrary information of a given type; by manipulating (...)
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  41. History, Narrative, and Meaning.Roberto Artigiani - 2007 - Cosmos and History : The Journal of Natural and Social Philosophy 3 (1):33-58.
    Recent developments in the natural sciences make a renewed dialogue with the humanities possible. Previously, humanists resisted transferring scientific paradigms into fields like history, fearing materialism and determinism would deprive experience of its meaning and people of their freedom. At the same time, scientists were realizing that deterministic materialism made understanding phenomena like life virtually impossible. Scientists escaped the irony of describing a nature to which they did not belong by also discovering that their knowledge can never be complete and (...)
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  42. Exploring the Tractability Border in Epistemic Tasks.Cédric Dégremont, Lena Kurzen & Jakub Szymanik - 2014 - Synthese 191 (3):371-408.
    We analyse the computational complexity of comparing informational structures. Intuitively, we study the complexity of deciding queries such as the following: Is Alice’s epistemic information strictly coarser than Bob’s? Do Alice and Bob have the same knowledge about each other’s knowledge? Is it possible to manipulate Alice in a way that she will have the same beliefs as Bob? The results show that these problems lie on both sides of the border between tractability (P) and intractability (NP-hard). In particular, we (...)
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  43. A Problem for Relative Information Minimizers, Continued.Bas van Fraassen - 1986 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 37:453.
  44. From Peirce’s Semiotics to Information-Sign-Symbol.Gennaro Auletta - 2016 - Biosemiotics 9 (3):451-466.
    Peirce is the father of semiotics. However, his theory was developed long before the developments in information theory. The codification procedures studied by the latter turn out to be crucial also for biology. At the root of both information and semiosis there are equivalence classes. In the case of biological systems, we speak of functional equivalence classes. Equivalence classes represent the grid that organism impose on biochemical processes and signals of the external or internal environment. The whole feedback circuit that (...)
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  45. The Substantive Impact of Computers on Philosophy Prolegomena to a Computational and Information-The.Randall R. Dipert - 2002 - Metaphilosophy 33 (1&2):146-157.
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  46. Towards a Formal Ontology of Information. Selected Ideas of K. Turek.Roman Krzanowski - 2016 - Zagadnienia Filozoficzne W Nauce 61:23-52.
    There are many ontologies of the world or of specific phenomena such as time, matter, space, and quantum mechanics1. However, ontologies of information are rather rare. One of the reasons behind this is that information is most frequently associated with communication and computing, and not with ‘the furniture of the world’. But what would be the nature of an ontology of information? For it to be of significant import it should be amenable to formalization in a logico-grammatical formalism. A candidate (...)
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  47. Theory Dynamics and Knowledge Representation From an Information-Theoretical Point of View.Heinz Hauffe - 1984 - Philosophia Naturalis 21 (2/4):368.
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  48. Toward the Development of Cooperative Information Systems on Religion.David O. Moberg - 1972 - Social Science Information 11 (2):149-159.
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  49. Data Files for a Generalized Economic Information System.Richard Ruggles & Nancy Ruggles - 1967 - Social Science Information 6 (4):187-196.
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  50. INFORMATION, ECHANGE ET CATALLAXIE: Réflexions Sur les Concepts-Clés de la Théorie Évolutionniste du Marché.Gerhard Wegner & Manfred E. Streit - 1990 - Journal de Economistes Et des Etudes Humaines 1 (1):3-24.
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