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  1. Out of Nowhere: Introduction: The Emergence of Spacetime.Nick Huggett & Christian Wuthrich - 2021
    This is a chapter of the planned monograph "Out of Nowhere: The Emergence of Spacetime in Quantum Theories of Gravity", co-authored by Nick Huggett and Christian Wüthrich and under contract with Oxford University Press. (More information at www<dot>beyondspacetime<dot>net.) This chapter introduces the problem of emergence of spacetime in quantum gravity. It introduces the main philosophical challenge to spacetime emergence and sketches our preferred solution to it.
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  2. Negative Actions: Events, Absences, and the Metaphysics of Agency.Jonathan D. Payton - 2021 - Cambridge University Press.
    Three claims are widely held and individually plausible, but jointly inconsistent: (1) Negative actions (intentional omissions, refrainments, etc.) are genuine actions; (2) All actions are events; (3) Some, and perhaps all, negative actions aren't events, but absences thereof (when I omit to raise my arm, no omission-event occurs; what happens is just that no arm-raising occurs). Drawing on resources from metaphysics and the philosophy of language, I argue that (3) is false. Negative actions are events, just as ordinary actions are. (...)
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  3. The Token for Tokenization.Ilexa Yardley - 2021 - Https://Medium.Com/the-Circular-Theory/.
    The 'token' for 'tokenization' explains fungible and non-fungible reality (tokenization).
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  4. Biomemetics.Ilexa Yardley - 2021 - Https://Medium.Com/the-Circular-Theory/.
    The meme is a tokenization of Nature. Biomemetics is the integration of Biomimetics and Memetics.
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  5. The Billionaire.Ilexa Yardley - 2021 - Https://Medium.Com/the-Circular-Theory/.
    Zero and one. Circumference and diameter. Intelligent anarchy. Explanation for abstraction (as a noun) (as a verb).
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  6. Why Crypto-Everything is Here to Stay.Ilexa Yardley - 2021 - Https://Medium.Com/the-Circular-Theory/.
    Cryptocurrency is just the tip of a never-melting iceberg…because everything in Nature is connected to everything else by an always-conserved (and uber-simple) circle. Giving us, finally, an explanation (and, technically, a use-case, and proof) for a 'self.'.
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  7. How (and Why) the Conservation of a Circle is the Core (and Only) Dynamic in Nature.Ilexa Yardley - 2021 - Https://Medium.Com/the-Circular-Theory/.
    Solving Navier-Stokes and integrating it with Bose-Einstein. Moving beyond ‘mathematics’ and ‘physics.’ And, philosophy. Integrating 'point' 'line' 'circle.' (Euclid with 'reality.').
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  8. Tokenization: The Key to Philosophy, Physics, and Psychology.Ilexa Yardley - 2021 - Https://Medium.Com/the-Circular-Theory.
    Zero and one are the circumference and diameter of an always-conserved circle. Explaining everything in philosophy, physics, and psychology. This produces a completely tokenized 'reality' with important implications for governmental and financial systems. As is, already, happening, in the exploding 'world' of NFT ('crypto' 'currency' in general) based on the statement and the diagram, and the notion of identity (knowledge as power).
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  9. Biomimetics (Biomimicry) (Biomemetics).Ilexa Yardley - 2021 - Https://Medium.Com/the-Circular-Theory/.
    Biomimetics (biomimicry) (biomemetics) proves the conservation of a circle is responsible for the tokenization of Nature (and, therefore, for (relative) identity in general).
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  10. The Connectionless Network.Ilexa Yardley - 2021 - Https://Medium.Com/the-Circular-Theory/.
    The cosmological microprocessor: four mini-satellites launched to communicate as an invisible token. All networks: one zero, one one. (All zeroes. One one.) Explains the (tokenized) notion of 'self.'.
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  11. How Nature ‘Tokenizes’ Reality.Ilexa Yardley - 2021 - Https://Medium.Com/the-Circular-Theory/.
    Pi in mathematics is mind in Nature, explaining the tokenization of 'reality.'.
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  12. Tokenization: The Key to Philosophy, Physics, and Psychology.Ilexa Yardley - 2021 - Intelligent Design Center.
    Zero and one are the circumference and diameter of an always-conserved circle. Explaining everything in philosophy, physics, and psychology. This produces a completely tokenized 'reality' with important implications for governmental and financial systems. As is, already, happening, in the exploding 'world' of NFT ('crypto' 'currency' in general) based on the statement and the diagram, and the notion of identity (knowledge as power).
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  13. Biomemetics: The Tokenization of Reality.Ilexa Yardley - 2021
    The integration of biomimetics and memetics produces non-fungible tokens. Proving the Conservation of a Circle is the core, and, thus the only, dynamic in Nature, resulting in the tokenization of reality. Explaining the notion of 'self.' Across all disciplines.
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  14. Technology and the Realization of ‘Self’.Ilexa Yardley - 2021 - Https://Medium.Com/the-Circular-Theory.
    Everything in Nature is, technically, a non-fungible token for 'self.' Explaining the meaning of the word 'self' across all disciplines. Introduces and explains Biomemetics (neologism for the technological realization of 'self').
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  15. How Tokenization Works to Establish Reality.Ilexa Yardley - 2021 - Https://Medium.Com/the-Circular-Theory.
    All of us are tokenizations in our own reality. This is because, technically (as we all know), there is no such thing as (what we're used to calling) 'reality.'.
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  16. The Tokenization of 'Zero' and 'One'.Ilexa Yardley - 2021 - Https://Medium.Com/the-Circular-Theory/.
    The tokenization of zero and one exposes the circular-linear relationship embedded within Nature. Also known, surreptitiously, and superpositionally, as NFT.
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  17. Cryptocurrency Will End Government as We ‘Know’ It.Ilexa Yardley - 2021 - Https://Medium.Com/the-Circular-Theory/.
    Nature tokenizes an always-present circle (the circular-linear relationship) (one zero-one one) (circumference and diameter) (literally and figuratively). Meaning, everything we 'see' in Nature is a token for a circle. Meaning, technology, specifically crypto-technology, will eventually take over what we currently 'know' as 'government.' (Authority in general.) For the intelligent anarchist in all of us.
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  18. The Cryptic Universe.Ilexa Yardley - 2021 - Https://Medium.Com/the-Circular-Theory.
    Technology is answering our deepest questions about ‘reality.’ This is because Nature continually tokenizes an underlying, omnipresent, continually conserved, circular-linear relationship. Thus, zero and one (modern) is yin and yang (ancient) tying modern and ancient ideas about 'reality' together, and proving tokenization produces a cryptic 'reality.' Explaining science, and the 'search' for answers (perpetually).
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  19. Living in a Tokenized (Think: Cryptic) Reality.Ilexa Yardley - 2021 - Https://Medium.Com/the-Circular-Theory.
    Zero and one (modern) are yin and yang (ancient), circumference and diameter (literally and figuratively) of an always-conserved (omnipresent) circular-linear relationship. Explaining everything in Nature.
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  20. The Tokenization of 'Reality'.Ilexa Yardley - 2021 - Https://Medium.Com/the-Circular-Theory.
    How do ‘virtual intelligence’ and ‘artificial reality’ intersect. Think: Foucault, Deleuze, Nietzsche. And, NFT.
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  21. Euclid's Error: The Mathematics Behind Foucault, Deleuze, and Nietzsche.Ilexa Yardley - 2021 - Intelligent Design Center.
    We have to go all the way back to Euclid, and, actually, before, to figure out the basis for representation, and therefore, interpretation. Which is, pure and simple, the conservation of a circle. As articulated by Foucault, Deleuze, and Nietzsche. 'Pi' (in mathematics) is the background state for everything (a.k.a. 'mind').Providing the explanation for (and the current popularity, and, thus, the 'genius' behind) NFT (non fungible tokens). 'Reality' has, finally, caught up with the 'truth.'.
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  22. The Future of 'NFT'.Ilexa Yardley - 2021 - Https://Medium.Com/the-Circular-Theory.
    Hidden behind any 'one' is some 'other' 'one'... thus, the circle is conserved (circularity is the core dynamic in Nature) (producing a completely tokenized reality).
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  23. Abstraction: How to Understand It.Ilexa Yardley - 2021 - Https://Medium.Com/the-Circular-Theory/.
  24. Mind: Not (in) the Brain.Ilexa Yardley - 2021 - Https://Medium.Com/the-Circular-Theory/.
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  25. The Universal System Architecture of Nature.Ilexa Yardley - 2021 - Https://Medium.Com/the-Circular-Theory.
    The universal system architecture of Nature can be summarized as: one zero, one one. This is because zero is, technically (and literally), circumference, and one is, technically (and literally), diameter. This means the algorithm that produces Nature (what humans label 'reality') is: if zero, then one (meaning, if one, then zero). Explaining the tokenzation of space (any matrix) (any lattice) (all vortices and edges) (if circumference, then diameter). Meaning, technically, you cannot use 'words' in any language (including the language of (...)
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  26. Euclid's Error: The Mathematics Behind Foucault, Deleuze, and Nietzsche.Ilexa Yardley - 2021 - Https://Medium.Com/the-Circular-Theory/.
    We have to go all the way back to Euclid, and, actually, before, to figure out the basis for representation, and therefore, interpretation. Which is, pure and simple, the conservation of a circle. As articulated by Foucault, Deleuze, and Nietzsche. 'Pi' (in mathematics) is the background state for everything (a.k.a. 'mind').Providing the explanation for (and the current popularity, and, thus, the 'genius' behind) NFT (non fungible tokens). 'Reality' has, finally, caught up with the 'truth.'.
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  27. The Identity of 'One:' Tokenization of a Circle.Ilexa Yardley - 2021 - Https://Medium.Com/the-Circular-Theory/.
    The tokenization of a circle produces, what humans label, ‘the identity of one.’.
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  28. A New 'Form' of Government.Ilexa Yardley - 2021 - Https://Medium.Com/the-Circular-Theory/.
  29. Referential Reality.Ilexa Yardley - 2021 - Https://Medium.Com/the-Circular-Theory.
  30. Quantum Reality.Ilexa Yardley - 2021 - Https://Medium.Com/the-Circular-Theory.
    Reality at any scale (a singularity of singularities) involves the conservation of a circle. This is because zero and one (modern) (yin and yang) (ancient) are, technically, and, thus 'realistically' (literally), circumference and diameter. This means we are, always, tokenizing space, explaining 'the matrix,' 'information,' 'information systems,' and algorithms (mathematics and technology). This is because, what humans label, 'mind' and 'matter,' like any X and X (X and Y) (X and X') articulate, and, thus, conserve an always-present (totally prescient) circular-linear (...)
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  31. Universal Tokenization.Ilexa Yardley - 2021 - Https://Medium.Com/the-Circular-Theory/.
  32. The Frameless Frame of Reference.Ilexa Yardley - 2021 - Https://Medium.Com/the-Circular-Theory/.
    One and One is One Explaining Unification and Unitization and Identity in General.
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  33. Acquisition of Autonomy in Biotechnology and Artificial Intelligence.Philippe Gagnon, Mathieu Guillermin, Olivier Georgeon, Juan R. Vidal & Béatrice de Montera - 2020 - In S. Hashimoto N. Callaos (ed.), Proceedings of the 11th International Multi-Conference on Complexity, Informatics and Cybernetics: IMCIC 2020, Volume II. Winter Garden: International Institute for Informatics and Systemics. pp. 168-172.
    This presentation discusses a notion encountered across disciplines, and in different facets of human activity: autonomous activity. We engage it in an interdisciplinary way. We start by considering the reactions and behaviors of biological entities to biotechnological intervention. An attempt is made to characterize the degree of freedom of embryos & clones, which show openness to different outcomes when the epigenetic developmental landscape is factored in. We then consider the claim made in programming and artificial intelligence that automata could show (...)
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  34. Being and Reason: An Essay on Spinoza's Metaphysics.Martin Lin - 2019 - New York: Oxford University Press.
    In Spinoza’s metaphysics, we encounter many puzzling doctrines that appear to entangle metaphysical notions with cognitive, logical, and epistemic ones. According to him, a substance is that which can be conceived through itself and a mode is that which is conceived through another. Thus, metaphysical notions, substance and mode, are defined through a notion that is either cognitive or logical, being conceived through. He defines an attribute as that which an intellect perceives as constituting the essence of a substance. Intellectual (...)
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  35. A Psychologistic Theory of Metaphysical Explanation.Kristie Miller & James Norton - 2019 - Synthese 196 (7):2777-2802.
    Many think that sentences about what metaphysically explains what are true iff there exist grounding relations. This suggests that sceptics about grounding should be error theorists about metaphysical explanation. We think there is a better option: a theory of metaphysical explanation which offers truth conditions for claims about what metaphysically explains what that are not couched in terms of grounding relations, but are instead couched in terms of, inter alia, psychological facts. We do not argue that our account is superior (...)
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  36. How to Identify Negative Actions with Positive Events.Jonathan D. Payton - 2018 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 96 (1):87-101.
    It is often assumed that, while ordinary actions are events, ‘negative actions’ are absences of events. I claim that a negative action is an ordinary, ‘positive’ event that plays a certain role. I argue that my approach can answer standard objections to the identity of negative actions and positive events.
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  37. The Natures of Types and Tokens: On the Metaphysical Commitments of Non-Reductive Physicalism.Raphael van Riel - 2014 - Metaphysica 15 (1).
  38. Non-Reductive Physicalism and the Mind Problem.Susan Schneider - 2013 - Noûs 47 (1):135-153.
    Most answers to the mind-body problem are claims about the nature of mental properties and substances. But advocates of non-reductive physicalism have generally neglected the topic of the nature of substance, quickly nodding to the view that all substances are physical, while focusing their intellectual energy on understanding how mental properties relate to physical ones. Let us call the view that all substances are physical or are exhaustively composed of physical substances substance physicalism (SP). Herein, I argue that non-reductive physicalism (...)
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  39. The Very Idea of Token Physicalism.Jaegwon Kim - 2012 - In Hill Christopher & Gozzano Simone (eds.), New Perspectives on Type Identity: The Mental and the Physical. Cambridge University Press. pp. 167.
  40. Psychophysical Reductionism Without Type Identities.Justin Tiehen - 2012 - American Philosophical Quarterly 49 (3):223-236.
    Nonreductive physicalists have a causal exclusion problem. Given certain theses all physicalists accept, including psychophysical supervenience and the causal closure of the physical realm, it is difficult to see how irreducible mental phenomena could make a causal difference to the world. The upshot, according to those who push the problem, is that we must embrace reductive physicalism. Only then is mental causation saved. -/- Grant the argument, at least provisionally. Here our focus is the conditional question: What form should one's (...)
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  41. Modest Dualism.Tyler Burge - 2009 - In Robert C. Koons & George Bealer (eds.), The Waning of Materialism: New Essays. Oxford University Press.
  42. Why There Are No Token States.Eric Marcus - 2009 - Journal of Philosophical Research 34:215-241.
    The thesis that mental states are physical states enjoys widespread popularity. After the abandonment of typeidentity theories, however, this thesis has typically been framed in terms of state tokens. I argue that token states are a philosopher’s fiction, and that debates about the identity of mental and physical state tokens thus rest on a mistake.
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  43. Mental Causation and the Metaphysics of Causation.Michael Esfeld - 2007 - Erkenntnis 67 (2):207 - 220.
    The paper argues for four claims: (1) The problem of mental causation and the argument for its solution in terms of the identity of mental with physical causes are independent of the theory of causation one favours. (2) If one considers our experience of agency as described by folk psychology to be veridical, one is committed to an anti-Humean metaphysics of causation in terms of powers that establish necessary connections. The same goes for functional properties in general. (3) A metaphysics (...)
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  44. Varieties of Things: Foundations of Contemporary Metaphysics—Cynthia Macdonald. [REVIEW]Bryan Frances - 2007 - International Philosophical Quarterly 47 (3):380-382.
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  45. Against Functional Reductionism in Cognitive Science.Muhammad Ali Khalidi - 2005 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 19 (3):319 – 333.
    Functional reductionism concerning mental properties has recently been advocated by Jaegwon Kim in order to solve the problem of the 'causal exclusion' of the mental. Adopting a reductionist strategy first proposed by David Lewis, he regards psychological properties as being 'higher-order' properties functionally defined over 'lower-order' properties, which are causally efficacious. Though functional reductionism is compatible with the multiple realizability of psychological properties, it is blocked if psychological properties are subdivided or crosscut by neurophysiological properties. I argue that there is (...)
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  46. Omniscience and Physicalism: A Reply to Beyer. [REVIEW]Jujin Nagasawa - 2005 - Sophia 44 (2):55-58.
    In a recent issue ofSophia, Jason A. Beyer introduced objections to the antitheist arguments that purport to show the inconsistencies between God’s attributes. In this short response I argue that Beyer’s objections are untenable.
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  47. Wir-Identität: reflexiv und vorreflexiv.Hans Bernhard Schmid - 2005 - Deutsche Zeitschrift für Philosophie 53 (3).
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  48. What is Token Physicalism?Noa Latham - 2003 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 84 (3):270-290.
    The distinction between token and type physicalism is a familiar feature of discussion of psychophysical relations. Token physicalism, or ontological physicalism, is the view that every token, or particular, in the spatiotemporal world is a physical particular. It is contrasted with type physicalism, or property physicalism -- the view that every first-order type, or property, instantiated in the spatiotemporal world is a physical property. Token physicalism is commonly viewed as a clear thesis, strictly weaker than property physicalism, strictly stronger than (...)
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  49. Physicalism.Andrew Melnyk - 2003 - In Stephen P. Stich & Ted A. Warfield (eds.), The Blackwell Guide to the Philosophy of Mind. Blackwell. pp. 65-84.
    Written with a student audience in mind, this article surveys the issues raises by the attempt to formulate, argue for, and explore the implications of a comprehensively physicalist view of the world.
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  50. On the Alleged Incompatibility Between Externalism and the Token Identity Theory.Kenichi Fukui - 2002 - Annals of the Japan Association for Philosophy of Science 11 (1):19-33.
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