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Summary

The relationship between logic and information is an intimate one that goes both ways. Firstly, information has played a role in providing a basis for certain accounts of logic. At a basic level there is the interpretation that good logic arguments are just those arguments where the information in the conclusion is already contained in the premises of that argument. Furthermore, notions of information have been used to good effect in developing semantics for certain logics, particularly relevant logic. Secondly, logics of information have provided formal accounts of various information phenomena, such as logics of being informed.

Key works Jakko Hintikka has been one of the pioneers in investigating the relationship between logic and information, looking at measures of semantic information for contingent propositions and information measures for tautologies/deductive inferences. His Hintikka 1970 contains papers on the topic. Devlin 1991, Barwise & Seligman 1997 and Israel & Perry 1991 represent an important collection of works that provide general accounts of information flow based on situation semantics/theory. Mares 1996 and Restall 1996 are attempts to provide an informational semantics for relevant logic.
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213 found
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  1. On Classical and Quantum Logical Entropy.David Ellerman - manuscript
    The notion of a partition on a set is mathematically dual to the notion of a subset of a set, so there is a logic of partitions dual to Boole's logic of subsets (Boolean logic is usually mis-specified as "propositional" logic). The notion of an element of a subset has as its dual the notion of a distinction of a partition (a pair of elements in different blocks). Boole developed finite logical probability as the normalized counting measure on elements of (...)
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  2. Arithmetic Logical Irreversibility and the Turing's Halt Problem.Yair Lapin - manuscript
    A new approach to the halting problem of the Turing machine using different interpretations of the Shannon measure of the information on the computational process represented as a distribution of events and defining a new concept of arithmetic logical irreversibility and memory erasure that generate uncertainty and computational improbability due to loss of information during computation. Different computational steps (input) can give the same result (next step, output) introducing thus information entropy in the computing process and uncertainty about the original (...)
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  3. Valuations.Jean-Louis Lenard - manuscript
    Is logic empirical? Is logic to be found in the world? Or is logic rather a convention, a product of conventions, part of the many rules that regulate the language game? Answers fall in either camp. We like the linguistic answer. In this paper, we want to analyze how a linguistic community would tackle the problem of developing a logic and show how the linguistic conventions adopted by the community determine the properties of the local logic. Then show how to (...)
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  4. A Semantic Information Formula Compatible with Shannon and Popper's Theories.Chenguang Lu - manuscript
    Semantic Information conveyed by daily language has been researched for many years; yet, we still need a practical formula to measure information of a simple sentence or prediction, such as “There will be heavy rain tomorrow”. For practical purpose, this paper introduces a new formula, Semantic Information Formula (SIF), which is based on L. A. Zadeh’s fuzzy set theory and P. Z. Wang’s random set falling shadow theory. It carries forward C. E. Shannon and K. Popper’s thought. The fuzzy set’s (...)
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  5. Information, Meaning and Physics: The Intellectual Transformation of the English School of Information Theory During 1946-1956.Javier Anta - forthcoming - Science in Context.
    In this comparative historical analysis, we will analyze the intellectual tendency that emerged between 1946 and 1956 to take advantage of the popularity of communication theory to develop a kind of informational epistemology of statistical mechanics. We will argue that this tendency results from a historical confluence in the early 1950s of certain theoretical claims of the so-called English School of Information Theory, championed by authors such as Gabor (1956) or MacKay (1969), and the search to extend the profound success (...)
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  6. An Occurrence Description Logic.Farshad Badie & Hans Götzsche - forthcoming - Logical Investigations.
    Description Logics (DLs) are a family of well-known terminological knowledge representation formalisms in modern semantics-based systems. This research focuses on analysing how our developed Occurrence Logic (OccL) can conceptually and logically support the development of a description logic. OccL is integrated into the alternative theory of natural language syntax in `Deviational Syntactic Structures' under the label `EFA(X)3' (or the third version of Epi-Formal Analysis in Syntax, EFA(X), which is a radical linguistic theory). From the logical point of view, OccL is (...)
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  7. Two-Method Errors: Having It Both Ways.John Corcoran & Idris Samawi Hamid - forthcoming - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic.
    ►JOHN CORCORAN AND IDRIS SAMAWI HAMID, Two-method errors: having it both ways. Philosophy, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14260-4150, USA E-mail: [email protected] Philosophy, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1781 USA E-mail: [email protected] Where two methods produce similar results, mixing the two sometimes creates errors we call two-method errors, TMEs: in style, syntax, semantics, pragmatics, implicature, logic, or action. This lecture analyzes examples found in technical and in non-technical contexts. One can say “Abe knows whether Ben draws” in two other (...)
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  8. An Informational View of Classical Logic.Marcello D'Agostino - forthcoming - Theoretical Computer Science.
    We present an informational view of classical propositional logic that stems from a kind of informational semantics whereby the meaning of a logical operator is specified solely in terms of the information that is actually possessed by an agent. In this view the inferential power of logical agents is naturally bounded by their limited capability of manipulating “virtual information”, namely information that is not implicitly contained in the data. Although this informational semantics cannot be expressed by any finitely-valued matrix, it (...)
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  9. Relationships Between Computability‐Theoretic Properties of Problems.Rod Downey, Noam Greenberg, Matthew Harrison‐Trainor, Ludovic Patey & Dan Turetsky - forthcoming - Journal of Symbolic Logic:1-26.
  10. Knowability Relative to Information.Peter Hawke & Franz Berto - forthcoming - Mind.
    We present a formal semantics for epistemic logic, capturing the notion of knowability relative to information (KRI). Like Dretske, we move from the platitude that what an agent can know depends on her (empirical) information. We treat operators of the form K_AB (‘B is knowable on the basis of information A’) as variably strict quantifiers over worlds with a topic- or aboutness- preservation constraint. Variable strictness models the non-monotonicity of knowledge acquisition while allowing knowledge to be intrinsically stable. Aboutness-preservation models (...)
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  11. Intrinsic Smallness.Justin Miller - forthcoming - Journal of Symbolic Logic:1-21.
    Recent work in computability theory has focused on various notions of asymptotic computability, which capture the idea of a set being “almost computable.” One potentially upsetting result is that all four notions of asymptotic computability admit “almost computable” sets in every Turing degree via coding tricks, contradicting the notion that “almost computable” sets should be computationally close to the computable sets. In response, Astor introduced the notion of intrinsic density: a set has defined intrinsic density if its image under any (...)
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  12. Kolmogorov Conditionalization, A New Argument For.Michael Nielsen - forthcoming - Review of Symbolic Logic:1-16.
    This paper contributes to a recent research program that extends arguments supporting elementary conditionalization to arguments supporting conditionalization with general, measure-theoretic conditional probabilities. I begin by suggesting an amendment to the framework that Rescorla (2018) has used to characterize regular conditional probabilities in terms of avoiding Dutch book. If we wish to model learning scenarios in which an agent gains complete membership knowledge about some subcollection of the events of interest to her, then we should focus on updating policies that (...)
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  13. The Reverse Mathematics of Theorems of Jordan and Lebesgue.André Nies, Marcus A. Triplett & Keita Yokoyama - forthcoming - Journal of Symbolic Logic:1-18.
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  14. Variations on Determinacy And.Ramez L. Sami - forthcoming - Journal of Symbolic Logic:1-10.
  15. Logic, Language & Information: The Makings of a New Science?Johan van Benthem - forthcoming - Journal of Logic, Language, and Information.
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  16. Intuitionistic Fixed Point Logic.Ulrich Berger & Hideki Tsuiki - 2021 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 172 (3):102903.
    We study the system IFP of intuitionistic fixed point logic, an extension of intuitionistic first-order logic by strictly positive inductive and coinductive definitions. We define a realizability interpretation of IFP and use it to extract computational content from proofs about abstract structures specified by arbitrary classically true disjunction free formulas. The interpretation is shown to be sound with respect to a domain-theoretic denotational semantics and a corresponding lazy operational semantics of a functional language for extracted programs. We also show how (...)
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  17. Completion of Choice.Vasco Brattka & Guido Gherardi - 2021 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 172 (3):102914.
    We systematically study the completion of choice problems in the Weihrauch lattice. Choice problems play a pivotal rôle in Weihrauch complexity. For one, they can be used as landmarks that characterize important equivalences classes in the Weihrauch lattice. On the other hand, choice problems also characterize several natural classes of computable problems, such as finite mind change computable problems, non-deterministically computable problems, Las Vegas computable problems and effectively Borel measurable functions. The closure operator of completion generates the concept of total (...)
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  18. Techno-Telepathy & Silent Subvocal Speech-Recognition Robotics.Virgil W. Brower - 2021 - HORIZON. Studies in Phenomenology 10 (1):232-257.
    The primary focus of this project is the silent and subvocal speech-recognition interface unveiled in 2018 as an ambulatory device wearable on the neck that detects a myoelectrical signature by electrodes worn on the surface of the face, throat, and neck. These emerge from an alleged “intending to speak” by the wearer silently-saying-something-to-oneself. This inner voice is believed to occur while one reads in silence or mentally talks to oneself. The artifice does not require spoken sounds, opening the mouth, or (...)
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  19. Recursive Axiomatisations From Separation Properties.Rob Egrot - 2021 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 86 (3):1228-1258.
    We define a fragment of monadic infinitary second-order logic corresponding to an abstract separation property, We use this to define the concept of a separation subclass. We use model theoretic techniques and games to show that separation subclasses whose axiomatisations are recursively enumerable in our second-order fragment can also be recursively axiomatised in their original first-order language. We pin down the expressive power of this formalism with respect to first-order logic, and investigate some questions relating to decidability and computational complexity. (...)
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  20. Computable Irrational Numbers with Representations of Surprising Complexity.Ivan Georgiev, Lars Kristiansen & Frank Stephan - 2021 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 172 (2):102893.
  21. Probabilities with Gaps and Gluts.Dominik Klein, Ondrej Majer & Soroush Rafiee Rad - 2021 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 50 (5):1107-1141.
    Belnap-Dunn logic, sometimes also known as First Degree Entailment, is a four-valued propositional logic that complements the classical truth values of True and False with two non-classical truth values Neither and Both. The latter two are to account for the possibility of the available information being incomplete or providing contradictory evidence. In this paper, we present a probabilistic extension of BD that permits agents to have probabilistic beliefs about the truth and falsity of a proposition. We provide a sound and (...)
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  22. Extended Syllogistics in Calculus CL.Jens Lemanski - 2021 - Journal of Applied Logics 8 (2):557-577.
    Extensions of traditional syllogistics have been increasingly researched in philosophy, linguistics, and areas such as artificial intelligence and computer science in recent decades. This is mainly due to the fact that syllogistics is seen as a logic that comes very close to natural language abilities. Various forms of extended syllogistics have become established. This paper deals with the question to what extent a syllogistic representation in CL diagrams can be seen as a form of extended syllogistics. It will be shown (...)
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  23. Information and the History of Philosophy.Chris Meyns (ed.) - 2021 - Routledge.
    In recent years the philosophy of information has emerged as an important area of research in philosophy. However, until now information’s philosophical history has been largely overlooked. Information and the History of Philosophy is the first comprehensive investigation of the history of philosophical questions around information, including work from before the Common Era to the twenty-first century. It covers scientific and technology-centred notions of information; views of human information processing, as well as socio-political topics such as the control and use (...)
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  24. Computable Analogs of Cardinal Characteristics: Prediction and Rearrangement.Iván Ongay-Valverde & Paul Tveite - 2021 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 172 (1):102872.
    There has recently been work by multiple groups in extracting the properties associated with cardinal invariants of the continuum and translating these properties into similar analogous combinatorial properties of computational oracles. Each property yields a highness notion in the Turing degrees. In this paper we study the highness notions that result from the translation of the evasion number and its dual, the prediction number, as well as two versions of the rearrangement number. When translated appropriately, these yield four new highness (...)
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  25. Nature's Operating System.Ilexa Yardley - 2021 - Https://Medium.Com/the-Circular-Theory.
  26. Weaker variants of infinite time Turing machines.Matteo Bianchetti - 2020 - Archive for Mathematical Logic 59 (3-4):335-365.
    Infinite time Turing machines represent a model of computability that extends the operations of Turing machines to transfinite ordinal time by defining the content of each cell at limit steps to be the lim sup of the sequences of previous contents of that cell. In this paper, we study a computational model obtained by replacing the lim sup rule with an ‘eventually constant’ rule: at each limit step, the value of each cell is defined if and only if the content (...)
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  27. Finding the Limit of Incompleteness I.Yong Cheng - 2020 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 26 (3-4):268-286.
    In this paper, we examine the limit of applicability of Gödel’s first incompleteness theorem. We first define the notion “$\textsf {G1}$ holds for the theory $T$”. This paper is motivated by the following question: can we find a theory with a minimal degree of interpretation for which $\textsf {G1}$ holds. To approach this question, we first examine the following question: is there a theory T such that Robinson’s $\mathbf {R}$ interprets T but T does not interpret $\mathbf {R}$ and $\textsf (...)
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  28. Computable Linear Orders and Products.Andrey N. Frolov, Steffen Lempp, Keng Meng Ng & Guohua Wu - 2020 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 85 (2):605-623.
    We characterize the linear order types $\tau $ with the property that given any countable linear order $\mathcal {L}$, $\tau \cdot \mathcal {L}$ is a computable linear order iff $\mathcal {L}$ is a computable linear order, as exactly the finite nonempty order types.
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  29. Measuring Inconsistency in Generalized Propositional Logic.John Grant - 2020 - Logica Universalis 14 (3):331-356.
    Consistency is one of the key concepts of logic; logicians have put a great deal of effort into proving the consistency of many logics. Understanding what causes inconsistency is also important; some logicians have developed paraconsistent logics that, unlike classical logics, allow some contradictions without making all formulas provable. Another direction of research studies inconsistency by measuring the amount of inconsistency of sets of formulas. While the initial attempt in 1978 was too ambitious in trying to do this for first-order (...)
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  30. High-Order Metaphysics as High-Order Abstractions and Choice in Set Theory.Vasil Penchev - 2020 - Epistemology eJournal (Elsevier: SSRN) 13 (21):1-3.
    The link between the high-order metaphysics and abstractions, on the one hand, and choice in the foundation of set theory, on the other hand, can distinguish unambiguously the “good” principles of abstraction from the “bad” ones and thus resolve the “bad company problem” as to set theory. Thus it implies correspondingly a more precise definition of the relation between the axiom of choice and “all company” of axioms in set theory concerning directly or indirectly abstraction: the principle of abstraction, axiom (...)
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  31. Semantic Information G Theory and Logical Bayesian Inference for Machine Learning.Chenguang Lu - 2019 - Information 10 (8):261.
    An important problem with machine learning is that when label number n>2, it is very difficult to construct and optimize a group of learning functions, and we wish that optimized learning functions are still useful when prior distribution P(x) (where x is an instance) is changed. To resolve this problem, the semantic information G theory, Logical Bayesian Inference (LBI), and a group of Channel Matching (CM) algorithms together form a systematic solution. MultilabelMultilabel A semantic channel in the G theory consists (...)
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  32. Effective Validity: A Generalized Logic for Stable Approximate Inference.Robert H. C. Moir - 2019 - In James Robert Brown, Shaoshi Chen, Robert M. Corless, Ernest Davis, Nicolas Fillion, Max Gunzburger, Benjamin C. Jantzen, Daniel Lichtblau, Yuri Matiyasevich, Robert H. C. Moir, Mark Wilson & James Woodward (eds.), Algorithms and Complexity in Mathematics, Epistemology, and Science: Proceedings of 2015 and 2016 Acmes Conferences. Springer New York. pp. 225-268.
    The traditional approach in philosophy of using logic to reconstruct scientific theories and methods operates by presenting or representing a scientific theory or method in a specialized formal language. The logic of such languages is deductive, which makes this approach effective for those aspects of science that use deductive methods or for which deductive inference provides a good idealization. Many theories and methods in science, however, use non-deductive forms of approximation. Approximate inferences, which produce approximately correct conclusions and do so (...)
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  33. A Toothful of Concepts: Towards a Theory of Weighted Concept Combination.Daniele Porello, Oliver Kutz, Guendalina Righetti, Nicolas Troquard, Pietro Galliani & Claudio Masolo - 2019 - In Mantas Simkus & Grant E. Weddell (eds.), Proceedings of the 32nd International Workshop on Description Logics, Oslo, Norway, June 18-21, 2019.
    We introduce a family of operators to combine Description Logic concepts. They aim to characterise complex concepts that apply to instances that satisfy \enough" of the concept descriptions given. For instance, an individual might not have any tusks, but still be considered an elephant. To formalise the meaning of "enough", the operators take a list of weighted concepts as arguments, and a certain threshold to be met. We commence a study of the formal properties of these operators, and study some (...)
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  34. Computational Logic. Vol. 1: Classical Deductive Computing with Classical Logic.Luis M. Augusto - 2018 - London: College Publications.
    This is the first of a two-volume work combining two fundamental components of contemporary computing into classical deductive computing, a powerful form of computation, highly adequate for programming and automated theorem proving, which, in turn, have fundamental applications in areas of high complexity and/or high security such as mathematical proof, software specification and verification, and expert systems. Deductive computation is concerned with truth-preservation: This is the essence of the satisfiability problem, or SAT, the central computational problem in computability and complexity (...)
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  35. SNOMED CT Standard Ontology Based on the Ontology for General Medical Science.Shaker El-Sappagh, Francesco Franda, Ali Farman & Kyung-Sup Kwak - 2018 - BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making 76 (18):1-19.
    Background: Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine—Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT, hereafter abbreviated SCT) is acomprehensive medical terminology used for standardizing the storage, retrieval, and exchange of electronic healthdata. Some efforts have been made to capture the contents of SCT as Web Ontology Language (OWL), but theseefforts have been hampered by the size and complexity of SCT. Method: Our proposal here is to develop an upper-level ontology and to use it as the basis for defining the termsin SCT in a way that will (...)
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  36. Logical Entropy: Introduction to Classical and Quantum Logical Information Theory.David Ellerman - 2018 - Entropy 20 (9):679.
    Logical information theory is the quantitative version of the logic of partitions just as logical probability theory is the quantitative version of the dual Boolean logic of subsets. The resulting notion of information is about distinctions, differences and distinguishability and is formalized using the distinctions of a partition. All the definitions of simple, joint, conditional and mutual entropy of Shannon information theory are derived by a uniform transformation from the corresponding definitions at the logical level. The purpose of this paper (...)
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  37. Crítica da Razão Positrônica.Sandro Rinaldi Feliciano - 2018 - Dissertation, Universidade Federal Do ABC
    Existe um horizonte à frente. Este horizonte está longe de ser aquele aqui descrito em sua forma, mas talvez o seja em sua essência. O que quero dizer com isso é que existe uma possibilidade de os cérebros positrônicos do título nunca existirem para além das brilhantes mentes que os conceberam na Ficção Científica, mas isto não quer dizer que não existirão sistemas análogos em suas funções, principalmente quanto à racionalidade. A Crítica da Razão Positrônica é um texto que tem (...)
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  38. A Scientific Metaphysical Naturalisation of Information.Bruce Long - 2018 - Dissertation, University of Sydney
    The objective of this thesis is to present a naturalised metaphysics of information, or to naturalise information, by way of deploying a scientific metaphysics according to which contingency is privileged and a-priori conceptual analysis is excluded (or at least greatly diminished) in favour of contingent and defeasible metaphysics. The ontology of information is established according to the premises and mandate of the scientific metaphysics by inference to the best explanation, and in accordance with the idea that the primacy of physics (...)
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  39. Logics for Modelling Collective Attitudes.Daniele Porello - 2018 - Fundamenta Infromaticae 158 (1-3):239-27.
    We introduce a number of logics to reason about collective propositional attitudes that are defined by means of the majority rule. It is well known that majoritarian aggregation is subject to irrationality, as the results in social choice theory and judgment aggregation show. The proposed logics for modelling collective attitudes are based on a substructural propositional logic that allows for circumventing inconsistent outcomes. Individual and collective propositional attitudes, such as beliefs, desires, obligations, are then modelled by means of minimal modalities (...)
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  40. A Constructionist Philosophy of Logic.Patrick Allo - 2017 - Minds and Machines 27 (3):545-564.
    This paper develops and refines the suggestion that logical systems are conceptual artefacts that are the outcome of a design-process by exploring how a constructionist epistemology and meta-philosophy can be integrated within the philosophy of logic.
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  41. Informação, conhecimento e modelos.Marcos Antonio Alves, Daniel Martínez-Ávila & Maria Cláudia Cabrini Gracio (eds.) - 2017 - Campinas-Marília/Brasil: Coleção CLE-Unicamp/Cultura Acadêmica-UNESP.
    We are in the information age. Nowadays, the information is a high power commodity. Your domain and handling have high economic, political, social value. However, we still know little about it. What is the information? How do we store it, retrieve it and manipulate it? Everyone have or should have equal access to information? What is the relationship between information and knowledge? How can both influence and be influenced by the action? Can they are modeled? The models can contribute to (...)
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  42. A Conceptual Framework Over Contextual Analysis of Concept Learning Within Human-Machine Interplays.Farshad Badie - 2017 - In Emerging Technologies for Education. Cham, Switzerland: pp. 65-74.
    This research provides a contextual description concerning an existential and structural analysis of ‘Relations’ between human beings and machines. Subsequently, it will focus on the conceptual and epistemological analysis of (i) my own semantics-based framework [for human meaning construction] and of (ii) a well-structured machine concept learning framework. Accordingly, I will, semantically and epistemologically, focus on linking those two frameworks for logical analysis of concept learning in the context of human-machine interrelationships. It will be demonstrated that the proposed framework provides (...)
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  43. The Irreducibility of Iterated to Single Revision.Jake Chandler & Richard Booth - 2017 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 46 (4):405-418.
    After a number of decades of research into the dynamics of rational belief, the belief revision theory community remains split on the appropriate handling of sequences of changes in view, the issue of so-called iterated revision. It has long been suggested that the matter is at least partly settled by facts pertaining to the results of various single revisions of one’s initial state of belief. Recent work has pushed this thesis further, offering various strong principles that ultimately result in a (...)
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  44. Logical Information Theory: New Logical Foundations for Information Theory.David Ellerman - 2017 - Logic Journal of the IGPL 25 (5):806-835.
    There is a new theory of information based on logic. The definition of Shannon entropy as well as the notions on joint, conditional, and mutual entropy as defined by Shannon can all be derived by a uniform transformation from the corresponding formulas of logical information theory. Information is first defined in terms of sets of distinctions without using any probability measure. When a probability measure is introduced, the logical entropies are simply the values of the probability measure on the sets (...)
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  45. Centering and Compound Conditionals Under Coherence.A. Gilio, Niki Pfeifer & Giuseppe Sanfilippo - 2017 - In M. B. Ferraro, P. Giordani, B. Vantaggi, M. Gagolewski, Gilgameshgodman Gilgameshgodman, P. Grzegorzewski & O. Hryniewicz (eds.), Soft Methods for Data Science. Cham, Switzerland: pp. 253-260.
    There is wide support in logic, philosophy, and psychology for the hypothesis that the probability of the indicative conditional of natural language, P(if A then B), is the conditional probability of B given A, P(B|A). We identify a conditional which is such that P(if A then B)=P(B|A) with de Finetti’s conditional event, B | A. An objection to making this identification in the past was that it appeared unclear how to form compounds and iterations of conditional events. In this paper, (...)
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  46. Hard and Soft Logical Information.Allo Patrick - 2017 - Journal of Logic and Computation:1-20.
    In this paper I use the distinction between hard and soft information from the dynamic epistemic logic tradition to extend prior work on informational conceptions of logic to include non-monotonic consequence-relations. In particular, I defend the claim that at least some non-monotonic logics can be understood on the basis of soft or “belief-like” logical information, and thereby question the orthodox view that all logical information is hard, “knowledge-like”, information.
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  47. Pressupostos da Lógica Informal: do argumento à inferência.Rosiandra de Fatima Toledo - 2017 - Dissertation, UEM, Brazil
  48. Preserving a Combat Commander’s Moral Agency: The Vincennes Incident as a Chinese Room.Patrick Chisan Hew - 2016 - Ethics and Information Technology 18 (3):227-235.
    We argue that a command and control system can undermine a commander’s moral agency if it causes him/her to process information in a purely syntactic manner, or if it precludes him/her from ascertaining the truth of that information. Our case is based on the resemblance between a commander’s circumstances and the protagonist in Searle’s Chinese Room, together with a careful reading of Aristotle’s notions of ‘compulsory’ and ‘ignorance’. We further substantiate our case by considering the Vincennes Incident, when the crew (...)
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  49. Grading in Groups.Michael Morreau - 2016 - Economics and Philosophy 32 (2):323-352.
    Juries, committees and experts panels commonly appraise things of one kind or another on the basis of grades awarded by several people. When everybody's grading thresholds are known to be the same, the results sometimes can be counted on to reflect the graders’ opinion. Otherwise, they often cannot. Under certain conditions, Arrow's ‘impossibility’ theorem entails that judgements reached by aggregating grades do not reliably track any collective sense of better and worse at all. These claims are made by adapting the (...)
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  50. Visualising the Boolean Algebra B_4 in 3D.Hans5 Smessaert & Lorenz6 Demey - 2016 - Diagrammatic Representation and Inference, Diagrams 9781:289 - 292.
    This paper compares two 3D logical diagrams for the Boolean algebra B4, viz. the rhombic dodecahedron and the nested tetrahedron. Geometric properties such as collinearity and central symmetry are examined from a cognitive perspective, focussing on diagram design principles such as congruence/isomorphism and apprehension.
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