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  1. Opposition.Andrew Milward - 2022 - Andrewmilward.Net.
    This essay develops a conceptual structure which is primarily delineated by the extremes of pure opposition and pure non-opposition. The former involves pure denial, destruction, and rejection, while the latter involves pure ignorance, indifference, and affirmation. Both of these extremes can, however, be mitigated by another conceptual element: an ethical demand whose form varies according to the field in which opposition takes place. The essay shows how these extremes along with the mitigating ethical demand can be seen to operate within (...)
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  2. Instinct and Intelligence.Andrew Milward - 2020 - Andrewmilward.Net.
    Instinct and Intelligence is an essay about creative writing. The two elements of the title are present in human thought in general, but the writing process - especially in philosophy - pushes them to extremes. Through this process we can notice and document the nature of each side, conceptualising them in order to create a structural description of thought's creation that may become operative within creation itself.
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  3. Questions on The Absent World.Andrew Milward - 2020 - Andrewmilward.Net.
    This work is based on correspondence with an academic during December 2019, regarding the first three sections of The Absent World.
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  4. From the Notebooks (1).Andrew Milward - 2020 - Andrewmilward.Net.
    This work is a short compilation of notes from my own notebooks. It was shown at the Museum of Futures' annual visual literature exhibition for 2020 on the subject of notational literature and the (un)finished draft. The notes selected discuss note taking itself, art, and themes from my essays.
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  5. Parmenides and Heidegger.Andrew Milward - 2018 - Andrewmilward.Net.
    Parmenides and Heidegger is an essay about the dominance of being over thought in the history of Western philosophy. These two thinkers are chosen because of the extremity of their position. As shown, their view is that thought is being and no more.
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  6. Content and Operation.Andrew Milward - 2017 - Andrewmilward.Net.
    Content and Operation develops the concept of a distinction within thought itself according to what it thinks (i.e. its content) and what it does (i.e. its operation). It is an essay on creative thought that explores the way that the vision of this distinction may alter the terrain in which thought thinks.
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  7. The Absent World.Andrew Milward - 2017 - Andrewmilward.Net.
    The Absent World is an essay about the operation of language and thought concerning the gap between sense and referent. Due to variations in the structure of this gap, when we speak or think about the absent world, without the present object to supplement our meaning, unique psychological and ethical dimensions arise as we try to understand a world that surpasses us. As opposed to phenomenology, where the concept of absence structures our understanding of the absent world, this work will (...)
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  8. Why Variation Matters to Philosophy.Edouard Machery - 2023 - Res Philosophica 100 (1):1-22.
    Experimental philosophers often seem to ignore or downplay the significance of demographic variation in philosophically relevant judgments. This article confirms this impression, discusses why demographic research is overlooked in experimental philosophy, and argues that variation is philosophically significant.
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  9. В начале было Слово.Andrej Poleev - 2022
    Сборник эссе о логике и логическом мышлении.
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  10. Rethinking Phenomenal Intentionality.Christopher Stratman - 2022 - Dissertation, University of Nebraska-Lincoln
    My dissertation puts forward a critique of the phenomenal intentionality theory (PIT). According to standard accounts of PIT, all genuine intentionality is either identical to or partly grounded in phenomenal consciousness. I argue that it is a conceptually significant mistake to construe conscious experiences in terms of token mental states that instantiate phenomenal properties. This mistake is predicated on ignoring an important difference in the temporal character—what I call the “temporal shape”—between states and properties as opposed to conscious experiences. States (...)
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  11. “Do Your Own Research”.Nathan Ballantyne, Jared B. Celniker & David Dunning - forthcoming - Social Epistemology.
    This article evaluates an emerging element in popular debate and inquiry: DYOR. (Haven’t heard of the acronym? Then Do Your Own Research.) The slogan is flexible and versatile. It is used frequently on social media platforms about topics from medical science to financial investing to conspiracy theories. Using conceptual and empirical resources drawn from philosophy and psychology, we examine key questions about the slogan’s operation in human cognition and epistemic culture.
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  12. Gesturing in Language: Merleau-Ponty and Mukařovský at the Phenomenological Limits of Structuralism.Jan Halák - 2022 - Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology 53 (4):415-439.
    This study aims to corroborate Merleau-Ponty’s interpretations of fundamental ideas from Saussure’s linguistics by linking them to works that were independently elaborated by Jan Mukařovský, Czech structuralist aesthetician and literary theorist. I provide a comparative analysis of the two authors’ theories of language and their interpretations of thought as fundamentally determined by language. On this basis, I investigate how they conceive linguistic innovation and its translation into changes in the constituted language and other social codes and institutions. I explain how (...)
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  13. Development, Resilience Engineering, Degeneracy, and Cognitive Practices.Alexander James Gillett - 2022 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 13 (3):645-664.
    Drawing on a range of literature, I introduce two new concepts for understanding and exploring distributed cognition: resilience engineering and degeneracy. By re-examining Ed Hutchins’ (1995) ethnographic study of the navigation team I show how a focus on the developmental acquisition of cognitive practices can draw out several crucial insights that have been overlooked. Firstly, that the way in which agents learn and acquire cognitive practices enables a form of resilience engineering: the process by which the system is able to (...)
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  14. Travis-Like Cases and Adequate Ideas: A Critical Notice of Bozickovic’s The Indexical Point of View.Ludovic Soutif & Carlos Mario Márquez Sosa - 2022 - Manuscrito 45 (3):23-52.
    In this critical notice we review Bozickovic's recent attempt to settle two interrelated issues: (i) the issue of the cognitive significance of indexical thoughts expressed at a time in the face of difficulties posed by cases in which the subject either mistakes two objects for one or one for two different objects; (ii) that of the cognitive dynamics of temporal indexical thoughts in the face of difficulties posed by cases in which the belief seems to be retained while the proper (...)
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  15. Book review for "Psychopathology and Philosophy of Mind", edited by Valentina Cardella and Amelia Gangemi. [REVIEW]Juliette Vazard - forthcoming - Philosophical Psychology.
    By manifesting dysfunctions of fundamental psychological mechanisms such as emotions, reasoning, and language, symptoms of mental disorders can inform us on their nature and functions. In this volume, Valentina Cardella and Amelia Gangemi bring together a collection of articles which draw from psychopathology in order to further our study of the human mind. Contributors include philosophers of mind and language, clinical psychologists, and a historian, all applying their respective methodological tools with the aim of learning from mental disorders about the (...)
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  16. Evans on intellectual attention and memory demonstratives.Mark Fortney - 2022 - Analytic Philosophy 63 (2):118-130.
    Intellectual attention, like perceptual attention, is a special mode of mental engagement with the world. When we attend intellectually, rather than making use of sensory information we make use of the kind of information that shows up in occurent thought, memory, and the imagination (Chun, Golomb, & Turk-Browne, 2011). In this paper, I argue that reflecting on what it is like to comprehend memory demonstratives speaks in favour of the view that intellectual attention is required to understand memory demonstratives. Moreover, (...)
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  17. Thinking About Thought.Ilexa Yardley - 2022 - Https://Medium.Com/the-Circular-Theory/.
    A thought is not possible without the conservation of a circle. Thus, the representation of a thought is, also, not possible without (the conservation of) a circle.
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  18. What the Metaverse has to do with Physics.Ilexa Yardley - 2021 - Https://Medium.Com/the-Circular-Theory/.
  19. Mental Filing Systems: A User's Guide.Henry Clarke - 2021 - Ergo: An Open Access Journal of Philosophy 8.
    How seriously should we take the idea that the mind employs mental files? Goodman and Gray (2022) argue that mental filing – a thinker rationally treating her cognitive states as being about the same thing – can be explained without files. Instead, they argue that the standard commitments of mental file theory, as represented by Recanati’s indexical model, are better seen in terms of a relational representational feature of object representations, which in turn is based on the epistemic links a (...)
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  20. Metacognitive control in single- vs. dual-process theory.Caleb Dewey - forthcoming - Thinking and Reasoning:1-36.
    Recent work in cognitive modelling has found that most of the data that has been cited as evidence for the dual-process theory (DPT) of reasoning is best explained by non-linear, “monotonic” one-process models (Stephens et al., 2018, 2019). In this paper, I consider an important caveat of this research: it uses models that are committed to unrealistic assumptions about how effectively task conditions can isolate Type-1 and Type-2 reasoning. To avoid this caveat, I develop a coordinated theoretical, experimental, and modelling (...)
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  21. Inter‐temporal rationality without temporal representation.Simon A. B. Brown - forthcoming - Mind and Language.
    Recent influential accounts of temporal representation—the use of mental representations with explicit temporal contents, such as before and after relations and durations—sharply distinguish representation from mere sensitivity. A common, important picture of inter-temporal rationality is that it consists in maximizing total expected discounted utility across time. By analyzing reinforcement learning algorithms, this article shows that, given such notions of temporal representation and inter-temporal rationality, it would be possible for an agent to achieve inter-temporal rationality without temporal representation. It then explores (...)
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  22. Kreativität und Präzision. Eine Neubestimmung kreativen Denkens und Handelns.Simone Mahrenholz - 2020 - Imago 13:13-23.
    IMAGO TEXT 2020 ABSTRACTS -/- (German abstract below) The text presents a structural analysis and a logical theory of creativity. It argues that creativity emerges from the translation between two forms of precision, thus from the ubiquitous transformation between incompatible forms of thought and articulation. This transformation allows for unexpected surpluses and innovations, in conjunction with fallacies, waste and noise. Common myths and misconceptions – i.e. about creativity as a force in dire supply - are debunked, as are mistaken strategies (...)
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  23. A pluralistic account of degrees of control in addiction.Federico Burdman - 2022 - Philosophical Studies 179 (1):197-221.
    While some form of loss of control is often assumed to be a common feature of the diverse manifestations of addiction, it is far from clear how loss of control should be understood. In this paper, I put forward a concept of decrease in control in addiction that aims to fill this gap and thus provide a general framework for thinking about addictive behavior. The development of this account involves two main steps. First, I present a view of degrees of (...)
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  24. Numbers, numerosities, and new directions.Jacob Beck & Sam Clarke - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44:1-20.
    In our target article, we argued that the number sense represents natural and rational numbers. Here, we respond to the 26 commentaries we received, highlighting new directions for empirical and theoretical research. We discuss two background assumptions, arguments against the number sense, whether the approximate number system represents numbers or numerosities, and why the ANS represents rational numbers.
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  25. Racial Attitudes, Accumulation Mechanisms, and Disparities.Ron Mallon - 2021 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 12 (4):953-975.
    Some psychologists aim to secure a role for psychological explanations in understanding contemporary social disparities, a concern that plays out in debates over the relevance of the Implicit Association Test. Meta-analysts disagree about the predictive validity of the IAT and about the importance of implicit attitudes in explaining racial disparities. Here, I use the IAT to articulate and explore one route to establishing the relevance of psychological attitudes with small effects: an appeal to a process of “accumulation” that aggregates small (...)
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  26. The Sense of Effort: a Cost-Benefit Theory of the Phenomenology of Mental Effort.Marcell Székely & John Michael - 2021 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 12 (4):889-904.
    In the current paper, we articulate a theory to explain the phenomenology of mental effort. The theory provides a working definition of mental effort, explains in what sense mental effort is a limited resource, and specifies the factors that determine whether or not mental effort is experienced as aversive. The core of our theory is the conjecture that the sense of effort is the output of a cost-benefit analysis. This cost-benefit analysis employs heuristics to weigh the current and anticipated costs (...)
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  27. Boredom and Cognitive Engagement: A Functional Theory of Boredom.Andreas Elpidorou - forthcoming - Review of Philosophy and Psychology:1-30.
    The functional theory of boredom maintains that boredom ought to be defined in terms of its role in our mental and behavioral economy. Although the functional theory has recently received considerable attention, presentations of this theory have not specified with sufficient precision either its commitments or its consequences for the ontology of boredom. This essay offers an in-depth examination of the functional theory. It explains what boredom is according to the functional view; it shows how the functional theory can account (...)
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  28. Bounded Reflectivism and Epistemic Identity.Nick Byrd - 2022 - Metaphilosophy 53 (1):53-69.
    Reflectivists consider reflective reasoning crucial for good judgment and action. Anti-reflectivists deny that reflection delivers what reflectivists seek. Alas, the evidence is mixed. So, does reflection confer normative value or not? This paper argues for a middle way: reflection can confer normative value, but its ability to do this is bound by such factors as what we might call epistemic identity: an identity that involves particular beliefs—for example, religious and political identities. We may reflectively defend our identities’ beliefs rather than (...)
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  29. The scientific study of passive thinking: Methods of mind wandering research.Samuel Murray, Zachary C. Irving & Kristina Krasich - 2022 - In Felipe De Brigard & Walter Sinnott-Armstrong (eds.), Neuroscience and Philosophy. Cambridge: MIT Press. pp. 389-426.
    The science of mind wandering has rapidly expanded over the past 20 years. During this boom, mind wandering researchers have relied on self-report methods, where participants rate whether their minds were wandering. This is not an historical quirk. Rather, we argue that self-report is indispensable for researchers who study passive phenomena like mind wandering. We consider purportedly “objective” methods that measure mind wandering with eye tracking and machine learning. These measures are validated in terms of how well they predict self-reports, (...)
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  30. Abductive, causal, and counterfactual conditionals under incomplete probabilistic knowledge.Niki Pfeifer & Lena Tulkki - 2017 - In G. Gunzelmann, A. Howes, T. Tenbrink & E. Davelaar (eds.), Proceedings of the 39th Cognitive Science Society Meeting. pp. 2888-2893.
    We study abductive, causal, and non-causal conditionals in indicative and counterfactual formulations using probabilistic truth table tasks under incomplete probabilistic knowledge (N = 80). We frame the task as a probability-logical inference problem. The most frequently observed response type across all conditions was a class of conditional event interpretations of conditionals; it was followed by conjunction interpretations. An interesting minority of participants neglected some of the relevant imprecision involved in the premises when inferring lower or upper probability bounds on the (...)
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  31. Frege, Singularism, and Thinking Episodes.Ludovic Soutif - 2020 - In Jean Philippe Narboux & Denis Perrin (eds.), New Essays On Frege’s Logical Investigations. São Paulo, State of São Paulo, Brazil: Nonada. pp. 167-198.
    Logical Investigations (notably, The Thought) is one of the works wherein Frege voices his hostility to psychologism in logic, science, and semantics. Such hostility lies, arguably, behind his threefold conceptual distinction between thought (Gedanke), thinking (Denken), and ideas (Vorstellungen). In this essay I investigate, to begin with, Frege’s motivations for drawing the distinction and keeping thinking episodes (one of the meanings of ‘thoughts’ in English) out of the picture. It turns out, or so I argue, that psychologism threatens, on Frege’s (...)
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  32. Qu'est-ce qu'une pensée singulière?Ludovic Soutif - 2021 - Paris, France: Vrin.
    Parmi toutes les pensées que nous avons sur le monde, certaines portent sur des objets particuliers de façon plus directe (ou moins lâche) que les pensées dites descriptives et sont, pour cette raison, qualifiées de singulières. La pensée exprimée par l’énoncé : « Jean Nicod est mort en 1924 » n’est, intuitivement, pas la même que celle exprimée par l’énoncé : « L’auteur de la Géométrie dans le monde sensible est mort en 1924 », ne serait-ce que parce que la (...)
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  33. Skilled Guidance.Denis Buehler - 2021 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 12 (3):641-667.
    Skilled action typically requires that individuals guide their activities toward some goal. In skilled action, individuals do so excellently. We do not understand well what this capacity to guide consists in. In this paper I provide a case study of how individuals shift visual attention. Their capacity to guide visual attention toward some goal (partly) consists in an empirically discovered sub-system – the executive system. I argue that we can explain how individuals guide by appealing to the operation of this (...)
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  34. Mental Representation and the Cognitive Architecture of Skilled Action.Thomas Schack & Cornelia Frank - 2021 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 12 (3):527-546.
    The aim of this paper is to understand the functional role of mental representations and intentionality in skilled actions from a systems related perspective. Therefore, we will evaluate the function of representation and then discuss the cognitive architecture of skilled actions in more depth. We are going to describe the building blocks and levels of the action system that enable us to control movements such as striking the tennis ball at the right time, or grasping tools in manual action. Based (...)
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  35. Anti-Intellectualism for the Learning and Employment of Skill.Daniel C. Burnston - 2021 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 12 (3):507-526.
    I draw on empirical results from perceptual and motor learning to argue for an anti-intellectualist position on skill. Anti-intellectualists claim that skill or know-how is non-propositional. Recent proponents of the view have stressed the flexible but fine-grained nature of skilled control as supporting their position. However, they have left the nature of the mental representations underlying such control undertheorized. This leaves open several possible strategies for the intellectualist, particularly with regard to skill learning. Propositional knowledge may structure the inputs to (...)
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  36. The Double Framing Effect of Emotive Metaphors in Argumentation.Francesca Ervas - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    In argumentation, metaphors are often considered as ambiguous or deceptive uses of language leading to fallacies of reasoning. However, they can also provide useful insights into creative argumentation, leading to genuinely new knowledge. Metaphors entail a framing effect that implicitly provides a specific perspective to interpret the world, guiding reasoning and evaluation of arguments. In the same vein, emotions could be in sharp contrast with proper reasoning, but they can also be cognitive processes of affective framing, influencing our reasoning and (...)
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  37. Enhancing user creativity: semantic measures for idea generation.Georgi V. Georgiev & Danko D. Georgiev - 2018 - Knowledge-Based Systems 151:1-15.
    Human creativity generates novel ideas to solve real-world problems. This thereby grants us the power to transform the surrounding world and extend our human attributes beyond what is currently possible. Creative ideas are not just new and unexpected, but are also successful in providing solutions that are useful, efficient and valuable. Thus, creativity optimizes the use of available resources and increases wealth. The origin of human creativity, however, is poorly understood, and semantic measures that could predict the success of generated (...)
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  38. An Interdisciplinary Perspective on the Value of Envy.Jens Lange & Sara Protasi - 2021 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology:1-20.
    The public and scholars alike largely consider envy to be reprehensible. This judgment of the value of envy commonly results either from a limited understanding of the nature of envy or from a limited understanding of how to determine the value of phenomena. Overcoming this state requires an interdisciplinary collaboration of psychologists and philosophers. That is, broad empirical evidence regarding the nature of envy generated in psychological studies must inform judgments about the value of envy according to sophisticated philosophical standards. (...)
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  39. Review of Daniel C. Dennett's From Bacteria to Bach and Back: The Evolution of Minds. [REVIEW]Hane Htut Maung - 2020 - Synthesis Philosophica 35 (1):267-270.
  40. Phenomenology and Mindfulness.O. Stone & D. Zahavi - 2021 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 28 (3-4):158-185.
    Over the past several decades, a large number of publications have claimed that there are important similarities between mindfulness and phenomenology, with a particular emphasis on the epoché and phenomenological reduction. We argue that these comparisons trade on a rather superficial and often misleading presentation of phenomenology. The epoché-reduction is treated either as a matter of bracketing our 'theoretical baggage' so as to allow for a full disclosure and precise description of the objects of experience, or as a matter of (...)
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  41. Cognitive Structuralism: Explaining the Regularity of the Natural Numbers Progression.Paula Quinon - 2022 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 13 (1):127-149.
    According to one of the most powerful paradigms explaining the meaning of the concept of natural number, natural numbers get a large part of their conceptual content from core cognitive abilities. Carey’s bootstrapping provides a model of the role of core cognition in the creation of mature mathematical concepts. In this paper, I conduct conceptual analyses of various theories within this paradigm, concluding that the theories based on the ability to subitize (i.e., to assess anexactquantity of the elements in a (...)
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  42. Ressentiment As Morally Disclosive Posture? Conceptual Issues from a Psychological Point of View.Natalie Rodax, Markus Wrbouschek, Katharina Hametner, Sara Paloni, Nora Ruck & Leonard Brixel - forthcoming - Review of Philosophy and Psychology:1-17.
    In psychological research, ressentiment is alluded to as a negative emotional response directed at social groups that are mostly marked as ‘inferior others’. However, conceptual work on this notion is sorely missing. In our conceptual proposal, we use the notion of ‘moral emotions’ as a starting point: typically referred to as “other-condemning” moral emotions, psychologists have loosely conceptualised anger, contempt and disgust as a set of negative emotions that have distinct elicitors and involve affective responses to sanction moral misconduct of (...)
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  43. Moods and Atmospheres: Affective States, Affective Properties, and the Similarity Explanation.Íngrid Vendrell-Ferran - 2021 - In Dylan Trigg (ed.), Atmospheres and Shared Emotions.
    In ordinary language, “calmness”, “melancholy”, “cheerfulness”, and “sadness” are employed to describe affective states experienced by sentient beings. More precisely, these terms are used to report instances of moods. Yet, the very same terms are used to describe what seem to be properties of certain objects (e.g., things, situations) which, unlike sentient beings, are unable to feel. We usually describe atmospheres employing these terms: We speak about the calmness of a forest, the melancholy of a painting, the cheerfulness of a (...)
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  44. I Laugh Because it's Absurd: Humor as Error Detection.Chris A. Kramer - 2021 - In Jennifer Marra Henrigillis and Steven Gimbel (ed.), It's Funny 'Cause It's True: The Lighthearted Philosophers Society's Introduction to Philosophy through Humor. pp. 82-93.
    “ A man orders a whole pizza pie for himself and is asked whether he would like it cut into eight or four slices. He responds, ‘Four, I’m on a diet ”’ (Noël Carroll) -/- While not hilarious --so funny that it induces chortling punctuated with outrageous vomiting--this little gem is amusing. We recognize that something has gone wrong. On a first reading it might not compute, something doesn’t quite make sense. Then, aha! , we understand the hapless dieter has (...)
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  45. Sign and Language in Anton Marty: before and after Brentano.Hélène Leblanc - 2021 - In C. Gauvry A. Dewalque (ed.), Philosophy of Language in the Brentano School: Reassessing the Brentanian Legacy. pp. 119-140.
    On the basis of Anton Marty’s 1867 Preisschrift, this article offers a reconstruction of the semiotic and linguistic investigations the Swiss philosopher develops just before becoming a student of Brentano. The paper then compares this account with the view on signs that will be given in Marty’s later work, as well as within the Austro-German tradition.
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  46. Intelligence as Accurate Prediction.Trond A. Tjøstheim & Andreas Stephens - 2022 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 1 (2):475-499.
    This paper argues that intelligence can be approximated by the ability to produce accurate predictions. It is further argued that general intelligence can be approximated by context dependent predictive abilities combined with the ability to use working memory to abstract away contextual information. The flexibility associated with general intelligence can be understood as the ability to use selective attention to focus on specific aspects of sensory impressions to identify patterns, which can then be used to predict events in novel situations (...)
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  47. El Post-cognitivismo. El giro corporizado en Filosofía de la Mente y Ciencias Cognitivas.Federico Burdman - 2017 - Dissertation, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Uba)
    I consider the prospects of building a unified theoretical framework that features extended, embodied and enactivist approaches to mind and cognition. I identify and discuss some main problems that stand in the way of the unification project.
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  48. Magical Thinking: The Intersection of Quantum Entanglement and Self-Referential Recursion.Ilexa Yardley - 2021 - Https://Medium.Com/the-Circular-Theory/.
    The superposition of magical thinking, quantum entanglement, and self-referential recursion explains the relationship between human and machine intelligence (universal intelligence).
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  49. 4E cognition and the dogma of harmony.Jesper Aagaard - 2021 - Philosophical Psychology 34 (2):165-181.
    In recent years, we have witnessed the rise of a contemporary approach to cognitive psychology known as 4E cognition. According to this ‘extracranial’ view of cognition, the mind is not ensconced in the head, but dynamically intertwined with a host of different entities, social as well as technological. The purpose of the present article is to raise a concern about 4E cognition. The concern is not about whether the mind is in fact extended, but about how this condition is currently (...)
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  50. Online education as a “Mental Institution”.Michelle Maiese - 2021 - Philosophical Psychology 34 (2):277-299.
    Work on situated cognition and affectivity holds that cognitive and affective processes always occur within, depend upon, and, perhaps, are even partially constituted by the surrounding social and environmental contexts. What some philosophers call a ‘mental institution’ consists of various tools and technologies that help people to solve a particular problem and scaffold their cognitive and affective processes in various ways. Examples include legal systems, scientific practice, and educational systems. I propose that insofar as it centers around technology and involves (...)
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