About this topic
Summary The main focus of this category is Shannon's mathematical theory of information, and its broader philosophical uses. This includes in the first place cybernetics, signalling theories, the sender-receiver communication model, and Kolmogorov complexity.More general uses of information-theory that overlap with other domains of the philosophy of information may also belong to this category. Examples include different philosophical conceptions of information (semantic conceptions, semiotic approaches), as well as applications in specific domains of theoretical philosophy like the philosophy of science and the philosophy of mind.
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  1. Falsification and future performance.David Balduzzi - manuscript
    We information-theoretically reformulate two measures of capacity from statistical learning theory: empirical VC-entropy and empirical Rademacher complexity. We show these capacity measures count the number of hypotheses about a dataset that a learning algorithm falsifies when it finds the classifier in its repertoire minimizing empirical risk. It then follows from that the future performance of predictors on unseen data is controlled in part by how many hypotheses the learner falsifies. As a corollary we show that empirical VC-entropy quantifies the message (...)
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  2. On Classical and Quantum Logical Entropy.David Ellerman - manuscript
    The notion of a partition on a set is mathematically dual to the notion of a subset of a set, so there is a logic of partitions dual to Boole's logic of subsets (Boolean logic is usually mis-specified as "propositional" logic). The notion of an element of a subset has as its dual the notion of a distinction of a partition (a pair of elements in different blocks). Boole developed finite logical probability as the normalized counting measure on elements of (...)
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  3. God: Shifting Arguments and the Codexation Dilemma.Joey Lawsin - manuscript
    The Phrenological Argument, also known as God's Parapraxis, is a new provocative philosophical argument that showcases God's Mental State of Inadequacy in his creation of the Human Mind. Lawsin* argues that if God has a perfect mind flawlessly capable of knowing things in advance, then he should have anticipated ahead of time the repercussions of creating a human mind that cannot fathom Truth and Reality. But since he created a mind incapable of knowing what is real and what is true, (...)
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  4. A Semantic Information Formula Compatible with Shannon and Popper's Theories.Chenguang Lu - manuscript
    Semantic Information conveyed by daily language has been researched for many years; yet, we still need a practical formula to measure information of a simple sentence or prediction, such as “There will be heavy rain tomorrow”. For practical purpose, this paper introduces a new formula, Semantic Information Formula (SIF), which is based on L. A. Zadeh’s fuzzy set theory and P. Z. Wang’s random set falling shadow theory. It carries forward C. E. Shannon and K. Popper’s thought. The fuzzy set’s (...)
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  5. Information, learning and falsification.David Balduzzi - 2011
    There are (at least) three approaches to quantifying information. The first, algorithmic information or Kolmogorov complexity, takes events as strings and, given a universal Turing machine, quantifies the information content of a string as the length of the shortest program producing it [1]. The second, Shannon information, takes events as belonging to ensembles and quantifies the information resulting from observing the given event in terms of the number of alternate events that have been ruled out [2]. The third, statistical learning (...)
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  6. Minimum message length as a truth-conducive simplicity measure.Steve Petersen - manuscript
    given at the 2007 Formal Epistemology Workshop at Carnegie Mellon June 2nd. Good compression must track higher vs lower probability of inputs, and this is one way to approach how simplicity tracks truth.
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  7. Bridging Conceptual Gaps: The Kolmogorov-Sinai Entropy.Massimiliano Badino - forthcoming - Isonomía. Revista de Teoría y Filosofía Del Derecho.
    The Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy is a fairly exotic mathematical concept which has recently aroused some interest on the philosophers’ part. The most salient trait of this concept is its working as a junction between such diverse ambits as statistical mechanics, information theory and algorithm theory. In this paper I argue that, in order to understand this very special feature of the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy, is essential to reconstruct its genealogy. Somewhat surprisingly, this story takes us as far back as the beginning of (...)
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  8. An informational approach to emergence.Claudio Gnoli - forthcoming - Foundations of Science.
    Emergence can be described as a relationship between entities at different levels of organization, that looks especially puzzling at the transitions between the major levels of matter, life, cognition and culture. Indeed, each major level is dependent on the lower one not just for its constituents, but in some more formal way. A passage by François Jacob suggests that all such evolutionary transitions are associated with the appearance of some form of memory–genetic, neural or linguistic respectively. This implies that they (...)
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  9. Real Sparks of Artificial Intelligence and the Importance of Inner Interpretability.Alex Grzankowski - forthcoming - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy.
    The present paper looks at one of the most thorough articles on the intelligence of GPT, research conducted by engineers at Microsoft. Although there is a great deal of value in their work, I will argue that, for familiar philosophical reasons, their methodology, ‘Black-box Interpretability’ is wrongheaded. But there is a better way. There is an exciting and emerging discipline of ‘Inner Interpretability’ (also sometimes called ‘White-box Interpretability’) that aims to uncover the internal activations and weights of models in order (...)
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  10. Operationalising Representation in Natural Language Processing.Jacqueline Harding - forthcoming - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science.
    Despite its centrality in the philosophy of cognitive science, there has been little prior philosophical work engaging with the notion of representation in contemporary NLP practice. This paper attempts to fill that lacuna: drawing on ideas from cognitive science, I introduce a framework for evaluating the representational claims made about components of neural NLP models, proposing three criteria with which to evaluate whether a component of a model represents a property and operationalising these criteria using probing classifiers, a popular analysis (...)
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  11. Algorithm, Information.A. N. Kolmogorov - forthcoming - Complexity.
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  12. Information before information theory: The politics of data beyond the perspective of communication.Colin Koopman - forthcoming - New Media and Society.
    Scholarship on the politics of new media widely assumes that communication functions as a sufficient conceptual paradigm for critically assessing new media politics. This article argues that communication-centric analyses fail to engage the politics of information itself, limiting information only to its consequences for communication, and neglecting information as it reaches into our selves, lives, and actions beyond the confines of communication. Furthering recent new media historiography on the “information theory” of Shannon and Wiener, the article reveals both the primacy (...)
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  13. The Information-Processing Perspective on Categorization.Manolo Martínez - forthcoming - Cognitive Science: A Multidisciplinary Journal.
    Categorization behavior can be fruitfully analyzed in terms of the trade-off between as high as possible faithfulness in the transmission of information about samples of the classes to be categorized, and as low as possible transmission costs for that same information. The kinds of categorization behaviors we associate with conceptual atoms, prototypes, and exemplars emerge naturally as a result of this trade-off, in the presence of certain natural constraints on the probabilistic distribution of samples, and the ways in which we (...)
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  14. Objects and processes: two notions for understanding biological information.Agustín Mercado-Reyes, Pablo Padilla Longoria & Alfonso Arroyo-Santos - forthcoming - Journal of Theoretical Biology.
    In spite of being ubiquitous in life sciences, the concept of information is harshly criticized. Uses of the concept other than those derived from Shannon's theory are denounced as pernicious metaphors. We perform a computational experiment to explore whether Shannon's information is adequate to describe the uses of said concept in commonplace scientific practice. Our results show that semantic sequences do not have unique complexity values different from the value of meaningless sequences. This result suggests that quantitative theoretical frameworks do (...)
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  15. Emergentist Integrated Information Theory.Niccolò Negro - forthcoming - Erkenntnis:1-23.
    The integrated information theory is an ambitious theory of consciousness that aims to provide both a neuroscientific and a metaphysical account of consciousness by identifying consciousness with integrated information. In the philosophical literature, IIT is often associated with a panpsychist worldview. In this paper, I show that IIT can be considered, instead, as a form of emergentism that is incompatible with panpsychism. First, I show that the panpsychist interpretation of IIT is based on two properties of integrated information: intrinsicality and (...)
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  16. Reviewed Work(s): Some theorems on the algorithmic approach to probability theory and information theory (1971 Dissertation directed by A. N. Kolmogorov). Annals of Pure and Applied Logic, vol. 162 by L. A. Levin. [REVIEW]Jan Reimann - forthcoming - Association for Symbolic Logic: The Bulletin of Symbolic Logic.
    Review by: Jan Reimann The Bulletin of Symbolic Logic, Volume 19, Issue 3, Page 397-399, September 2013.
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  17. Modern Thought Dynamics.Ilexa Yardley - 2024 - Https://Medium.Com/the-Circular-Theory/.
  18. The Fundamental Tension in Integrated Information Theory 4.0’s Realist Idealism.Ignacio Cea - 2023 - Entropy 25 (10).
    Integrated Information Theory (IIT) is currently one of the most influential scientific theories of consciousness. Here, we focus specifically on a metaphysical aspect of the theory’s most recent version (IIT 4.0), what we may call its idealistic ontology, and its tension with a kind of realism about the external world that IIT also endorses. IIT 4.0 openly rejects the mainstream view that consciousness is generated by the brain, positing instead that consciousness is ontologically primary while the physical domain is just (...)
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  19. Axiología sistémica: cibernética, semiótica y neuroética del valor.David Ernesto Díaz Navarro - 2023 - Revista Colombiana de Filosofía de la Ciencia 23 (46):123-164.
    El presente artículo tiene como objeto llevar a cabo un estudio pragmático y analítico sobre la acción de valoración, el valor y los valores a la luz de la ciencia semiótica y de la ciencia cibernética. Por ello, se desarrollará un proceso axiológico que ilustre cómo sucede el ingreso, la transición y la salida de códigos morales en función de un esquema cognitivo. Así pues, el proceso axiológico se postula, primero, en fundamento de tres sistemas: de mentalidad, de valores y (...)
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  20. Bernard Dionysius Geoghegan, "Code: From Information Theory to French Theory.". [REVIEW]Evan Kuehn - 2023 - Philosophy in Review 43 (4):10-11.
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  21. The relevance of communication theory for theories of representation.Stephen Francis Mann - 2023 - Philosophy and the Mind Sciences 4.
    Prominent views about representation share a premise: that mathematical communication theory is blind to representational content. Here I challenge that premise by rejecting two common misconceptions: that Claude Shannon said that the meanings of signals are irrelevant for communication theory (he didn't and they aren't), and that since correlational measures can't distinguish representations from natural signs, communication theory can't distinguish them either (the premise is true but the conclusion is false; no valid argument can link them).
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  22. Can the Integrated Information Theory Explain Consciousness from Consciousness Itself?Niccolò Negro - 2023 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 14 (4):1471-1489.
    In consciousness science, theories often differ not only in the account of consciousness they arrive at, but also with respect to how they understand their starting point. Some approaches begin with experimentally gathered data, whereas others begin with phenomenologically gathered data. In this paper, I analyse how the most influential phenomenology-first approach, namely the Integrated Information Theory (IIT) of consciousness, fits its phenomenologically gathered data with explanatory hypotheses. First, I show that experimentally driven approaches hit an explanatory roadblock, since we (...)
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  23. : Code: From Information Theory to French Theory.Libby O’Neil - 2023 - Isis 114 (4):887-888.
  24. Bernard Dionysius Geoghegan, Code: From Information Theory to French Theory.Carolyn Pedwell - 2023 - Theory, Culture and Society 40 (7-8):293-299.
    Assembling a distinctive genealogy of cybernetic thought situated in relation to Progressive Era technocracy, industrial capitalism, (de)colonial relations, and eugenic machinery, Code uncovers the vital interdependence of informatics, the humanities, and the human sciences in the 20th century. Rather than figuring cybernetics as emerging from Second World War military technologies and post-war digital computing, Code argues that liberal technocrats’ inter-war visions of social welfare delivered via ‘neutral’ communication techniques shaped the informatic interventions of both the Second World War and the (...)
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  25. Multiple patterns, multiple explanations.Steve Petersen - 2023 - In Jonah N. Schupbach & David H. Glass (eds.), Conjunctive Explanations: The Nature, Epistemology, and Psychology of Explanatory Multiplicity. New York: Routledge. pp. 38-48.
    A "patternist" approach to explanation seeks to formalize unificationism using notions from algorithmic information theory. Among other advantages, this account provides both a rigorous sense of how data can admit multiple explanations, and a rigorous sense of how some of those explanations can conjoin, while others compete.
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  26. Топология субъектности.Andrej Poleev - 2023 - Enzymes 21.
    Техника представления информации о внешнем и внутреннем мире постоянно развивается, и сейчас она достигла уровня отображения реальности в многообразных её проявлениях и измерениях, прежде недоступных человеческому восприятию. Язык, текст, фотография, звукозапись, а теперь ещё и техника искусственного интеллекта для моделирования человеческой субъектности и её описания в доступной для человеческого понимания форме, стали эпохальными событиями в теории информации. Однако несмотря на то, что на данном этапе её развития она позволяет оперировать с непрерывно возрастающими объёмами информации, это не приближает её теоретиков к (...)
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  27. Integrated Information is not Causation: Why Integrated Information Theory’s Causal Structures do not Beat Causal Reductionism.Javier Sánchez-Cañizares - 2023 - Philosophia 51 (5):2439-2455.
    In a recent work (Grasso et al., 2021 ), practitioners of the Integrated Information Theory (IIT) claim to have overcome the weaknesses of causal reductionism in producing a coherent account of causation, as causal reductionism would blatantly conflate causation with prediction and could not answer the question of ‘what caused what.’ In this paper, I reject such a dismissal of causal reductionism since IIT anti-reductionists misunderstand the reductionist stance. The reductionists can still invoke a causal account stemming from the causal (...)
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  28. The Simple Solution to a Complex Problem.Ilexa Yardley - 2023 - Https://Medium.Com/the-Circular-Theory/.
    Conservation of the Circle is the only dynamic in Nature, and, therefore, the simple solution to the complex problem called ‘reality.’ (Also known as 'identity.') Financial, technological, and, therefore, psychological.
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  29. The Maximization of Chaos.Ilexa Yardley - 2023 - Https://Medium.Com/the-Circular-Theory/.
  30. Does integrated information theory make testable predictions about the role of silent neurons in consciousness?Gary Bartlett - 2022 - Neuroscience of Consciousness 2022 (1).
    Tononi et al. claim that their integrated information theory of consciousness makes testable predictions. This article discusses two of the more startling predictions, which follow from the theory’s claim that conscious experiences are generated by inactive as well as active neurons. The first prediction is that a subject’s conscious experience at a time can be affected by the disabling of neurons that were already inactive at that time. The second is that even if a subject’s entire brain is “silent,” meaning (...)
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  31. Psicologia Ecológica: da percepção à cognição social.Eros Carvalho - 2022 - In Marcus José Alves de Souza & Maxwell Morais de Lima Filho (eds.), Escritos de Filosofia V: Linguagem e Cognição. Porto Alegre: Editora Fi. pp. 368-393.
    Neste texto, apresento e examino as principais ideias que animam a abordagem ecológica da percepção. Primeiro, na Seção 2, apresento a visão instantânea da percepção, contra a qual Gibson articula e propõe a abordagem ecológica. Em seguida, na Seção 3, apresento e discuto a noção de informação ecológica. Nas seções 4 e 5 articulo a teoria das affordances e discuto a aprendizagem perceptiva. Por fim, na Seção 6, exponho e discuto a possibilidade de estender a teoria das affordances para explicar (...)
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  32. The transcendental deduction of Integrated Information Theory: connecting the axioms, postulates, and identity through categories.Robert Chis-Ciure - 2022 - Synthese 200 (3):1-27.
    This paper deals with a foundational aspect of Integrated Information Theory of consciousness: the nature of the relation between the axioms of phenomenology and the postulates of cause-effect power. There has been a lack of clarity in the literature regarding this crucial issue, for which IIT has received much criticism of its axiomatic method and basic tenets. The present contribution elucidates the problem by means of a categorial analysis of the theory’s foundations. Its main results are that: IIT has a (...)
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  33. The integrated information theory of agency.Hugh Desmond & Philippe Huneman - 2022 - Brain and Behavioral Sciences 45:e45.
    We propose that measures of information integration can be more straightforwardly interpreted as measures of agency rather than of consciousness. This may be useful to the goals of consciousness research, given how agency and consciousness are “duals” in many (although not all) respects.
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  34. Consciousness and Complexity: Neurobiological Naturalism and Integrated Information Theory.Francesco Ellia & Robert Chis-Ciure - 2022 - Consciousness and Cognition 100 (C):103281.
    In this paper, we take a meta-theoretical stance and aim to compare and assess two conceptual frameworks that endeavor to explain phenomenal experience. In particular, we compare Feinberg & Mallatt’s Neurobiological Naturalism (NN) and Tononi’s and colleagues' Integrated Information Theory (IIT), given that the former pointed out some similarities between the two theories (Feinberg & Mallatt 2016c-d). To probe their similarity, we first give a general introduction to both frameworks. Next, we expound a ground plan for carrying out our analysis. (...)
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  35. The Next World: Extraordinary Experiences of the Afterlife by Gregory Shushan.Michael Grosso - 2022 - Journal of Scientific Exploration 36 (2).
    Our culture allows us to quantify death with precise statistics. We know that at least a million Americans so far have lost their lives to Covid-19. We have the daily numbers of mass killings in the United States; of those killed at the hands of Vladimir Putin’s criminal war; of deaths due to starvation, specific diseases, obesity, psychosis, suicide, and so on. There are new technologies that claim they will be able to predict exactly when we will die from natural (...)
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  36. Filled/non-filled pairs: An empirical challenge to the integrated information theory of consciousness.Amber R. Hopkins & Kelvin J. McQueen - 2022 - Consciousness and Cognition 97 (C):103245.
    Perceptual filling-in for vision is the insertion of visual properties (e.g., color, contour, luminance, or motion) into one’s visual field, when those properties have no corresponding retinal input. This paper introduces and provides preliminary empirical support for filled/non-filled pairs, pairs of images that appear identical, yet differ by amount of filling-in. It is argued that such image pairs are important to the experimental testing of theories of consciousness. We review recent experimental research and conclude that filling-in involves brain activity with (...)
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  37. Information Theory and Logical Analysis in the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus.Felipe Oliveira Araújo Lopes - 2022 - Philosophia 51 (1):217-253.
    The present article proposes an Informational-Theoretic interpretation of logical analysis applied to natural language in Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus. Natural language is characterized by descriptive definitions in order to compress information according to empirical regularities. However, notations fitted to empirical patterns do not explicitly reflect the logical structure of language that enables it to represent those very patterns. I argue that logical analysis is the process of obtaining incompressible and uniformly distributed codes, best fitted to express the possible combinations of facts instead (...)
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  38. The integrated information theory of consciousness: Unmasked and identified.Bjorn Merker, Kenneth Williford & David Rudrauf - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    In our response to a truly diverse set of commentaries, we first summarize the principal topical themes around which they cluster, then address two “outlier” positions. Next, we address ways in which commentaries by non-integrated information theory authors engage with the specifics of our IIT critique, turning finally to the four commentaries by IIT authors.
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  39. Cybernetics, operations research and information theory at the Ulm School of Design and its influence on Latin America.David Oswald - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (3):1045-1057.
    The Chilean Cybersyn project, an attempt to manage a nation’s economy by cybernetic methods, has evoked more and more interest in recent years. The project’s design lead and several team members were alumni of the Ulm School of Design—an institution that has been labelled “Bauhaus successor” and today is famous for a no-arts and method-led design approach with strong societal aspirations. The school also influenced the emerging design discipline in Latin America during the 1960s and 70s. This article reviews topics (...)
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  40. "L'énergie en science et la théorie de l'information".Gagnon Philippe - 2022 - Connaître : Cahiers de l'Association Foi Et Culture Scientifique 58 (December):5-30.
    This is the Outline: 1. Introduction 2. L’information en première approche 3. L’information-Janus 4. À quoi sert l’information? 5. Les usages que l’on fit de la théorie de l’information 6. L’information dite de « second ordre » 7. Doit-on mettre l’information au service d’une vision théologique ? 7.1 Une incidence à partir de nos images de Dieu.
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  41. Integrated Information Theory as Testing Ground for Causation: Why Nested Hylomorphism Overcomes Physicalism and Panpsychism.Javier Sánchez-Cañizares - 2022 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 29 (1-2):56-78.
    Integrated Information Theory (IIT) stands out as one of the most promising approaches to scientifically understand the emergence of consciousness. Even if it borrows from the phenomenology of consciousness to derive its axiomatic formulation, IIT does not initially adhere to any particular ontological position. However, its founder leans towards Panpsychism. More recently, Owen has studied the pros and cons of different ontologies as a metaphysical basis for IIT, defending a hylomorphic stance where en-grounding, en-forming relations gain the upper hand in (...)
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  42. In search of lost time: Integrated information theory needs constraints from temporal phenomenology.Ishan Singhal, Ramya Mudumba & Narayanan Srinivasan - 2022 - Philosophy and the Mind Sciences 3.
    Integrated information theory of consciousness proposes an identity between its causal structure and phenomenology. Through this assertion, IIT aims to explain consciousness by prioritizing first-person experience. However, despite its phenomenology-first stance, developments in IIT have overlooked temporality. As such, we argue that at present IIT’s phenomenological analysis is incomplete. In this critique, we show how IIT takes a non-identical illusionist stance towards the experiences of continuity, flow, and extent of our experiences. Moreover, in isolating temporal grains of experience to a (...)
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  43. Can Informational Thermal Physics explain the Approach to Equilibrium?Javier Anta - 2021 - Synthese 199 (1-2):4015–4038.
    In this paper I will defend the incapacity of the informational frameworks in thermal physics, mainly those that historically and conceptually derive from the work of Brillouin (1962) and Jaynes (1957a), to robustly explain the approach of certain gaseous systems to their state of thermal equilibrium from the dynamics of their molecular components. I will further argue that, since their various interpretative, conceptual and technical-formal resources (e.g. epistemic interpretations of probabilities and entropy measures, identification of thermal entropy as Shannon information, (...)
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  44. Information, meaning and physics: The intellectual evolution of the English School of Information Theory during 1946-1956.Javier Anta - 2021 - Science in Context 34 (3):357-373.
    ArgumentIn this comparative historical analysis, we will analyze the intellectual tendency that emerged between 1946 and 1956 to take advantage of the popularity of communication theory to develop a kind of informational epistemology of statistical mechanics. We will argue that this tendency results from a historical confluence in the early 1950s of certain theoretical claims of the so-called English School of Information Theory, championed by authors such as Gabor (1956) or MacKay (1969), and from the attempt to extend the profound (...)
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  45. Make Information in Science Meaningful Again.Javier Anta - 2021 - Logos and Episteme (3):263-286.
    Although the everyday notion of information has clear semantic properties, the all-pervasive technical concept of Shannon information is usually considered as a non-semantic concept. In this paper I show how this concept was implicitly ‘semantized’ in the early 1950s by many authors, such as Rothstein or Brillouin, in order to explain the knowledge dynamics underlying certain scientific practices such as measurement. On the other hand, I argue that the main attempts in the literature to develop a quantitative measure of semantic (...)
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  46. Integrated Information Theory, Intrinsicality, and Overlapping Conscious Systems.James C. Blackmon - 2021 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 28 (11-12):31-53.
    Integrated Information Theory (IIT) identifies consciousness with having a maximum amount of integrated information. But a thing’s having the maximum amount of anything cannot be intrinsic to it, for that depends on how that thing compares to certain other things. IIT’s consciousness, then, is not intrinsic. A mereological argument elaborates this consequence: IIT implies that one physical system can be conscious while a physical duplicate of it is not conscious. Thus, by a common and reasonable conception of intrinsicality, IIT’s consciousness (...)
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  47. Normativity at the edge of reason - review of Cecile Malaspina, An Epistemology of Noise. [REVIEW]Iain Campbell - 2021 - Radical Philosophy 9:93-96.
    In recent years noise seems to have become an interdisciplinary concept par excellence, apt to capturing important dynamics at work whether in technological, scientific, social, or aesthetic domains. But when economists, biologists, psychologists, and musicians speak of noise, are they really all referring to the same thing? In An Epistemology of Noise Cecile Malaspina takes this dispersion of the notion of noise as a starting point, and moreover accepts that, when removed from its mathematical formulation in information theory and spread (...)
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  48. New Foundations for Information Theory: Logical Entropy and Shannon Entropy.David Ellerman - 2021 - Springer Verlag.
    This monograph offers a new foundation for information theory that is based on the notion of information-as-distinctions, being directly measured by logical entropy, and on the re-quantification as Shannon entropy, which is the fundamental concept for the theory of coding and communications. Information is based on distinctions, differences, distinguishability, and diversity. Information sets are defined that express the distinctions made by a partition, e.g., the inverse-image of a random variable so they represent the pre-probability notion of information. Then logical entropy (...)
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  49. Note on the complexities of simple things such as a timeline. On the notions text, e-text, hypertext, and origins of machine translation.Niels Ole Finnemann - 2021 - In Frode Hegland (ed.), The Future of Text, vol. 2. Wimbledon: Liquid Text. pp. pp 149-156..
    The composition of a timeline depends on purpose, perspective, and scale – and of the very understanding of the word, the phenomenon referred to, and whether the focus is the idea or concept, an instance of an idea or a phenomenon, a process, or an event and so forth. The main function of timelines is to provide an overview over a long history, it is a kind of a mnemotechnic device or a particular kind of Knowledge Organization System (KOS).b The (...)
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  50. Critique of the Integrated Information Theory of Consciousness: Or, the Relevance of Ontological Information.A. Peuhu - 2021 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 28 (5-6):58-78.
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