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  1. Freunde aufgrund des Lebens.David Machek - 2021 - Zeitschrift Für Praktische Philosophie 8 (1).
    Zusammenfassung: Freundschaft ist ein wichtiges Thema der aristotelischen Moraltheorie. Aristoteles versteht unter Freundschaft die optimale Form der Beziehung, in der sich die Beteiligten gegenseitig schätzen und Wohltaten leisten. Im Rahmen seiner Freundschaftstheorie hat Aristoteles auch eine Auffassung der Freundschaft zwischen Eltern und Kindern entworfen. Im Vergleich zu seiner allge-meinen Freundschaftstheorie haben seine Ansätze zur Freundschaft zwischen Eltern und Kindern sowohl in der historischen als auch in der systematischen Forschung wenig Aufmerksamkeit gefunden. Das Ziel dieses Artikels ist es, die Auffassung dieser (...)
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  2. Thomas Hobbes on Civility, Magnanimity, and Scientific Discourse.Andrew J. Corsa - 2021 - Hobbes Studies 34 (2):201-226.
    Thomas Hobbes contends that a wise sovereign would censor books and limit verbal discourse for the majority of citizens. But this article contends that it is consistent with Hobbes’s philosophy to claim that a wise sovereign would allow a small number of citizens – those individuals who engage in scientific discourse and who are magnanimous and just – to disagree freely amongst themselves, engaging in discourse on controversial topics. This article reflects on Hobbes’s contention that these individuals can tolerate one (...)
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  3. Cultivating Doxastic Responsibility.Guy Axtell - 2021 - Humana Mente 14 (39):87-125.
    This paper addresses some of the contours of an ethics of knowledge in the context of ameliorative epistemology, where this term describes epistemological projects aimed at redressing epistemic injustices, improving collective epistemic practices, and educating more effectively for higher-order reflective reasoning dispositions. Virtue theory and embodiment theory together help to tie the cultivation of moral and epistemic emotions to cooperative problem-solving. We examine one cooperative vice, ‘knavery,’ and how David Hume’s little-noticed discussion of it is a forerunner of contemporary game (...)
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  4. O Captain! My Captain!: Leadership, Virtue, and Sport.John William Devine - 2021 - Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 48 (1):45-62.
    There is a crisis of leadership in sport. Leadership as an athletic excellence is under threat from the deepening influence of coaches on in-game decision- making. To appreciate what is being lost in this shift of responsibility, it is necessary to understand the challenge of athlete leadership. Captaincy is the quintessential on-field leadership role. However, the role of captain, and athlete leadership more widely, remains philosophically untheorized. This paper initiates a discussion of leadership in sport by providing the first normative (...)
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  5. The Limits of Virtue Ethics.Travis Timmerman & Yishai Cohen - 2020 - Oxford Studies in Normative Ethics 10:255-282.
    Virtue ethics is often understood as a rival to existing consequentialist, deontological, and contractualist views. But some have disputed the position that virtue ethics is a genuine normative ethical rival. This chapter aims to crystallize the nature of this dispute by providing criteria that determine the degree to which a normative ethical theory is complete, and then investigating virtue ethics through the lens of these criteria. In doing so, it’s argued that no existing account of virtue ethics is a complete (...)
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  6. Comments on Stichter’s The Skillfulness of Virtue. [REVIEW]Mark Alfano - 2020 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 24 (2):549-554.
  7. Reconceptualising Teaching as Transformative Practice: Alasdair MacIntyre in the South African Context.Dominic Griffiths & Maria Prozesky - 2020 - Journal of Education 2 (79):4-17.
    In its ideal conception, the post-apartheid education landscape is regarded as a site of transformation that promotes democratic ideals such as citizenship, freedom, and critical thought. The role of the educator is pivotal in realising this transformation in the learners she teaches, but this realisation extends beyond merely teaching the curriculum to the educator herself, as the site where these democratic ideals are embodied and enacted. The teacher is thus centrally placed as a moral agent whose behaviour, in the classroom (...)
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  8. Modesty and Humility.Nicolas Bommarito - 2018 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    This article discusses conceptions of modesty and humility and their key features. It gives a brief historical overview of debates about whether or not they’re really virtues at all. It also discusses theories of modesty and humility that root them in the presence or absence of particular beliefs, emotions, desires, and attention. it also discusses related phenomena in epistemology: rational limits on self-ascription of error, attitudes to disagreement, and openness to alternative views.
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  9. Anscombe on the Mesmeric Force of ‘Ought’ and a Spurious Kind of Moral Realism.Sergio Volodia Marcello Cremaschi - 2017 - Etica E Politica 19 (2):51-86.
    I discuss the second of the three theses advanced by Anscombe in ‘Modern Moral Philosophy’. The focus is the nature of entities to which – if Anscombe’s diagnosis is correct – ought and cognate modals are assumed by modern moral philosophers to refer. I reconstruct the alternative account offered by Anscombe of viable and justified ‘Aristotelian’ modals – as contrasted with mysterious and unjustified ‘Kantian’ modals; I discuss the nature and status of ‘Aristotelian necessity’ to which such legitimate modals refer (...)
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  10. Virtue in Media: The Moral Psychology of Excellence in News and Public Relations.Patrick Lee Plaisance - 2014 - Routledge.
    "This book establishes a profile of virtue in professional media practice by examining the experiences, perspectives, moral stances and demographic data of two dozen selected exemplars in journalism and public relations. It is based on both extensive personal "life story" interviews conducted with the exemplars between April 2010 and September 2012, and also survey data that assessed the exemplars' personality traits, ethical ideologies, moral reasoning skills and perceived workplace climate. The chosen exemplars span the United States and include Pulitzer Prize (...)
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  11. Lab‐Grown Meat and Veganism: A Virtue‐Oriented Perspective.Carlo Alvaro - 2019 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 31 (135):1-15.
    The project of growing meat artificially represents for some the next best thing to humanity. If successful, it could be the solution to several problems, such as feed- ing a growing global population while reducing the environmental impact of raising animals for food and, of course, reducing the amount and degree of animal cruelty and suffering that is involved in animal farming. In this paper, I argue that the issue of the morality of such a project has been framed only (...)
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  12. Extrinsic Value and the Separability of Reasons.Barry Maguire - 2016 - Oxford Studies in Normative Ethics 6.
    This paper presents a puzzle for Act Consequentialists who do not want to shoot Pelé. The puzzle arises from cases involving the promotion of virtue, and motivates a systematic restriction on the separability of reasons.
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  13. Hope as a Virtue in an Aristotelian Context.Barbro Fröding - 2012 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 19 (3):183-186.
    Michael Barilan’s article “From Hope in Palliative Care to Hope as a Virtue and a Life Skill” is an interesting and informative contribution to the debate on the nature of ‘a good death.’ Broadly speaking, the author seeks to explore “the roles and meanings of promotion focus goals in human life” and how hope can aid in alleviating suffering (Barilan 2012, 171). The subject is topical and courtesy of being clinically active, Barilan is able to add a welcome perspective. Very (...)
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  14. Freedom and Virtue in Politics: Some Aspects of Character, Circumstances and Utility From Helvétius to J. S. Mill*: G. W. Smith. [REVIEW]G. W. Smith - 1989 - Utilitas 1 (1):112-134.
    Writing in the foreword to Allan Bloom's The Closing of the American Mind and speaking of his upbringing in Chicago between the wars Saul Bellow attests that …as a Midwesterner, the son of immigrant parents, I recognized at an early stage that I was called upon to decide for myself to what extent my Jewish origins, my surroundings [‘the accidental circumstances of Chicago’], my schooling, were to be allowed to determine the course of my life. I did not intend to (...)
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  15. Virtue Ethics and the Problem of Indirection: A Pluralistic Value-Centred Approach: Christine Swanton.Christine Swanton - 1997 - Utilitas 9 (2):167-181.
    Many forms of virtue ethics, like certain forms of utilitarianism, suffer from the problem of indirection. In those forms, the criterion for status of a trait as a virtue is not the same as the criterion for the status of an act as right. Furthermore, if the virtues for example are meant to promote the nourishing of the agent, the virtuous agent is not standardly supposed to be motivated by concern for her own flourishing in her activity. In this paper, (...)
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  16. The Presidential Address: The Ethical Credentials of Partiality: I.John Cottingham - 1998 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 98 (1):1-21.
    Although an impartial perspective is often regarded as integral to the moral outlook, this paper argues that adopting such a perspective is neither (i) sufficient nor (ii) necessary for supporting the principle of respect for all human beings. (i) An impartial spectator aiming to maximize human welfare could well decide that 'low grade' individuals should be eliminated or enslaved; (ii) a theory of virtue based on frankly partialistic principles can find good reasons (based on the interconnectedness of the dispositions required (...)
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  17. Foundations of Moral Selfhood: Aquinas on Divine Goodness and the Connection of the Virtues. [REVIEW]Gerard Casey - 2006 - Review of Metaphysics 59 (4):877-878.
    One of the significant factors in the recent rehabilitation of medieval philosophy has been a renewed interest in virtue ethics, so-called, for which the credit must, in large part, go to Alasdair MacIntyre. However, some now working in the field of virtue ethics appear to be embarrassed by the metaphysical or theological context in which virtue ethics had its original expression, and attempts have been made to detach the ethics from the metaphysics and the theology. Two questions frame the structure (...)
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  18. Nature, Virtue, and the Nature of Virtue: An Outline for an Environmental Virtue Ethics.C. Meyers - 2010 - Southwest Philosophy Review 26 (1):109-117.
    Most of the philosophical work written on environmental issues focuses on notions such as rights, consequences, duties, etc. And most of the theoretical philosophy done in environmental ethics focuses on questions of whether animals, plants, or ecosystems have inherent value or moral standing independently of their usefulness to humans. A character-based approach has been largely neglected. In this paper, I consider what a plausible environmental virtue ethics would look like. Specifically, I argue that it would not require any distinct eco-virtue (...)
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  19. Hursthouse’s Virtue Ethics, the Slide Into Consequentialism, and the Problem of Instrumentally Successful Vice.Mark Piper - 2010 - Southwest Philosophy Review 26 (1):81-90.
    In this paper I present criticism of Rosalind Hursthouse’s neo-Aristotelian naturalistic virtue ethics as elaborated in her book On Virtue Ethics. I argue that her theory is vulnerable to the charge of partially collapsing into a form of consequentialism that falls prey to a powerful objection to that theory: the problem of instrumentally successful action (or, in Hursthouse’s case, the problem of instrumentally successful vice). I consider several possible responses from Hursthouse, and argue that they are inadequate. As a result, (...)
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  20. Techne in Aristotle's Ethics: Crafting the Moral Life.Tom Angier - 2010 - Continuum.
    'By identifying the extent to which Aristotle's thinking about ethics was shaped by notions drawn from the crafts Angier has thrown new light on a surprising number of topics and has deepened our understanding of tensions within Aristotle's thought. It is by now a rare achievement to have said something new, true and important about Aristotle.' -- Alasdair MacIntyre, Emeritus Professor of Philosophy, University of Notre Dame, USA.
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  21. Indications of Virtues in Conscientiousness and its Practice Through Continuous Improvement.José Hernández & Ricardo Mateo - 2012 - Business Ethics: A European Review 21 (2):140-153.
    There is convergence among researchers of the ‘Big Five’ personality traits taxonomy, that the dimension of conscientiousness best explains differences in work performance. This research is a literature review on the interrelationship between certain traits of the conscientiousness dimension and human virtues, or character traits. It also analyzes whether or not it is rational to argue that the continuous improvement culture enhances the exercise of these character traits. The personal effort to develop one's conscientiousness enriches one's character or way of (...)
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  22. Virtue Ethics.Stephen L. Darwall (ed.) - 2002 - Wiley-Blackwell.
    _ Virtue Ethics_ collects, for the first time, the main classical sources and the central contemporary expressions of virtue ethics approach to normative ethical theory. Edited and introduced by Stephen Darwall, these readings are essential for anyone interested in normative theory. Introduced by Stephen Darwall, this collection brings together classic and contemporary readings which define and advance the literature on virtue ethics. Includes six essays which respond to the classic sources. Includes a contemporary discussion on character and virtue by Gary (...)
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  23. A Third Method of Ethics?Roger Crisp - 2015 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 90 (2):257-273.
    In recent decades, the idea has become common that so-called virtue ethics constitutes a third option in ethics in addition to consequentialism and deontology. This paper argues that, if we understand ethical theories as accounts of right and wrong action, this is not so. Virtue ethics turns out to be a form of deontology . The paper then moves to consider the Aristotelian distinction between right or virtuous action on the one hand, and acting rightly or virtuously on the other. (...)
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  24. Universalism Versus Nihilism: In the Absence of a Universalist Narrative — Is a New Virtue Ethics Possible?Werner Krieglstein - 2009 - Dialogue and Universalism 19 (3-5):151-165.
    Both nihilism and universalism are historical products of Western speculative philosophy. The failure of this philosophy to discover universally valid laws resulted in widespread despair, which at times created a suicidal atmosphere. The other worldly promises offered by dualistic world models made an escape into an alternate world attractive. This paper investigates whether Nietzsche’s proposal to rekindle the fire of life by recovering the Dionysian spirit in creative work is a feasible alternative to nihilistic despair. It goes on to investigate (...)
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  25. Emotions et connaissance.Fabrice Teroni - 2014 - In Jean-Marie Chevalier Benoît Gautier (ed.), Connaître: Questions de philosophie contemporaine. Ithaque.
    Quel est le lien entre les émotions et la connaissance ? Selon une idée répandue, la réponse s’impose avec évidence : les émotions sont en rapport avec la connaissance dans la seule mesure où elles y font obstacle. Leur caractère disruptif, envahissant et sélectif empêcherait de raisonner correctement ou de poser un regard englobant et objectif sur les situations auxquelles nous faisons face. Je souhaite soutenir l’idée opposée, à savoir que les émotions permettent à ceux qui les ressentent d’entrer en (...)
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  26. War Without Virtue?Robert Sparrow - 2013 - In Bradley Jay Strawser (ed.), Killing By Remote Control. Oxford University Press. pp. 84-105.
    A number of recent and influential accounts of military ethics have argued that there exists a distinctive “role morality” for members of the armed services—a “warrior code.” A “good warrior” is a person who cultivates and exercises the “martial” or “warrior” virtues. By transforming combat into a “desk job” that can be conducted from the safety of the home territory of advanced industrial powers without need for physical strength or martial valour, long-range robotic weapons, such as the “Predator” and “Reaper” (...)
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  27. The Iteration Problem'.G. Cullity & Moral Character - 1995 - Utilitas 7 (2).
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  28. Can Virtue Be Taught?P. K. Wainaina - 1988 - In J. M. Nyasani (ed.), Philosophical Focus on Culture and Traditional Thought Systems in Development. Konrad Adenauer Foundation. pp. 316.
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  29. Moral Aspirations and Ideals.Saul Smilansky - 2010 - Utilitas 22 (3).
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  30. Virtue Ethics and Modern Society—A Response to the Thesis of the Modern Predicament of Virtue Ethics.Gong Qun - 2010 - Frontiers of Philosophy in China 5 (2):255-265.
    The revival of modern Western virtue ethics presents the question of whether or not virtue ethics is appropriate for modern society. Ethicists believe that virtue ethics came from traditional society, to which it conforms so well. The appearance of the market economy and a utilitarian spirit, together with society’s diversification, is a sign that modern society has arrived. This also indicates a transformation in the moral spirit. But modern society has not made virtues less important, and even as modern life (...)
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  31. The Shameless Truth: Shame and Friendship in Aristotle.Marlene K. Sokolon - 2013 - European Journal of Political Theory 12 (4):447-465.
    Does shame have a limited moral role because it is associated with a loss of self-respect or is it an important emotional support for socially beneficial behaviours? Aristotle supports the latter position. In his ethical theory, he famously claims that shame is a semi-virtue essential in the habituation of moral norms. He clarifies this role in the Rhetoric’s lesser-known distinction between true and conventional shame, which implies human beings make subjective evaluations of those appropriated cultural norms. Importantly, he locates this (...)
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  32. Hooker on Rule-Consequentialism and Virtue.Dale E. Miller - 2013 - Utilitas 25 (3):421-432.
    In Ideal Code, Real World, Brad Hooker proposes an account of the relation between his rule-consequentialism and virtue according to which the virtues (1) have intrinsic value and (2) are identical with the dispositions that are of the ideal code. While it is not clear whether Hooker actually intends to endorse this account or only intends to moot it for discussion, I argue that for him to adopt it would be a mistake. Not only would this mean that his moral (...)
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  33. Why Bad People Can't Be Good Friends.Alexis Elder - 2014 - Ratio 27 (1):84-99.
    Must the best friends necessarily be good people? On the one hand, as Aristotle puts it, ‘people think that the same people are good and also friends’. But on the other hand, friendship sometimes seems to require that one behave badly. For example, a normally honest person might lie to corroborate a friend's story. What I will call closeness, which I take to include sensitivity to friends' subjective values and concerns as well as an inclination to take their subjective interests (...)
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  34. Traditional Virtues and Contemporary Management.Howard Harris - 2007 - Philosophy of Management 6 (2):61-76.
    In the management domain the revival of interest in virtue ethics has been not so much in seeking a deeper understanding of the virtues themselves as in finding exemplars and pursuing the concept that virtue is a proper end of business. The aim of this paper is to show that a philosophical treatment of the great virtues can enlighten management understanding of them and to examine in more detail courage, love and wisdom. The paper includes an overview of the approach (...)
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  35. Virtue Beyond Reason.Ty Landrum - 2014 - Philosophical Investigations 37 (1):1-17.
    In the wake of Aristotle, it is often thought that moral virtue is a matter of feeling and acting for the right reasons. This notion is not incorrect, but it obscures one of the most interesting dimensions of virtue. It overlooks the formative role that virtue can play in bringing forth the kinds of considerations that count as reasons. To illustrate this point, I discuss some instances of love and resentment that are not plausibly conceived as responses to reasons, but (...)
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  36. The Truth-Value of the Aristotelian 'Areti'.Ioanna Patsioti-Tsacpounidis - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 2:165-172.
    This paper examines the concept of ‘areti’ as encountered in the Aristotelian ethical system in order to establish its relationship to the modern concept of virtue as well as to that of moral truth, that is, to identify its truth-value. I intend to show that the Aristotelian ‘areti’ as a developed state of character and as an advanced stage of ethical understanding entails moral truth. ‘Areti’ as a good-in-itself possesses an intrinsic value which reflects moral truth, and as a means (...)
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  37. Can Virtue Be Taught? ——The Angle of Epistemology.Guangquan Cheng - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 10:33-36.
    The predicament of contemporary moral education lies in the fact that we simply accepted Socrates "virtue is knowledge", and considered that the virtue can be taught as the knowledge, but we neglect that the virtue can only be cultivated in social practices. Some have realized that, but they only concentrated on revivification of the life scene in the class, such as KohlBerg's moral paradox, or class debate, leading the moral education to a debate skill and returning tothe style of Sophist (...)
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  38. The Question of Ageing.John Cottingham - 2012 - Philosophical Papers 41 (3):371-396.
    Abstract For humans, as for other animal species, old age is a good, provided that the disease and decrepitude that often accompany it are not so severe as to swamp further flourishing. This accords with Aristotle's holistic account of flourishing, which embraces the entire biological lifespan. However, Aristotle's stress on rational activity as the key to human fulfilment suggests flourishing may be eroded in proportion as the intellectual faculties deteriorate. The Judeo-Christian tradition, by contrast, construes human flourishing primarily in terms (...)
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  39. Prudence Gone Wild: Catholic Environmental Virtue Ethics.Nancy M. Rourke - 2011 - Environmental Ethics 33 (3):249-266.
    A Catholic environmental virtue ethic must include an understanding of prudence that incorporates attunement significantly. Catholic theologians are reluctant to revise notions of prudence, but there are traditions in theology that support such an approach. Catholic virtue ethical traditions point to this necessity, and, in addition, philosophical environmental virtue ethics (which are much more fully developed) simply insist on it. The comparison of a moral character (as it is understood in virtue ethics) with a bioregion’s ecosystem helps support this argument.
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  40. The Philosophy and Psychology of Virtue: An Empirical Approach to Character and Happiness.Snow Nancy & Trivigno Franco (eds.) - forthcoming - Routledge.
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  41. Hauerwas Among the Virtues.Jennifer A. Herdt - 2012 - Journal of Religious Ethics 40 (2):202-227.
    Despite the fact that Stanley Hauerwas has not taken up many of the topics normally associated with virtue ethics, has explicitly distanced himself from the enterprise known as “virtue ethics,” and throughout his career has preferred other categories of analysis, ranging from character and agency to practices and liturgy, it is nevertheless clear that his work has had a deep and transformative impact on the recovery of virtue within Christian ethics, and that this impact has largely to do with the (...)
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  42. Character Traits, Virtues, and Vices.Michael DePaul - 2000 - The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 9:141-157.
    Recently, Gilbert Harman has used empirical results obtained by social psychologists to argue that there are no character traits of the type presupposed by virtue ethics—no honesty or dishonesty, no courage or cowardice, in short, no virtue or vice. In this paper, I critically assess his argument as well as that of the social psychologists he appeals to. I suggest that the experimental results recounted by Harman would not much concern such classical virtue theorists as Plato—particularly the Plato of the (...)
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  43. Morality.Charles Lowney - 2009 - Tradition and Discovery 36 (3):52-65.
    New moral ways of being are answers to fundamental problems in the human condition regarding the best way to be and the best way to be with each other. Entering a new way of being entails crossing a logical gap into a new interpretive framework. Michael Polanyi’s from-to structure of knowing and discovery is used to show both how we can acquire the state of the good person through an imitation of their behaviors and why those behaviors must be practiced (...)
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  44. Friendship as an Impersonal Value.Todd Lekan - 2010 - Southwest Philosophy Review 26 (1):71-79.
    This paper defends a broadly Aristotelean account of character friendship that maintains that the impersonal value of acquiring a virtuous character is the ultimate basis for our reasons for caring about friends. This view of friendship appears to conflict with the entrenched intuition that viewing our connections to particular friends as merely contingent occasions for the cultivation of virtue is alienating and undesirable. I argue that far from being an alienating feature of character friendships, a focused appreciation of the contingent (...)
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  45. Culture and the Specification of Environmental Virtue.Ronald Sandler - 2003 - Philosophy in the Contemporary World 10 (2):63-68.
    One concern about a virtue ethics approach to environmental ethics is that virtue ethics lack the theoretical resources to provide a specification of environmental virtue that does not pander to obtaining cultural practices and conceptions of the human-nature relationship. In this paper I argue that this concern is unfounded.
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  46. Virtue Ethics: A Pluralistic View.Christine Swanton - 2003 - Clarendon Press.
    Christine Swanton offers a new, comprehensive theory of virtue ethics which addresses the major concerns of modern ethical theory from a character-based perspective. The book departs in significant ways from classical virtue ethics and neo-Aristotelianism, employing insights from Nietzsche and other sources, resulting in a highly distinctive and original brand of virtue ethics.
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  47. Drunken Role Models: Rescuing Our Sporting Exemplars.Carwyn Jones - 2011 - Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 5 (4):414 - 432.
    It is often claimed that elite professional athletes are role models and as such have certain duties to behave in morally appropriate ways. The argument is that given their influential status and influence, they should be good examples rather than bad ones. In relation to alcohol consumption and the problematic behaviours associated with excessive consumption, many professional athletes are bad role models. They consume too much and behave badly. Drawing on neo-Aristotelian insights I argue the following. First, persons who exhibit (...)
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  48. Happiness, Virtue and Tyranny: Matthew Pianalto Looks at the Difference Between Psychological and Philosophical Concepts of Happiness.Matthew Pianalto - 2008 - Philosophy Now 68:6-9.
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  49. Two Dilemmas in Virtue Ethics and How Zhu Xi’s Neo-Confucianism Avoids Them.Yong Huang - 2011 - Journal of Philosophical Research 36:247-281.
    Virtue ethics has become an important rival to deontology and consequentialism, the two dominant moral theories in modern Western philosophy. What unites various forms of virtue ethics and distinguishes virtue ethics from its rivals is its emphasis on the primacy of virtue. In this article, I start with an explanation of the primacy of virtue in virtue ethics and two dilemmas, detected by Gary Watson, that virtue ethics faces: (1) virtue ethics may maintain the primacy of virtue and thus leave (...)
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  50. The Advantages of Civic Friendship.Joyce L. Jenkins - 1999 - Journal of Philosophical Research 24:459-471.
    Aristotle distinguishes three types of friendship: virtue or character friendship, advantage friendship, and pleasure friendship. He also holds that the civic relation is a friendship, but it is unclear to which of the three types it belongs. There appear to be two candidates. It is either a character friendship, or an advantage friendship. I argue that it cannot be a character friendship, since that would entail that citizens have active goodwill toward one another, and Aristotle claims that such goodwill can (...)
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