Computer Ethics

Edited by Lavinia Marin (Delft University of Technology)
About this topic
Summary Computer ethics is a relatively new field of ethical inquiry, although some of its foundational texts range from 1960s. It can be seen as either a field of applied ethics (ethics applied to computers) or as form of professional ethics, but, more widely, as an attempt to re-think the human condition in light of digital technology developments. Fundamental ethical topics in this area include: responsibility, privacy, surveillance, automation and autonomy, the good life online, evil online, etc.
Key works Weckert, John (ed.). Computer ethics. Routledge, 2017 is an edited collection containing a selection of fundamental texts in computer ethics ranging from the 1960's until 2004.  Another comprehensive book is van den Hoven & Weckert 2008Information Technology and Moral Philosophy (2008)
Introductions Moor 1985  Floridi 2010 Müller 2020
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  1. Moral sensitivity and the limits of artificial moral agents.Joris Graff - 2024 - Ethics and Information Technology 26 (1):1-12.
    Machine ethics is the field that strives to develop ‘artificial moral agents’ (AMAs), artificial systems that can autonomously make moral decisions. Some authors have questioned the feasibility of machine ethics, by questioning whether artificial systems can possess moral competence, or the capacity to reach morally right decisions in various situations. This paper explores this question by drawing on the work of several moral philosophers (McDowell, Wiggins, Hampshire, and Nussbaum) who have characterised moral competence in a manner inspired by Aristotle. Although (...)
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  2. Mark Weiser and the Origins of Ubiquitous Computing. [REVIEW]Dustin Gray - 2024 - Metascience.
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  3. Moral Attribution in Moral Turing Test.Mubarak Hussain - 2023 - International Conference on Computer Ethics: Philosophical Enquiry May 16-18, 2023 Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Usa.
    This paper argues Moral Turing Test (MTT) developed by Allen et al. for evaluating morality in AI systems is designed inaptly. Different versions of the MTT focus on the conversational ability of an agent but not the performance of morally significant actions. Arnold and Scheutz also argue against the MTT and state that without focusing on the performance of morally significant actions, the MTT is insufficient. Morality is mainly about morally relevant actions because it does not matter how good a (...)
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  4. Telepresence as a social-historical mode of being. ChatGPT and the ontological dimensions of digital representation.Alexandros Schismenos - 2024 - Lessico di Etica Pubblica (1-2/2023):37-52.
    Nel 1956, in piena guerra fredda, una conferenza di scienziati al Dartmouth College negli Stati Uniti annunciò il lancio di un audace progetto scientifico, l’Intelligenza Artificiale (I.A.). Dopo l’iniziale fallimento degli sforzi della “Hard AI” di produrre un’intelligenza simile a quella umana, alla fine del XX secolo è emerso il movimento della “Soft AI”. Invece di essere orientato a imitare il comportamento umano in relazione a compiti specifici, ha preferito cercare modi alternativi di eseguire i compiti basati sulle particolari funzioni (...)
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  5. AI for crisis decisions.Tina Comes - 2024 - Ethics and Information Technology 26 (1):1-14.
    Increasingly, our cities are confronted with crises. Fuelled by climate change and a loss of biodiversity, increasing inequalities and fragmentation, challenges range from social unrest and outbursts of violence to heatwaves, torrential rainfall, or epidemics. As crises require rapid interventions that overwhelm human decision-making capacity, AI has been portrayed as a potential avenue to support or even automate decision-making. In this paper, I analyse the specific challenges of AI in urban crisis management as an example and test case for many (...)
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  6. Design culture for Sustainable urban artificial intelligence: Bruno Latour and the search for a different AI urbanism.Otello Palmini & Federico Cugurullo - 2024 - Ethics and Information Technology 26 (1):1-12.
    The aim of this paper is to investigate the relationship between AI urbanism and sustainability by drawing upon some key concepts of Bruno Latour’s philosophy. The idea of a sustainable AI urbanism - often understood as the juxtaposition of smart and eco urbanism - is here critiqued through a reconstruction of the conceptual sources of these two urban paradigms. Some key ideas of smart and eco urbanism are indicated as incompatible and therefore the fusion of these two paradigms is assessed (...)
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  7. Is moral status done with words?Miriam Gorr - 2024 - Ethics and Information Technology 26 (1).
    This paper critically examines Coeckelbergh’s (2023) performative view of moral status. Drawing parallels to Searle’s social ontology, two key claims of the performative view are identified: (1) Making a moral status claim is equivalent to making a moral status declaration. (2) A successful declaration establishes the institutional fact that the entity has moral status. Closer examination, however, reveals flaws in both claims. The second claim faces a dilemma: individual instances of moral status declaration are likely to fail because they do (...)
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  8. Ethics of generative AI and manipulation: a design-oriented research agenda.Michael Klenk - 2024 - Ethics and Information Technology 26 (1):1-15.
    Generative AI enables automated, effective manipulation at scale. Despite the growing general ethical discussion around generative AI, the specific manipulation risks remain inadequately investigated. This article outlines essential inquiries encompassing conceptual, empirical, and design dimensions of manipulation, pivotal for comprehending and curbing manipulation risks. By highlighting these questions, the article underscores the necessity of an appropriate conceptualisation of manipulation to ensure the responsible development of Generative AI technologies.
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  9. Diversity and language technology: how language modeling bias causes epistemic injustice.Fausto Giunchiglia, Gertraud Koch, Gábor Bella & Paula Helm - 2024 - Ethics and Information Technology 26 (1):1-15.
    It is well known that AI-based language technology—large language models, machine translation systems, multilingual dictionaries, and corpora—is currently limited to three percent of the world’s most widely spoken, financially and politically backed languages. In response, recent efforts have sought to address the “digital language divide” by extending the reach of large language models to “underserved languages.” We show how some of these efforts tend to produce flawed solutions that adhere to a hard-wired representational preference for certain languages, which we call (...)
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  10. Embracing grief in the age of deathbots: a temporary tool, not a permanent solution.Aorigele Bao & Yi Zeng - 2024 - Ethics and Information Technology 26 (1):1-10.
    “Deathbots,” digital constructs that emulate the conversational patterns, demeanor, and knowledge of deceased individuals. Earlier moral discussions about deathbots centered on the dignity and autonomy of the deceased. This paper primarily examines the potential psychological and emotional dependencies that users might develop towards deathbots, considering approaches to prevent problematic dependence through temporary use. We adopt a hermeneutic method to argue that deathbots, as they currently exist, are unlikely to provide substantial comfort. Lacking the capacity to bear emotional burdens, they fall (...)
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  11. Correction to: Weapons of moral construction? On the value of fairness in algorithmic decision-making.Simona Tiribelli & Benedetta Giovanola - 2024 - Ethics and Information Technology 26 (1):1-1.
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  12. The conceptual exportation question: conceptual engineering and the normativity of virtual worlds.Thomas Montefiore & Paul-Mikhail Catapang Podosky - 2024 - Ethics and Information Technology 26 (1):1-13.
    Debate over the normativity of virtual phenomena is now widespread in the philosophical literature, taking place in roughly two distinct but related camps. The first considers the relevant problems to be within the scope of applied ethics, where the general methodological program is to square the intuitive (im)permissibility of virtual wrongdoings with moral accounts that justify their (im)permissibility. The second camp approaches the normativity of virtual wrongdoings as a metaphysical debate. This is done by disambiguating the ‘virtual’ character of ‘virtual (...)
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  13. Engineers on responsibility: feminist approaches to who’s responsible for ethical AI.Eleanor Drage, Kerry McInerney & Jude Browne - 2024 - Ethics and Information Technology 26 (1):1-13.
    Responsibility has become a central concept in AI ethics; however, little research has been conducted into practitioners’ personal understandings of responsibility in the context of AI, including how responsibility should be defined and who is responsible when something goes wrong. In this article, we present findings from a 2020–2021 data set of interviews with AI practitioners and tech workers at a single multinational technology company and interpret them through the lens of feminist political thought. We reimagine responsibility in the context (...)
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  14. Building trust with digital democratic innovations.Anna Mikhaylovskaya & Élise Rouméas - 2024 - Ethics and Information Technology 26 (1):1-14.
    Digital Democratic Innovations (DDIs) have largely been conceived of, by the academic community, as a possible solution to the crisis of representative democracy. DDIs can be defined as initiatives or institutions designed with the goal of deepening citizens’ participation and influence on political decisions through the use of digital tools and platforms. There is a hope that DDIs (as well as usual, non-digital DIs) could help nurture political trust in governing institutions. Yet the vast majority of research on trust and (...)
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  15. How to teach responsible AI in Higher Education: challenges and opportunities.Andrea Aler Tubella, Marçal Mora-Cantallops & Juan Carlos Nieves - 2023 - Ethics and Information Technology 26 (1):1-14.
    In recent years, the European Union has advanced towards responsible and sustainable Artificial Intelligence (AI) research, development and innovation. While the Ethics Guidelines for Trustworthy AI released in 2019 and the AI Act in 2021 set the starting point for a European Ethical AI, there are still several challenges to translate such advances into the public debate, education and practical learning. This paper contributes towards closing this gap by reviewing the approaches that can be found in the existing literature and (...)
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  16. The Duty to Promote Digital Minimalism in Group Agents.Timothy Aylsworth & Clinton Castro - forthcoming - In Kantian Ethics and the Attention Economy: Duty and Distraction. Palgrave Macmillan.
    In this chapter, we turn our attention to the effects of the attention economy on our ability to act autonomously as a group. We begin by clarifying which sorts of groups we are concerned with, which are structured groups (groups sufficiently organized that it makes sense to attribute agency to the group itself). Drawing on recent work by Purves and Davis (2022), we describe the essential roles of trust (i.e., depending on groups to fulfill their commitments) and trustworthiness (i.e., the (...)
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  17. Can machine learning make naturalism about health truly naturalistic? A reflection on a data-driven concept of health.Ariel Guersenzvaig - 2024 - Ethics and Information Technology 26 (1):1-12.
    Through hypothetical scenarios, this paper analyses whether machine learning (ML) could resolve one of the main shortcomings present in Christopher Boorse’s Biostatistical Theory of health (BST). In doing so, it foregrounds the boundaries and challenges of employing ML in formulating a naturalist (i.e., prima facie value-free) definition of health. The paper argues that a sweeping dataist approach cannot fully make the BST truly naturalistic, as prior theories and values persist. It also points out that supervised learning introduces circularity, rendering it (...)
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  18. Digital twins, big data governance, and sustainable tourism.Eko Rahmadian, Daniel Feitosa & Yulia Virantina - 2023 - Ethics and Information Technology 25 (4):1-22.
    The rapid adoption of digital technologies has revolutionized business operations and introduced emerging concepts such as Digital Twin (DT) technology, which has the potential to predict system responses before they occur, making it an attractive option for smart and sustainable tourism. However, implementing DT software systems poses significant challenges, including compliance with regulations and effective communication among stakeholders, and concerns surrounding security, privacy, and trust with the use of big data. To address these challenges, this paper proposes a documentation framework (...)
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  19. Public health measures and the rise of incidental surveillance: Considerations about private informational power and accountability.B. A. Kamphorst & A. Henschke - 2023 - Ethics and Information Technology 25 (4):1-14.
    The public health measures implemented in response to the COVID-19 pandemic have resulted in a substantially increased shared reliance on private infrastructure and digital services in areas such as healthcare, education, retail, and the workplace. This development has (i) granted a number of private actors significant (informational) power, and (ii) given rise to a range of digital surveillance practices incidental to the pandemic itself. In this paper, we reflect on these secondary consequences of the pandemic and observe that, even though (...)
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  20. Conceptualising and regulating all neural data from consumer-directed devices as medical data: more scope for an unnecessary expansion of medical influence?Brad Partridge & Susan Dodds - 2023 - Ethics and Information Technology 25 (4):1-8.
    Neurodevices that collect neural (or brain activity) data have been characterised as having the ability to register the inner workings of human mentality. There are concerns that the proliferation of such devices in the consumer-directed realm may result in the mass processing and commercialisation of neural data (as has been the case with social media data) and even threaten the mental privacy of individuals. To prevent this, some argue that all raw neural data should be conceptualised and regulated as “medical (...)
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  21. The Right to Break the Law? Perfect Enforcement of the Law Using Technology Impedes the Development of Legal Systems.Bart Custers - 2023 - Ethics and Information Technology 25 (4):1-11.
    Technological developments increasingly enable monitoring and steering the behavior of individuals. Enforcement of the law by means of technology can be much more effective and pervasive than enforcement by humans, such as law enforcement officers. However, it can also bypass legislators and courts and minimize any room for civil disobedience. This significantly reduces the options to challenge legal rules. This, in turn, can impede the development of legal systems. In this paper, an analogy is made with evolutionary biology to illustrate (...)
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  22. Should we embrace “Big Sister”? Smart speakers as a means to combat intimate partner violence.Robert Sparrow, Mark Andrejevic & Bridget Harris - 2023 - Ethics and Information Technology 25 (4):1-13.
    It is estimated that one in three women experience intimate partner violence (IPV) across the course of their life. The popular uptake of “smart speakers” powered by sophisticated AI means that surveillance of the domestic environment is increasingly possible. Correspondingly, there are various proposals to use smart speakers to detect or report IPV. In this paper, we clarify what might be possible when it comes to combatting IPV using existing or near-term technology and also begin the project of evaluating this (...)
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  23. Computer Ethics – Basic Problems and the Question of Its Foundation.Slobodan Sadžakov - 2023 - Filozofska Istrazivanja 43 (1):147-169.
    In this paper we have looked at some of the fundamental issues in computer ethics and the characteristics and specific problems of its constitution as a discipline. One of the important issues we have analysed is the problem of access (methods) to a number of new phenomena that have emerged as a result of the wider application of computer technology. Among other things, we pointed out the need to respect the ethical heritage and approach – as a basis for a (...)
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  24. The landscape of data and AI documentation approaches in the European policy context.Josep Soler-Garrido, Blagoj Delipetrev, Isabelle Hupont & Marina Micheli - 2023 - Ethics and Information Technology 25 (4):1-21.
    Nowadays, Artificial Intelligence (AI) is present in all sectors of the economy. Consequently, both data-the raw material used to build AI systems- and AI have an unprecedented impact on society and there is a need to ensure that they work for its benefit. For this reason, the European Union has put data and trustworthy AI at the center of recent legislative initiatives. An important element in these regulations is transparency, understood as the provision of information to relevant stakeholders to support (...)
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  25. Generative AI models should include detection mechanisms as a condition for public release.Alistair Knott, Dino Pedreschi, Raja Chatila, Tapabrata Chakraborti, Susan Leavy, Ricardo Baeza-Yates, David Eyers, Andrew Trotman, Paul D. Teal, Przemyslaw Biecek, Stuart Russell & Yoshua Bengio - 2023 - Ethics and Information Technology 25 (4):1-7.
    The new wave of ‘foundation models’—general-purpose generative AI models, for production of text (e.g., ChatGPT) or images (e.g., MidJourney)—represent a dramatic advance in the state of the art for AI. But their use also introduces a range of new risks, which has prompted an ongoing conversation about possible regulatory mechanisms. Here we propose a specific principle that should be incorporated into legislation: that any organization developing a foundation model intended for public use must demonstrate a reliable detection mechanism for the (...)
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  26. Smart cities as a testbed for experimenting with humans? - Applying psychological ethical guidelines to smart city interventions.Verena Zimmermann - 2023 - Ethics and Information Technology 25 (4):1-15.
    Smart Cities consist of a multitude of interconnected devices and services to, among others, enhance efficiency, comfort, and safety. To achieve these aims, smart cities rely on an interplay of measures including the deployment of interventions targeted to foster certain human behaviors, such as saving energy, or collecting and exchanging sensor and user data. Both aspects have ethical implications, e.g., when it comes to intervention design or the handling of privacy-related data such as personal information, user preferences or geolocations. Resulting (...)
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  27. Person, thing, Robot: a moral and legal ontology for the 21st century and beyond: by David Gunkel. [REVIEW]Abootaleb Safdari - 2023 - Ethics and Information Technology 25 (4):1-4.
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  28. Violent video games: content, attitudes, and norms.Alexander Andersson & Per-Erik Milam - 2023 - Ethics and Information Technology 25 (4):1-12.
    Violent video games (VVGs) are a source of serious and continuing controversy. They are not unique in this respect, though. Other entertainment products have been criticized on moral grounds, from pornography to heavy metal, horror films, and Harry Potter books. Some of these controversies have fizzled out over time and have come to be viewed as cases of moral panic. Others, including moral objections to VVGs, have persisted. The aim of this paper is to determine which, if any, of the (...)
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  29. Current State of AI Governance.Jovana Davidovic - 2022 - Babl Ai Reports.
  30. The Metaverse: Virtual Metaphysics, Virtual Governance, and Virtual Abundance.Cody Turner - 2023 - Philosophy and Technology 36 (4):1-8.
    In his article ‘The Metaverse: Surveillant Physics, Virtual Realist Governance, and the Missing Commons,’ Andrew McStay addresses an entwinement of ethical, political, and metaphysical concerns surrounding the Metaverse, arguing that the Metaverse is not being designed to further the public good but is instead being created to serve the plutocratic ends of technology corporations. He advances the notion of ‘surveillant physics’ to capture this insight and introduces the concept of ‘virtual realist governance’ as a theoretical framework that ought to guide (...)
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  31. The contested role of AI ethics boards in smart societies: a step towards improvement based on board composition by sortition.Ludovico Giacomo Conti & Peter Seele - 2023 - Ethics and Information Technology 25 (4):1-15.
    The recent proliferation of AI scandals led private and public organisations to implement new ethics guidelines, introduce AI ethics boards, and list ethical principles. Nevertheless, some of these efforts remained a façade not backed by any substantive action. Such behaviour made the public question the legitimacy of the AI industry and prompted scholars to accuse the sector of ethicswashing, machinewashing, and ethics trivialisation—criticisms that spilt over to institutional AI ethics boards. To counter this widespread issue, contributions in the literature have (...)
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  32. Can E-Sport Gamers Permissibly Engage with Off-Limits Virtual Wrongdoings?Thomas Montefiore & Paul Formosa - 2023 - Philosophy and Technology 36 (4):1-3.
  33. Instilling moral value alignment by means of multi-objective reinforcement learning.M. Rodriguez-Soto, M. Serramia, M. Lopez-Sanchez & J. Antonio Rodriguez-Aguilar - 2022 - Ethics and Information Technology 24 (9).
    AI research is being challenged with ensuring that autonomous agents learn to behave ethically, namely in alignment with moral values. Here, we propose a novel way of tackling the value alignment problem as a two-step process. The first step consists on formalising moral values and value aligned behaviour based on philosophical foundations. Our formalisation is compatible with the framework of (Multi-Objective) Reinforcement Learning, to ease the handling of an agent’s individual and ethical objectives. The second step consists in designing an (...)
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  34. Empathy training through virtual reality: moral enhancement with the freedom to fall?Anda Zahiu, Emilian Mihailov, Brian D. Earp, Kathryn B. Francis & Julian Savulescu - 2023 - Ethics and Information Technology 25 (4):1-14.
    We propose to expand the conversation around moral enhancement from direct brain-altering methods to include technological means of modifying the environments and media through which agents can achieve moral improvement. Virtual Reality (VR) based enhancement would not bypass a person’s agency, much less their capacity for reasoned reflection. It would allow agents to critically engage with moral insights occasioned by a technologically mediated intervention. Users would gain access to a vivid ‘experience machine’ that allows for embodied presence and immersion in (...)
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  35. Melting contestation: insurance fairness and machine learning.Laurence Barry & Arthur Charpentier - 2023 - Ethics and Information Technology 25 (4):1-13.
    With their intensive use of data to classify and price risk, insurers have often been confronted with data-related issues of fairness and discrimination. This paper provides a comparative review of discrimination issues raised by traditional statistics versus machine learning in the context of insurance. We first examine historical contestations of insurance classification, showing that it was organized along three types of bias: pure stereotypes, non-causal correlations, or causal effects that a society chooses to protect against, are thus the main sources (...)
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  36. Calibrating machine behavior: a challenge for AI alignment.Erez Firt - 2023 - Ethics and Information Technology 25 (3):1-8.
    When discussing AI alignment, we usually refer to the problem of teaching or training advanced autonomous AI systems to make decisions that are aligned with human values or preferences. Proponents of this approach believe it can be employed as means to stay in control over sophisticated intelligent systems, thus avoiding certain existential risks. We identify three general obstacles on the path to implementation of value alignment: a technological/technical obstacle, a normative obstacle, and a calibration problem. Presupposing, for the purposes of (...)
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  37. Digitising reflective equilibrium.Charlie Harry Smith - 2023 - Ethics and Information Technology 25 (3):1-12.
    Reflective equilibrium is overdue a twenty-first century update. Despite its apparent popularity, there is scant evidence that theorists ever thoroughly implement the method, and fewer still openly and transparently publish their attempts to do so in print—stymying its supposed justificatory value. This paper proposes digitising reflective equilibrium as a solution. Inspired by the global open science movement, it advocates for coupling a novel, digital implementation of the equilibrating process with new publication norms that can capitalise on the inherent reproducibility of (...)
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  38. Ethics framework for predictive clinical AI model updating.Michal Pruski - 2023 - Ethics and Information Technology 25 (3):1-10.
    There is an ethical dilemma present when considering updating predictive clinical artificial intelligence (AI) models, which should be part of the departmental quality improvement process. One needs to consider whether withdrawing the AI model is necessary to obtain the relevant information from a naive patient population or whether to use causal inference techniques to obtain this information. Withdrawing an AI model from patient care might pose challenges if the AI model is considered standard of care, while use of causal inference (...)
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  39. Cognitive warfare: an ethical analysis.Seumas Miller - 2023 - Ethics and Information Technology 25 (3):1-10.
    This article characterises the nature of cognitive warfare and its use of disinformation and computational propaganda and its political and military purposes in war and in conflict short of war. It discusses both defensive and offensive measures to counter cognitive warfare and, in particular, measures that comply with relevant moral principles.
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  40. Peru facing the Fourth Industrial Revolution.Piero Gayozzo (ed.) - 2022 - Lima: Sociedad Secular Humanista del Perú.
    La Cuarta Revolución Industrial es un conjunto de transformaciones sociales que están y seguirán siendo provocadas en los próximos años por la irrupción de tecnologías que parecieran propias de las narraciones de ciencia ficción. Se trata de un grupo de tecnologías convergentes, es decir, que tienden a complementarse y cubrir áreas más allá del rubro o disciplina desde y para el que fueron diseñadas. A partir del informe de los talleres sobre tecnologías convergentes impulsados por el National Science Foudnation (NSF) (...)
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  41. How to do robots with words: a performative view of the moral status of humans and nonhumans.Mark Coeckelbergh - 2023 - Ethics and Information Technology 25 (3):1-9.
    Moral status arguments are typically formulated as descriptive statements that tell us something about the world. But philosophy of language teaches us that language can also be used performatively: we do things with words and use words to try to get others to do things. Does and should this theory extend to what we say about moral status, and what does it mean? Drawing on Austin, Searle, and Butler and further developing relational views of moral status, this article explores what (...)
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  42. Military robots should not look like a humans.Kamil Mamak & Kaja Kowalczewska - 2023 - Ethics and Information Technology 25 (3):1-10.
    Using robots in the military contexts is problematic at many levels. There are social, legal, and ethical issues that should be discussed first before their wider deployment. In this paper, we focus on an additional problem: their human likeness. We claim that military robots should not look like humans. That design choice may bring additional risks that endanger human lives and by that contradicts the very justification for deploying robots at war, which is decreasing human deaths and injuries. We discuss (...)
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  43. Norms and Causation in Artificial Morality.Laura Fearnley - forthcoming - Joint Proceedings of Acm Iui:1-4.
    There has been an increasing interest into how to build Artificial Moral Agents (AMAs) that make moral decisions on the basis of causation rather than mere correction. One promising avenue for achieving this is to use a causal modelling approach. This paper explores an open and important problem with such an approach; namely, the problem of what makes a causal model an appropriate model. I explore why we need to establish criteria for what makes a model appropriate, and offer-up such (...)
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  44. Privacy, Transparency, and Accountability in the NSA’s Bulk Metadata Program.Alan Rubel - 2015 - In Adam D. Moore (ed.), Privacy, Security, and Accountability: Ethics, Law, and Policy. London, UK: pp. 183-202.
    Disputes at the intersection of national security, surveillance, civil liberties, and transparency are nothing new, but they have become a particularly prominent part of public discourse in the years since the attacks on the World Trade Center in September 2001. This is in part due to the dramatic nature of those attacks, in part based on significant legal developments after the attacks (classifying persons as “enemy combatants” outside the scope of traditional Geneva protections, legal memos by White House counsel providing (...)
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  45. Using value sensitive design to understand transportation choices and envision a future transportation system.Kari Edison Watkins - 2018 - Ethics and Information Technology 23 (1):79-82.
    The increasing passengerization of transportation through shared ride services and driverless vehicles has the potential to vastly change the transportation system. Although values are sometimes considered in the design of information tools and through attitudes toward travel, the systematic approach of value sensitive design should be used in the design of transportation infrastructure to create a sustainable transportation future.
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  46. The importance of capabilities in the sustainability of information and communications technology programs: the case of remote Indigenous Australian communities. [REVIEW]Donna Vaughan - 2011 - Ethics and Information Technology 13 (2):131-150.
    The use of the capability approach as an evaluative tool for Information and Communication Technology (ICT) policy and programs in developing countries, in particular at a grass-roots community level, is an emerging field of application. However, one of the difficulties with ICT for development (ICT4D) evaluations is in linking what is often no more than a resource, for example basic access, to actual outcomes, or means to end. This article argues that the capability approach provides a framework for evaluating the (...)
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  47. Technology, capabilities and critical perspectives: what can critical theory contribute to Sen’s capability approach? [REVIEW]Yingqin Zheng & Bernd Carsten Stahl - 2011 - Ethics and Information Technology 13 (2):69-80.
    This paper explores what insights can be drawn from critical theory to enrich and strengthen Sen’s capability approach in relation to technology and human development. The two theories share some important commonalities: both are concerned with the pursuit of “a good life”; both are normative theories rooted in ethics and meant to make a difference, and both are interested in democracy. The paper provides a brief overview of both schools of thought and their applications to technology and human development. Three (...)
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  48. Editorial: Moral luck, social networking sites, and trust on the web. [REVIEW]Maria C. Bottis, Frances S. Grodzinsky & Herman T. Tavani - 2010 - Ethics and Information Technology 12 (4):297-298.
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  49. Owning the Future, Seth Shulman. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1999. [REVIEW]Joseph S. Fulda - 2000 - Ethics and Information Technology 2 (3):193-194.
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  50. Introduction: one thousand friends. [REVIEW]Dean Cocking, Jeroen van den Hoven & Job Timmermans - 2012 - Ethics and Information Technology 14 (3):179-184.
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