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  1. Michael Heim, The Metaphysics of Virtual Reality.D. Procida - forthcoming - Radical Philosophy.
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  2. The psychopathology of metaphysics.Billon Alexandre - 2024 - Metaphilosophy 1 (01):1-28.
    According to a common philosophical intuition, the deep nature of things is hidden from us, and the world as we know it through perception and science is somehow shallow and lacking in reality. For all we knwo, the intuition goes, we could be living in a cave facing shadows, in a dream or even in a computer simulation, This “intuition of unreality” clashes with a strong, but perhaps more naive, intuition to the effect that the world as we know it (...)
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  3. What are virtual items, and are they real?Rami Ali - 2024 - Asian Journal of Philosophy 3 (1).
    A central debate in the philosophy of virtual reality (VR) focuses on the reality of virtual items. Broadly, there are two main disagreements. Some views accept a metaphysical orientation to VR, and disagree on the reality of virtual items. For instance, David Chalmers (Disputatio 9(46):309-352, 2017, Disputatio 11(55):453- 486, 2019, 2022) defends digitalism, the view that virtual items are real digital items. Neil McDonnell & Nathan Wildman (Disputatio 11(55):371-397, 2019), by contrast, defend fictionalism, which maintains that virtual items are unreal (...)
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  4. Virtual properties: problems and prospects.Alexandre Declos - 2024 - Erkenntnis.
    According to David Chalmers, the virtual entities found in Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR) environments instantiate virtual properties of a specific kind. It has recently been objected that such a view (i) can’t extend to all types of properties; (ii) leads to a proliferation of property-types; (iii) implausibly ascribes massive errors to VR and AR users; and (iv) faces an analogue of Jackson’s “many-property problem”. My first objective here is to show that advocates of virtual properties can deal (...)
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  5. The Values of the Virtual.Rami Ali - 2023 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 40 (2):231-245.
    How do we assign values to virtual items, which include virtual objects, properties, events, subjects, worlds, environments, and experiences? In this article, I offer a framework for answering this question. After considering different value theses in the literature, I argue that whether we think these theses mutually exclusive or not turns on our view about the number of value-salient kinds virtual items belong to. Virtual monism is the view that virtual Xs belong to only one value-salient kind in relation to (...)
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  6. The Simulated Body: A Preliminary Investigation into the Relationship Between Neuroscientific Studies, Phenomenology and Virtual Reality.Damiano Cantone - 2023 - Foundations of Science 28 (4):1011-1020.
    The author of this paper discusses the theme of the "simulated body", that is the sense of "being there” in a body that is not one's own, or that does not exist in the way one perceives it. He addresses this issue by comparing Immersive Virtual Reality technology, the phenomenological approach, and Gerald Edelman's theory of Neural Darwinism. Virtual Reality has been used to throw light on some phenomena that cannot be studied experimentally in real life, and the results of (...)
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  7. Virtual Embodiment or: When I Enter Cyberspace, What Body Will I Inhabit?Heft Peter - 2023 - Cosmos and History : The Journal of Natural and Social Philosophy 19 (1):193-211.
    The following paper attempts to look at virtual reality technologies—and the (dis)embodiment affected by them—through a phenomenological lens. Specifically, augmenting traditional discussions of virtual reality as a purely technical problem, this paper seeks to bring Maurice Merleau-Ponty’s embodied phenomenology into the discussion to try to make sense of both what body we leave behind and what body we gain as we enter virtual worlds. To do this, I look both at historical examples of virtual reality technologies and their methods of (...)
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  8. The Metaverse: Virtual Metaphysics, Virtual Governance, and Virtual Abundance.Cody Turner - 2023 - Philosophy and Technology 36 (4):1-8.
    In his article ‘The Metaverse: Surveillant Physics, Virtual Realist Governance, and the Missing Commons,’ Andrew McStay addresses an entwinement of ethical, political, and metaphysical concerns surrounding the Metaverse, arguing that the Metaverse is not being designed to further the public good but is instead being created to serve the plutocratic ends of technology corporations. He advances the notion of ‘surveillant physics’ to capture this insight and introduces the concept of ‘virtual realist governance’ as a theoretical framework that ought to guide (...)
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  9. Entra nei miei sogni. Recensione di G. Grossi, La notte dei simulacri. Sogno, cinema, realtà virtuale, Johan & Levy, Monza 2021. [REVIEW]Giulia Andreini - 2022 - Cinergie 22:207-209.
  10. Entra nei miei sogni. Recensione di G. Grossi, La notte dei simulacri. Sogno, cinema, realtà virtuale, Johan & Levy, Monza 2021. [REVIEW]Giulia Andreini - 2022 - Cinergie 22:207-209.
  11. From Ancient Cave to Virtual Cave: Metaverse (Antik Mağaradan Sanal Mağaraya: Metaverse).Ergün Avcı - 2022 - Beytulhikme An International Journal of Philosophy 12 (12:4):981-1006.
    As much as reality itself, its reflections and appearances have taken a significant place in philosophical discussions. While Plato's Allegory of the Cave is one of the first of these discussions, the philosophy of the virtual shows the final state of these discussions today. The virtual cave is the modern-day version of Plato's cave. Appearances in Plato's cave have their own mode of existence, and likewise, virtual objects in the virtual cave have their own mode of existence. There are many (...)
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  12. Reality+: Virtual Worlds and the Problems of Philosophy.David John Chalmers - 2022 - New York: W. W. Norton.
    A leading philosopher takes a mind-bending journey through virtual worlds, illuminating the nature of reality and our place within it. Virtual reality is genuine reality; that's the central thesis of Reality+. In a highly original work of "technophilosophy," David J. Chalmers gives a compelling analysis of our technological future. He argues that virtual worlds are not second-class worlds, and that we can live a meaningful life in virtual reality. We may even be in a virtual world already. Along the way, (...)
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  13. L'ontologie du virtuel.Alexandre Declos - 2022 - Klēsis Revue Philosophique 52:1-25.
    David Chalmers a récemment soutenu que la réalité virtuelle est réelle, plutôt que fictionnelle. Dans cet article, j’examine les implications ontologiques de ce « réalisme virtuel ». Comme je le suggère, cette position s’associe naturellement à une ontologie algorithmique, qui identifie les objets virtuels à des structures de données comprises de manière fonctionnelle. Je présente ensuite plusieurs objections à cette ontologie algorithmique. Tant que celles-ci ne sont pas réglées, la question de l’identité des mondes et des objets virtuels reste encore (...)
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  14. Chalmers on Virtual Reality: Realism on the Cheap?Steffen Koch - 2022 - Analysis 82 (4):766-774.
    You sit in your office and put on the latest pair of virtual reality (VR) goggles. Suddenly, you stand in the middle of Times Square. A car almost hits you. You.
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  15. How the True World Finally Became Virtual Reality.Anna Longo - 2022 - Filozofski Vestnik 42 (2).
    As David J. Chalmers claims, “virtual reality is a sort of genuine reality, virtual objects are real objects, and what goes on in virtual reality is truly real.” In this paper, I will suggest that the philosophical hypothesis that we might live in a simulation can be considered to be the last and most nihilistic episode in the series of narrations about the true and apparent worlds that Nietzsche sketched in The Twilight of the Idols. I will argue that Nietzsche’s (...)
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  16. Dreaming as a virtual reality delusion simulator: gaining empathy whilst we sleep.Melanie G. Rosen - 2022 - International Journal of Dream Research 1 (15):73–85.
    The conscious experiences we have during sleep have the potential to improve our empathetic response to those who experience delusions and psychosis by supplying a virtual reality simulation of mental illness. Empathy for those with mental illness is lacking and there has been little improvement in the last decades despite efforts made to increase awareness. Our lack of empathy, in this case, may be due to an inability to accurately mentally simulate what it’s like to have a particular cognitive disorder. (...)
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  17. HoloFoldit and Hologrammatically Extended Cognition.Cody Turner - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (106):1-9.
    How does the integration of mixed reality devices into our cognitive practices impact the mind from a metaphysical and epistemological perspective? In his innovative and interdisciplinary article, “Minds in the Metaverse: Extended Cognition Meets Mixed Reality” (2022), Paul Smart addresses this underexplored question, arguing that the use of a hypothetical application of the Microsoft HoloLens called “the HoloFoldit” represents a technologically high-grade form of extended cognizing from the perspective of neo-mechanical philosophy. This short commentary aims to (1) carve up the (...)
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  18. Causation in a Virtual World: a Mechanistic Approach.Billy Wheeler - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (1):1-26.
    Objects appear to causally interact with one another in virtual worlds, such as video games, virtual reality, and training simulations. Is this causation real or is it illusory? In this paper I argue that virtual causation is as real as physical causation. I achieve this in two steps: firstly, I show how virtual causation has all the important hallmarks of relations that are causal, as opposed to merely accidental, and secondly, I show how virtual causation is genuine according to one (...)
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  19. General Relativity.Ilexa Yardley - 2022 - Intelligent Design Center.
    Space joins (and separates) any X and-or Y. X and-or Y is, necessarily, 0 and-or 1. 0 and-or 1 is, necessarily, circumference and-or diameter. Explaining (what humans think of as) gravity (general relativity) (the 'self' in all systems). Thereby, and, therein, explaining the relationship between mind and matter. Integrating philosophy and physics (abstract and concrete reality) (where you need both in order to have either). Thereby, and, therein, explaining everything in psychology (a completely tokenized ‘reality’). You can think of this (...)
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  20. No Such Thing as Reality.Ilexa Yardley - 2022 - Https://Medium.Com/the-Circular-Theory.
  21. The 'Two Universes' Theory.Ilexa Yardley - 2022 - Https://Medium.Com/the-Circular-Theory/.
    The human lives in two universes. One inside. The other outside. One completely abstract. The other concrete. Telling all of us something important about Nature and ‘reality.’.
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  22. The Cryptic Universe.Ilexa Yardley - 2022 - Intelligent Design Center.
    Information, and, thus, technology (any and every system and-or discipline), depends upon the tokenization (and, thus, the conservation) of a circle (one zero and one one) (one circumference and one diameter). Explaining the human mind, the ‘abstract object,’ and the cryptic universe. Where any (and every) ‘universe’ (think: unit) is totally dependent on the circular-linear relationship between abstract and concrete reality (which is fully accessible (and, thus, only, understandable)) via the Circular Theory diagram (a cryptic, concrete, fully tokenized, abstraction) (for (...)
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  23. Sentience and Conscious Experience: Feeling Dizzy on a Virtual Reality Roller Coaster Ride.A. Pereira Jr - 2021 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 28 (7-8):183-198.
  24. The Cryptic Universe.Ilexa Yardley - 2021 - Https://Medium.Com/the-Circular-Theory.
    Technology is answering our deepest questions about ‘reality.’ This is because Nature continually tokenizes an underlying, omnipresent, continually conserved, circular-linear relationship. Thus, zero and one (modern) is yin and yang (ancient) tying modern and ancient ideas about 'reality' together, and proving tokenization produces a cryptic 'reality.' Explaining science, and the 'search' for answers (perpetually).
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  25. Does what we dream feel present? Two varieties of presence and implications for measuring presence in VR.Michael Barkasi - 2020 - Synthese 199 (1-2):2525-2551.
    What’s presented in our normal waking perceptual visual experiences feels present to us, while what we “see” in pictures and imagine does not. What about dreams? Does what we “see” in a dream feel present? Jennifer Windt has argued for an affirmative answer, for all dreams. But the dreams which flow from the brain’s registration of myoclonic twitches present a challenge to this answer. During these dreams motion-guiding vision is shut off, and, as Mohan Matthen has argued, motion-guiding vision seems (...)
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  26. Fact, Fiction and Virtual Worlds.Alexandre Declos - 2020 - In R. Pouivet & V. Granata (eds.), Epistemology of Aesthetics. Rennes, France: Presses Universitaires de Rennes. pp. 195-219.
    This paper considers the medium of videogames from a goodmanian standpoint. After some preliminary clarifications and definitions, I examine the ontological status of videogames. Against several existing accounts, I hold that what grounds their identity qua work types is code. The rest of the paper is dedicated to the epistemology of videogaming. Drawing on Nelson Goodman and Catherine Elgin's works, I suggest that the best model to defend videogame cognitivism appeals to the notion of understanding.
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  27. The puzzle of virtual theft.Nathan Wildman & Neil McDonnell - 2020 - Analysis 80 (3):493-499.
    How can you steal something that doesn’t exist? This question confronts those of us who take an irrealist view of virtual objects and agree with the Supreme Court of the Netherlands that robbery took place when two boys used non-virtual violence to coerce a third boy into relinquishing his virtual amulet and mask. Here we outline this Puzzle of Virtual Theft, along with the closely related Puzzle of Virtual Value. After demonstrating how these puzzles are deeply problematic for the irrealist, (...)
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  28. Virtual Realism: Really Realism or only Virtually so? A Comment on D. J. Chalmers’s Petrus Hispanus Lectures.Claus Beisbart - 2019 - Disputatio 11 (55):297-331.
    What is the status of a cat in a virtual reality environment? Is it a real object? Or part of a fiction? Virtual realism, as defended by D. J. Chalmers, takes it to be a virtual object that really exists, that has properties and is involved in real events. His preferred specification of virtual realism identifies the cat with a digital object. The project of this paper is to use a comparison between virtual reality environments and scientific computer simulations to (...)
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  29. The Virtual as the Digital.David J. Chalmers - 2019 - Disputatio 11 (55):453-486.
    I reply to seven commentaries on “The Virtual and the Real”. In response to Claus Beisbart, Jesper Juul, Peter Ludlow, and Neil McDonnell and Nathan Wildman, I clarify and develop my view that virtual are digital objects, with special attention to the nature of digital objects and data structures. In response to Alyssa Ney and Eric Schwitzgebel, I clarify and defend my spatial functionalism, with special attention to the connections between space and consciousness. In response to Marc Silcox, I clarify (...)
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  30. Virtual Reality: Fictional all the Way Down (and that’s OK).Jesper Juul - 2019 - Disputatio 11 (55):333-343.
    Are virtual objects real? I will claim that the question sets us up for the wrong type of conclusion: Chalmers (2017) argues that a virtual calculator (like other entities) is a real calculator when it is “organizationally invariant” with its non-virtual counterpart—when it performs calculation. However, virtual reality and games are defined by the fact that they always selectively implement their source material. Even the most detailed virtual car will still have an infinite range of details which are missing (gas, (...)
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  31. The Social Furniture of Virtual Worlds.Peter Ludlow - 2019 - Disputatio 11 (55):345-369.
    David Chalmers argues that virtual objects exist in the form of data structures that have causal powers. I argue that there is a large class of virtual objects that are social objects and that do not depend upon data structures for their existence. I also argue that data structures are themselves fundamentally social objects. Thus, virtual objects are fundamentally social objects.
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  32. Virtual Reality: Digital or Fictional?Neil McDonnell & Nathan Wildman - 2019 - Disputatio 11 (55):371-397.
    Are the objects and events that take place in Virtual Reality genuinely real? Those who answer this question in the affirmative are realists, and those who answer in the negative are irrealists. In this paper we argue against the realist position, as given by Chalmers (2017), and present our own preferred irrealist account of the virtual. We start by disambiguating two potential versions of the realist position—weak and strong— and then go on to argue that neither is plausible. We then (...)
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  33. Virtual Subjectivity: Existence and Projectuality in Virtual Worlds.Daniel Vella & Stefano Gualeni - 2019 - Techné: Research in Philosophy and Technology 23 (2):115-136.
    This paper draws on the notion of the ‘project,’ as developed in the existential philosophy of Heidegger and Sartre, to articulate an understanding of the existential structure of engagement with virtual worlds. By this philosophical understanding, the individual’s orientation towards a project structures a mechanism of self-determination, meaning that the project is understood essentially as the project to make oneself into a certain kind of being. Drawing on existing research from an existential-philosophical perspective on subjectivity in digital game environments, the (...)
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  34. Agency and Embodiment: Groups, Human–Machine Interactions, and Virtual Realities.Johannes Himmelreich - 2018 - Ratio 31 (2):197-213.
    This paper develops a taxonomy of kinds of actions that can be seen in group agency, human–machine interactions, and virtual realities. These kinds of actions are special in that they are not embodied in the ordinary sense. I begin by analysing the notion of embodiment into three separate assumptions that together comprise what I call the Embodiment View. Although this view may find support in paradigmatic cases of agency, I suggest that each of its assumptions can be relaxed. With each (...)
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  35. The Virtual and the Real.David J. Chalmers - 2017 - Disputatio 9 (46):309-352.
    I argue that virtual reality is a sort of genuine reality. In particular, I argue for virtual digitalism, on which virtual objects are real digital objects, and against virtual fictionalism, on which virtual objects are fictional objects. I also argue that perception in virtual reality need not be illusory, and that life in virtual worlds can have roughly the same sort of value as life in non-virtual worlds.
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  36. Virtual Worlds and Their Challenge to Philosophy: Understanding the “Intravirtual” and the “Extravirtual”.Johnny Hartz Søraker - 2012 - Metaphilosophy 43 (4):499-512.
    The Web, in particular real-time interactions in three-dimensional virtual environments (virtual worlds), comes with a set of unique characteristics that leave our traditional frameworks inapplicable. The present article illustrates this by arguing that the notion of “technology relations,” as put forward by Ihde and Verbeek, becomes inapplicable when it comes to the Internet, and this inapplicability shows why these phenomena require new philosophical frameworks. Against this background, and more constructively, the article proposes a fundamental distinction between “intravirtual” and “extravirtual” consequences—a (...)
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  37. Hello Avatar: Dijital neslin yükselişi.Beth Coleman - 2011 - MIT Press.
    What is an avatar -- More than just another pretty face : the avatar effect -- Interview with the virtual cannibal -- Virtual presence -- X-reality, a conclusion.
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  38. Virtual entities, environments, worlds and reality: Suggested definitions and taxonomy.Johnny Hartz Søraker - 2011 - In Charles Ess & May Thorseth (eds.), Trust and Virtual Worlds: Contemporary Perspectives. Peter Lang.
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  39. Where am I? The Problem of Bilocation in Virtual Environments.Geert Gooskens - 2010 - Postgraduate Journal of Aesthetics 7 (3):13-24.
    In this paper, I deal with a striking phenomenon that often occurs when we explore the virtual environment of, for example, a video game. Suppose a friend sees me playing a video game and asks ‘Where are you?’ There are two possible answers to this question. I can either refer to my actual location (‘I am in my room’), but I can also refer to my location in the virtual world (‘I am in a space-ship’). Although my friend is probably (...)
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  40. The Experience of Virtual Reality in RPG(Role Playing Game). 최지연 - 2008 - The Journal of Indian Philosophy 24 (24):27-50.
    본 논문의 목적은 롤플레잉게임이라는 가상세계에 대해 인도 이원론의 관점에서 이해하고자 하는 것이다. 인도 이원론은 순수정신인 푸루샤와 순수물질인 프라크리티라는 두 원리를 완전히 다른 영역으로 분리하고 이 둘은 절대 혼합될 수 없다고 하면서도 푸루샤는 붓디라는 물질을 매개로 물질세계를 경험할 수 있다고 설명한다. 이러한 이론은 컴퓨터 속 가상세계와 현상적 물질세계가 완전히 다름에도 불구하고 현실세계의 인간이 가상세계의 게임캐릭터를 경험하는 것과 유사하다고 보인다. 현실세계의 게임 플레이어는 캐릭터에게 지성을 조명하는 푸루샤이자 직접 인식과 판단을 행하는 붓디이다. 플레이어는 캐릭터에게 지성을 부여하고 그 행위 결과를 감수한다. 그리고 그는 이 (...)
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  41. Virtual reality, ontology, and value.Norman Mooradian - 2006 - Metaphilosophy 37 (5):673-690.
    This article raises the question of how the ontological status of virtual objects bears on their intrinsic value. If virtual objects are unreal or less real than physical objects, does it mean that they will have less intrinsic value? If they have intrinsic value, what are the explanations for this value, and how do they relate to the ontological status of the virtual objects? First, the article reviews recent work concerning the ontological status of virtual reality and virtual objects. Second, (...)
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  42. The matrix as metaphysics.David J. Chalmers - 2005 - In Christopher Grau (ed.), Philosophers Explore the Matrix. Oxford University Press. pp. 132.
    The Matrix presents a version of an old philosophical fable: the brain in a vat. A disembodied brain is floating in a vat, inside a scientist’s laboratory. The scientist has arranged that the brain will be stimulated with the same sort of inputs that a normal embodied brain receives. To do this, the brain is connected to a giant computer simulation of a world. The simulation determines which inputs the brain receives. When the brain produces outputs, these are fed back (...)
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  43. Are we living in a computer simulation?By Nick Bostrom - 2003 - Philosophical Quarterly 53 (211):243–255.
    This paper argues that at least one of the following propositions is true: (1) the human species is very likely to go extinct before reaching a “posthuman” stage; (2) any posthuman civilization is extremely unlikely to run a significant number of simulations of their evolutionary history (or variations thereof); (3) we are almost certainly living in a computer simulation. It follows that the belief that there is a significant chance that we will one day become posthumans who run ancestor-simulations is (...)
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  44. Are We Living in a Computer Simulation?Nick Bostrom - 2003 - Philosophical Quarterly 53 (211):243-255.
    I argue that at least one of the following propositions is true: the human species is very likely to become extinct before reaching a ’posthuman’ stage; any posthuman civilization is extremely unlikely to run a significant number of simulations of its evolutionary history ; we are almost certainly living in a computer simulation. It follows that the belief that there is a significant chance that we shall one day become posthumans who run ancestor-simulations is false, unless we are currently living (...)
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  45. Virtual Reality.Derek Stanovsky - 2003 - In Luciano Floridi (ed.), The Blackwell guide to the philosophy of computing and information. Blackwell. pp. 167–177.
    The prelims comprise: Introduction Virtual Reality Virtual Metaphysics Virtual Identity Economic Reality.
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  46. Virtual reality and Metastable Interactivity.Neb Kujunszic - 2001 - Ends and Means 5 (1).
  47. Nature between fact and fiction: A note on virtual reality.Sven-Erik Larsen - 2001 - Σημιοτκή-Sign Systems Studies 1:187-202.
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  48. Virtual Realism.Michael Heim - 2000 - Oxford University Press USA.
    Virtual Realism is an art form and a way of living with technology. To explain it, Michael Heim draws on a hypertext of topics, from answering machines to interactive art, from engineering to television programs, from the meaning of UFOs to the Internet. The book begins with the primer 'VR 101'. The issues are discussed, then several chapters illustrate virtual realism with tours through art exhibits and engineering projects. Each chapter suggests a harmony of technology with lifestyle.
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  49. Genealogies of the self in virtual-geographical reality.Nydza Correa De Jesus - 1999 - In Ian Parker & Ángel J. Gordo-López (eds.), Cyberpsychology. New York: Routledge.
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  50. Virtual reality.Michael Heim - 1998 - In Michael Kelly (ed.), Encyclopedia of aesthetics. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 4--442.
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