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  1. The Simulated Body: A Preliminary Investigation into the Relationship Between Neuroscientific Studies, Phenomenology and Virtual Reality.Damiano Cantone - forthcoming - Foundations of Science:1-10.
    The author of this paper discusses the theme of the "simulated body", that is the sense of "being there” in a body that is not one's own, or that does not exist in the way one perceives it. He addresses this issue by comparing Immersive Virtual Reality technology, the phenomenological approach, and Gerald Edelman's theory of Neural Darwinism. Virtual Reality has been used to throw light on some phenomena that cannot be studied experimentally in real life, and the results of (...)
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  2. Michael Heim, The Metaphysics of Virtual Reality.D. Procida - forthcoming - Radical Philosophy.
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  3. Reality+: Virtual Worlds and the Problems of Philosophy.David J. Chalmers - 2022 - New York: W. W. Norton.
    A leading philosopher takes a mind-bending journey through virtual worlds, illuminating the nature of reality and our place within it. Virtual reality is genuine reality; that's the central thesis of Reality+. In a highly original work of "technophilosophy," David J. Chalmers gives a compelling analysis of our technological future. He argues that virtual worlds are not second-class worlds, and that we can live a meaningful life in virtual reality. We may even be in a virtual world already. Along the way, (...)
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  4. L'ontologie du virtuel.Alexandre Declos - 2022 - Klēsis Revue Philosophique 52:1-25.
    David Chalmers a récemment soutenu que la réalité virtuelle est réelle, plutôt que fictionnelle. Dans cet article, j’examine les implications ontologiques de ce « réalisme virtuel ». Comme je le suggère, cette position s’associe naturellement à une ontologie algorithmique, qui identifie les objets virtuels à des structures de données comprises de manière fonctionnelle. Je présente ensuite plusieurs objections à cette ontologie algorithmique. Tant que celles-ci ne sont pas réglées, la question de l’identité des mondes et des objets virtuels reste encore (...)
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  5. How the True World Finally Became Virtual Reality.Anna Longo - 2022 - Filozofski Vestnik 42 (2).
    As David J. Chalmers claims, “virtual reality is a sort of genuine reality, virtual objects are real objects, and what goes on in virtual reality is truly real.” In this paper, I will suggest that the philosophical hypothesis that we might live in a simulation can be considered to be the last and most nihilistic episode in the series of narrations about the true and apparent worlds that Nietzsche sketched in The Twilight of the Idols. I will argue that Nietzsche’s (...)
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  6. Dreaming as a Virtual Reality Delusion Simulator: Gaining Empathy Whilst We Sleep.Melanie G. Rosen - 2022 - International Journal of Dream Research 1 (15):73–85.
    The conscious experiences we have during sleep have the potential to improve our empathetic response to those who experience delusions and psychosis by supplying a virtual reality simulation of mental illness. Empathy for those with mental illness is lacking and there has been little improvement in the last decades despite efforts made to increase awareness. Our lack of empathy, in this case, may be due to an inability to accurately mentally simulate what it’s like to have a particular cognitive disorder. (...)
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  7. No Such Thing as Reality.Ilexa Yardley - 2022 - Https://Medium.Com/the-Circular-Theory.
  8. Sentience and Conscious Experience: Feeling Dizzy on a Virtual Reality Roller Coaster Ride.A. Pereira Jr - 2021 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 28 (7-8):183-198.
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  9. The Cryptic Universe.Ilexa Yardley - 2021 - Https://Medium.Com/the-Circular-Theory.
    Technology is answering our deepest questions about ‘reality.’ This is because Nature continually tokenizes an underlying, omnipresent, continually conserved, circular-linear relationship. Thus, zero and one (modern) is yin and yang (ancient) tying modern and ancient ideas about 'reality' together, and proving tokenization produces a cryptic 'reality.' Explaining science, and the 'search' for answers (perpetually).
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  10. Does What We Dream Feel Present? Two Varieties of Presence and Implications for Measuring Presence in VR.Michael Barkasi - 2020 - Synthese 199 (1-2):2525-2551.
    What’s presented in our normal waking perceptual visual experiences feels present to us, while what we “see” in pictures and imagine does not. What about dreams? Does what we “see” in a dream feel present? Jennifer Windt has argued for an affirmative answer, for all dreams. But the dreams which flow from the brain’s registration of myoclonic twitches present a challenge to this answer. During these dreams motion-guiding vision is shut off, and, as Mohan Matthen has argued, motion-guiding vision seems (...)
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  11. Virtual Realism: Really Realism or Only Virtually So? A Comment on D. J. Chalmers’s Petrus Hispanus Lectures.Claus Beisbart - 2019 - Disputatio 11 (55):297-331.
    What is the status of a cat in a virtual reality environment? Is it a real object? Or part of a fiction? Virtual realism, as defended by D. J. Chalmers, takes it to be a virtual object that really exists, that has properties and is involved in real events. His preferred specification of virtual realism identifies the cat with a digital object. The project of this paper is to use a comparison between virtual reality environments and scientific computer simulations to (...)
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  12. The Virtual as the Digital.David J. Chalmers - 2019 - Disputatio 11 (55):453-486.
    I reply to seven commentaries on “The Virtual and the Real”. In response to Claus Beisbart, Jesper Juul, Peter Ludlow, and Neil McDonnell and Nathan Wildman, I clarify and develop my view that virtual are digital objects, with special attention to the nature of digital objects and data structures. In response to Alyssa Ney and Eric Schwitzgebel, I clarify and defend my spatial functionalism, with special attention to the connections between space and consciousness. In response to Marc Silcox, I clarify (...)
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  13. Virtual Reality: Fictional All the Way Down.Jesper Juul - 2019 - Disputatio 11 (55):333-343.
    Are virtual objects real? I will claim that the question sets us up for the wrong type of conclusion: Chalmers argues that a virtual calculator is a real calculator when it is “organizationally invariant” with its non-virtual counterpart—when it performs calculation. However, virtual reality and games are defined by the fact that they always selectively implement their source material. Even the most detailed virtual car will still have an infinite range of details which are missing. This means that even the (...)
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  14. The Social Furniture of Virtual Worlds.Peter Ludlow - 2019 - Disputatio 11 (55):345-369.
    David Chalmers argues that virtual objects exist in the form of data structures that have causal powers. I argue that there is a large class of virtual objects that are social objects and that do not depend upon data structures for their existence. I also argue that data structures are themselves fundamentally social objects. Thus, virtual objects are fundamentally social objects.
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  15. Virtual Reality: Digital or Fictional?Neil McDonnell & Nathan Wildman - 2019 - Disputatio 11 (55):371-397.
    Are the objects and events that take place in Virtual Reality genuinely real? Those who answer this question in the affirmative are realists, and those who answer in the negative are irrealists. In this paper we argue against the realist position, as given by Chalmers, and present our own preferred irrealist account of the virtual. We start by disambiguating two potential versions of the realist position—weak and strong— and then go on to argue that neither is plausible. We then introduce (...)
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  16. Virtual Subjectivity: Existence and Projectuality in Virtual Worlds.Daniel Vella & Stefano Gualeni - 2019 - Techné: Research in Philosophy and Technology 23 (2):115-136.
    This paper draws on the notion of the ‘project,’ as developed in the existential philosophy of Heidegger and Sartre, to articulate an understanding of the existential structure of engagement with virtual worlds. By this philosophical understanding, the individual’s orientation towards a project structures a mechanism of self-determination, meaning that the project is understood essentially as the project to make oneself into a certain kind of being. Drawing on existing research from an existential-philosophical perspective on subjectivity in digital game environments, the (...)
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  17. Agency and Embodiment: Groups, Human–Machine Interactions, and Virtual Realities.Johannes Himmelreich - 2018 - Ratio 31 (2):197-213.
    This paper develops a taxonomy of kinds of actions that can be seen in group agency, human–machine interactions, and virtual realities. These kinds of actions are special in that they are not embodied in the ordinary sense. I begin by analysing the notion of embodiment into three separate assumptions that together comprise what I call the Embodiment View. Although this view may find support in paradigmatic cases of agency, I suggest that each of its assumptions can be relaxed. With each (...)
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  18. The Virtual and the Real.David J. Chalmers - 2017 - Disputatio 9 (46):309-352.
    I argue that virtual reality is a sort of genuine reality. In particular, I argue for virtual digitalism, on which virtual objects are real digital objects, and against virtual fictionalism, on which virtual objects are fictional objects. I also argue that perception in virtual reality need not be illusory, and that life in virtual worlds can have roughly the same sort of value as life in non-virtual worlds.
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  19. Virtual Worlds and Their Challenge to Philosophy: Understanding the “Intravirtual” and the “Extravirtual”.Johnny Hartz Søraker - 2012 - Metaphilosophy 43 (4):499-512.
    The Web, in particular real-time interactions in three-dimensional virtual environments (virtual worlds), comes with a set of unique characteristics that leave our traditional frameworks inapplicable. The present article illustrates this by arguing that the notion of “technology relations,” as put forward by Ihde and Verbeek, becomes inapplicable when it comes to the Internet, and this inapplicability shows why these phenomena require new philosophical frameworks. Against this background, and more constructively, the article proposes a fundamental distinction between “intravirtual” and “extravirtual” consequences—a (...)
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  20. Hello Avatar: Dijital Neslin Yükselişi.Beth Coleman - 2011 - MIT Press.
    What is an avatar -- More than just another pretty face : the avatar effect -- Interview with the virtual cannibal -- Virtual presence -- X-reality, a conclusion.
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  21. Virtual Entities, Environments, Worlds and Reality: Suggested Definitions and Taxonomy.Johnny Hartz Søraker - 2011 - In Charles Ess & May Thorseth (eds.), Trust and Virtual Worlds. Peter Lang.
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  22. Where Am I? The Problem of Bilocation in Virtual Environments.Geert Gooskens - 2010 - Postgraduate Journal of Aesthetics 7 (3):13-24.
    In this paper, I deal with a striking phenomenon that often occurs when we explore the virtual environment of, for example, a video game. Suppose a friend sees me playing a video game and asks ‘Where are you?’ There are two possible answers to this question. I can either refer to my actual location (‘I am in my room’), but I can also refer to my location in the virtual world (‘I am in a space-ship’). Although my friend is probably (...)
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  23. Virtual Reality, Ontology, and Value.Norman Mooradian - 2006 - Metaphilosophy 37 (5):673-690.
  24. The Matrix as Metaphysics.David J. Chalmers - 2005 - In Christopher Grau (ed.), Philosophers Explore the Matrix. Oxford University Press. pp. 132.
    The Matrix presents a version of an old philosophical fable: the brain in a vat. A disembodied brain is floating in a vat, inside a scientist’s laboratory. The scientist has arranged that the brain will be stimulated with the same sort of inputs that a normal embodied brain receives. To do this, the brain is connected to a giant computer simulation of a world. The simulation determines which inputs the brain receives. When the brain produces outputs, these are fed back (...)
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  25. Virtual Reality.Derek Stanovsky - 2004 - In L. Floridi (ed.), The Blackwell Guide to the Philosophy of Computing and Information. Blackwell. pp. 167--177.
  26. Virtual Reality and Metastable Interactivity.Neb Kujunszic - 2001 - Ends and Means 5 (1).
  27. Virtual Realism.Michael Heim - 2000 - Oxford University Press USA.
    Virtual Realism is an art form and a way of living with technology. To explain it, Michael Heim draws on a hypertext of topics, from answering machines to interactive art, from engineering to television programs, from the meaning of UFOs to the Internet. The book begins with the primer 'VR 101'. The issues are discussed, then several chapters illustrate virtual realism with tours through art exhibits and engineering projects. Each chapter suggests a harmony of technology with lifestyle.
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  28. Virtual Reality.Michael Heim - 1998 - In Michael Kelly (ed.), Encyclopedia of Aesthetics. Oxford University Press. pp. 4--442.
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  29. Technological Change and Ontological Transformations: The Case of Virtual Reality.Agustín Araya - 1997 - Ludus Vitalis 2 (UMERO ESPECIAL):221-239.
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  30. Over-Writing the Body: Virtual Reality and Cartesian Metahysics.Robert Switzer - 1997 - Philosophy Today 41 (4):507.
  31. How Real Are Virtual Realities, How Virtual is Reality?-Constructive Re-Interpretation of Physical Undecidability.K. Svozil - 1996 - Complexity 1 (4):43-54.
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  32. Michael Heim, The Metaphysics of Virtual Reality. [REVIEW]Wes Cooper - 1995 - Philosophy in Review 15:42-44.
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  33. Michael Heim, The Metaphysics of Virtual Reality Reviewed By.Wes Cooper - 1995 - Philosophy in Review 15 (1):42-44.
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  34. The Metaphysics of Virtual Reality. [REVIEW]Daniele Procida - 1995 - Radical Philosophy 72.
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  35. Mind Embodied: Computergenerated Virtual Reality as a New, Interactive Dualism.C. T. Tart - 1993 - In K. Ramakrishna Rao (ed.), Cultivating Consciousness. Praeger. pp. 123--137.
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  36. Virtual Reality: Theory, Practice, and Promise.Sandra K. Helsel & Judith Paris Roth - 1991 - Information Today Incorporated.
    On the creation of highly interactive, computer-based multimedia environments in which the user becomes a participant with the computer in a "virtually real" world. Essentially, the volume is a republication of articles published in the summer 1990 issue of Multimedia review, plus an additional previously unpublished article on metaphysics, a directory of companies and individuals working with virtual reality concepts and technology, and a suggested readings list. Annotation copyrighted by Book News, Inc., Portland, OR.
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  37. The Reality of Virtual Reality.Pascal Drovix - unknown
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  38. Defining Cyberspace (Finding Real Virtue in the Place of Virtual Reality).Thomas Folsom - unknown
    The law has neither defined cyberspace nor its values. As a result, the attempt to apply legal rules of "ordinary" space to cyberspace fails to address either the ordinary or the extraordinary features of the new space. This Article proposes that cyberspace be defined as an embodied switched network for moving information traffic, further characterized by degrees of access, navigation, information-activity, augmentation (and trust). Legal conflicts, whether sounding in contract, trademark, copyright, personal jurisdiction, choice of law, or some other basis, (...)
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  39. Virtually Nothing: Re-Evaluating the Significance of Cyberspace.Andy Miah - unknown
    This paper provides a critical analysis of virtual environments made in recent leisure and cultural studies discussions, which claim virtual reality to be the technotopia of post-modern society. Such positions describe virtual realities as worlds of in nite freedom, which transcend human subjectivity and where identity becomes no longer burdened by the prejudices of persons. Arguing that cyberspace offers little more than a token gesture towards such liberation, the paper suggests a shift in focus from the power relations that might (...)
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  40. The Dreams of Alpha-Lupi: A Trip In Virtual Reality.Francisco Valdez - manuscript
    Dreams as Virtual Reality simulations. When David Chalmers wrote “The Virtual and the Real” the argument many focused on the metaphysical and epistemic nature Virtual Reality and how it compares to waking states and dreaming sates. But one interesting segment of the paper is where he defends his thesis by claiming that dreams are not experiences. This is where I take issue and, in my paper, I claim that dreams as much as VR are epistemically similar enough to be called (...)
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  41. Being (T)Here: A Case for the Presence of Place in Desktop Virtual Worlds.Maeva Veerapen - unknown
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