About this topic
Summary Academic skepticism was one of the two major ancient skeptical traditions. The skeptical Academic movement arose out of both the epistemological debate between Academics and Stoics and the return to Socrates’ dialectical style of philosophizing. The skeptical phase of the Academy ranges from Arcesilaus (316/5–241/0 BC), through Carneades (214–129/8 BC) and his student Clitomachus (187–10 BC), to Philo of Larissa (159/8–84/3 BC), to name only the most important figures.
Key works Hankinson 1995 and Thorsrud 2009 offer detailed presentations of the skeptical phase of the Academy.
Introductions Machuca 2011
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198 found
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  1. The Carneades Model of Argument and Burden of Proof.Douglas Walton - manuscript
    with Thomas F. Gordon and Henry Prakken. Artificial Intelligence, forthcoming. [Preprint posted.].
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  2. Carneades: The One and Only.Kilian Fleischer - forthcoming - Journal of Hellenic Studies:1-9.
    The Academic scholarch Carneades of Cyrene withdrew from active lecturing several years before his death. He handed the Academy over – either formally or informally – to a successor, who remained in charge for six years and passed away in Carneades’ own lifetime. Philodemus reports this episode three times in the Index Academicorum. Since 1869 scholars have never questioned the notion that Carneades’ lifetime-successor was a namesake: Carneades, son of Polemarchus. Now, new readings of several lines in all three passages (...)
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  3. Review of Peter S. Fosl, Hume's Scepticism: Pyrrhonian and Academic. [REVIEW]Charles Goldhaber - forthcoming - Hume Studies.
    Peter Fosl's new monograph offers a bold reading of Hume as a "radical," "coherent," and "hybrid" skeptic, who draws influence from both the Pyrrhonian and Academic skeptical traditions. I press some concerns about whether Fosl's reading of Hume can accommodate his scientific ambitions.
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  4. The Starting-Points for Knowledge: Chrysippus on How to Acquire and Fortify Insecure Apprehension.Simon Shogry - forthcoming - Phronesis: A Journal for Ancient Philosophy.
    This paper examines some neglected Chrysippean fragments on insecure apprehension (κατάληψις). First, I present Chrysippus’ account of how non-Sages can begin to fortify their insecure apprehension and upgrade it into knowledge (ἐπιστήμη). Next, I reconstruct Chrysippus’ explanation of how sophisms and counter-arguments lead one to abandon one’s insecure apprehension. One such counter-argument originates in the sceptical Academy and targets the Stoic claim that insecure apprehension can be acquired on the basis of custom (συνήθεια). I show how Chrysippus could defend the (...)
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  5. Philo of Larissa.Charles Brittain & Peter Osorio - 2021 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  6. Arcesilaus.Charles Brittain & Peter Osorio - 2021 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  7. Beyond Hellenistic Epistemology: Arcesilaus and the Destruction of Stoic Metaphysics.Charles E. Snyder - 2021 - Bloomsbury Publishing.
    Charles E. Snyder considers the New Academy's attacks on Stoic epistemology through a critical re-assessment of the 3rd century philosopher, Arcesilaus of Pitane. Arguing that the standard epistemological framework used to study the ancient Academy ignores the metaphysical dimensions at stake in Arcesilaus's critique, Snyder explores new territory for the historiography of Stoic-Academic debates in the early Hellenistic period. Focusing on the dispute between the Old and New Academy, reveals the metaphysical dimensions of Arcesilaus' arguments as essential to grasping what (...)
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  8. Of Dreams, Demons, and Whirlpools: Doubt, Skepticism, and Suspension of Judgment in Descartes's Meditations.Jan Forsman - 2021 - Dissertation, Tampere University
    I offer a novel reading in this dissertation of René Descartes’s (1596–1650) skepticism in his work Meditations on First Philosophy (1641–1642). I specifically aim to answer the following problem: How is Descartes’s skepticism to be read in accordance with the rest of his philosophy? This problem can be divided into two more general questions in Descartes scholarship: How is skepticism utilized in the Meditations, and what are its intentions and relation to the preceding philosophical tradition? -/- I approach the topic (...)
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  9. Fuad Alidoust, Natio molestissima. Römerzeitliche Perserbilder von Cicero bis Ammianus Marcellinus, Gutenberg (Computus Druck Satz & Verlag) 2020, 560 S., ISBN 978-3-940598-44-8 (geb.), € 98,–Natio molestissima. Römerzeitliche Perserbilder von Cicero bis Ammianus Marcellinus. [REVIEW]Katarzyna Maksymiuk - 2021 - Klio 103 (2):761-765.
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  10. The Stoic Appeal to Expertise: Platonic Echoes in the Reply to Indistinguishability.Simon Shogry - 2021 - Apeiron 54 (2):129-159.
    One Stoic response to the skeptical indistinguishability argument is that it fails to account for expertise: the Stoics allow that while two similar objects create indistinguishable appearances in the amateur, this is not true of the expert, whose appearances succeed in discriminating the pair. This paper re-examines the motivations for this Stoic response, and argues that it reveals the Stoic claim that, in generating a kataleptic appearance, the perceiver’s mind is active, insofar as it applies concepts matching the perceptual stimulus. (...)
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  11. Arcesilaus and the Ontology of Stoic Cognition.Charles E. Snyder - 2020 - Review of Metaphysics 73 (March):455-493.
    The focus of this paper is the dispute between the Academic Arcesilaus of Pitane (ca. 316–240 BC) and the philosophy of Zeno of Citium. Scholars typically claim that Arcesilaus set out to attack Zeno’s epistemology or theory of knowledge. The framework of epistemology prevails in the modern reconstruction of Arcesilaus’s arguments. Proponents of this framework usually contend that the epistemic possibility of Stoic “cognition” or “apprehension” (κατάληψις) is the principal aim of Arcesilaus’s attack. The aim of this article is to (...)
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  12. Beyond Reasonable Doubt? A Note on Dharmakīrti and Scepticism.Vincent Eltschinger - 2020 - In Oren Hanner (ed.), Buddhism and Scepticism: Historical, Philosophical, and Comparative Perspectives. Freiburg/Bochum: pp. 37-53.
  13. Cicero philosophus. Ciceros philosophische Schriften im Lateinunterricht.Magnus Frisch - 2020 - In Cicero als Bildungsautor der Gegenwart (Ars Didactica – Alte Sprachen lehren und lernen; Bd. 6). Heidelberg: pp. 9-33.
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  14. Introduction.Oren Hanner - 2020 - In Buddhism and Scepticism: Historical, Philosophical, and Comparative Perspectives. Freiburg/Bochum: pp. 15-20.
  15. Michael Foley, Against the Academics: St. Augustine’s Cassiciacum Dialogues, Volume 1. [REVIEW]Erik Kenyon - 2020 - Bryn Mawr Classical Review 1:36.
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  16. Ancient Theories of Freedom and Determinism.Tim O'Keefe - 2020 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy:00-00.
    A fairly long (~15,000 word) overview of ancient theories of freedom and determinism. It covers the supposed threat of causal determinism to "free will," i.e., the sort of control we need to have in order to be rightly held responsible for our actions. But it also discusses fatalistic arguments that proceed from the Principle of Bivalence, what responsibility we have for our own characters, and god and fate. Philosophers discussed include Aristotle, Epicurus, the Stoics, Carneades, Alexander of Aphrodisias, and Plotinus. (...)
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  17. The School of Doubt: Skepticism, History, and Politics in Cicero's Academica, Written by Orazio Cappello. [REVIEW]Peter Osorio - 2020 - Bryn Mawr Classical Review.
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  18. Arcesilao di Pitane. L’origine del platonismo neoaccademico, written by Simone Vezzoli.Bianca Falcioni - 2019 - International Journal of the Platonic Tradition 13 (2):203-205.
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  19. Defining Friendship in Cicero's de Amicitia.Thornton Lockwood - 2019 - Ancient Philosophy 39 (2):1-18.
    Scholars have disagreed on whether Cicero’s De Amicitia is a philosophically serious or even coherent work. Such criticisms, I believe, can be met by an examination of the successive accounts of friendship that the character of Gaius Laelius provides in the dialogue. I argue that the dialogue offers three such accounts of friendship which taken together provide a comprehensive and coherent account of friendship. Further, I defend Cicero’s account against criticisms that Aulus Gellius had raised in the 2nd century CE (...)
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  20. Scepticisme, apraxia et rationalité.Diego E. Machuca - 2019 - In Diego E. Machuca & Stéphane Marchand (eds.), Les raisons du doute: études sur le scepticisme antique. Paris: Classiques Garnier. pp. 53-87.
    La présente étude a deux objectifs. Le premier est d’examiner les différentes formulations de l’objection de l’ἀπραξία telle qu’elle fut soulevée contre le scepticisme académicien et le pyrrhonisme, ainsi que les réponses à cette objection proposées par Arcésilas et Sextus Empiricus. Le second objectif consiste à évaluer la force de la version de l’objection de l’ἀπραξία selon laquelle le sceptique ne peut réaliser les actions rationnelles propres à l’être humain.
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  21. Les raisons du doute: études sur le scepticisme antique.Diego E. Machuca & Stéphane Marchand (eds.) - 2019 - Paris: Classiques Garnier.
    Le scepticisme est une véritable constante de l’histoire de la philosophie depuis l’Antiquité. En se nourrissant des désaccords philosophiques, il ne cesse de se transformer pour mieux remettre en cause les certitudes du dogmatisme. Ce volume présente des contributions en langue française de spécialistes de la pensée sceptique dans l’antiquité, domaine qui s’est considérablement développé ces dernières années. Les études ici présentées portent aussi bien sur le pyrrhonisme que sur la nouvelle Académie ou l’empirisme médical ; elles utilisent une variété (...)
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  22. Augustine's Defence of Knowledge Against the Sceptics.Tamer Nawar - 2019 - Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 56:215-265.
    In his Contra Academicos, Augustine offers one of the most detailed responses to scepticism to have come down to us from antiquity. In this paper, I examine Augustine’s defence of the existence of infallible knowledge in Contra Academicos 3. I challenge a number of established views (including those of Myles Burnyeat, Gareth Matthews, and Christopher Kirwan) concerning the nature and merit of Augustine’s defence of knowledge and propose a new understanding of Augustine’s response to scepticism (including his semantic response to (...)
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  23. Cicero’s Skepticism and His Recovery of Political Philosophy.William H. F. Altman - 2018 - Ancient Philosophy 38 (1):225-229.
  24. On the Teaching of Ethics From Polemo to Arcesilaus.Charles E. Snyder - 2018 - Études Platoniciennes 14.
    Less than a century after Plato’s death, the Academy’s scholarch Arcesilaus of Pitane inaugurates a peculiar oral phase of Academic philosophy, deciding not to write philosophical works or openly teach his own doctrines. Scholars often attribute a radical change of direction to the school under his headship, taking early Stoic epistemology to be the primary target of the New Academy’s attack on Stoic philosophy. This paper defends a rival view of Arcesilaus’ Academic revolution. Shifting the focus of that attack from (...)
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  25. Augustine and the Dialogue.Erik Kenyon - 2018 - Cambridge University Press.
    Contrary to the scholarly consensus, Augustine and the Dialogue argues that Augustine's dialogues, with their inconclusive debates and dramatic shifts in focus, betray a sophisticated pedagogical method which combines strategies for 'un-learning' and self-reflection with a willingness to proceed via provisional answers. By shifting the focus from doctrinal content to questions of method, Kenyon seeks to reframe scholarly discussions of Augustine's earliest surviving body of works. This approach shows the young Augustine not refuting so much as appropriating Academic skeptical practices. (...)
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  26. Skepticism: From Antiquity to the Present.Diego E. Machuca & Baron Reed (eds.) - 2018 - Bloomsbury Academic.
    Skepticism: From Antiquity to the Present is an authoritative and up-to-date survey of the entire history of skepticism. Divided chronologically into ancient, medieval, renaissance, modern, and contemporary periods, and featuring 50 specially-commissioned chapters from leading philosophers, this comprehensive volume is the first of its kind.
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  27. Las respuestas académicas a la objeción de apraxia.Christian F. Pineda-Pérez - 2018 - Praxis Filosófica 46:221-42.
    En este artículo reconstruyo y analizo las respuestas de los escépticos académicos a la objeción de apraxia. Esta objeción afirma que el escepticismo es una doctrina imposible de practicar puesto que sus tesis conducen a la apraxia, esta es, un estado de privación o imposibilidad de acción. Las respuestas a la objeción se dividen en dos clases. La primera prueba que el asentimiento no es una condición necesaria para realizar acciones, por lo que la recomendación escéptica de suspender global y (...)
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  28. Creating a Mind Fit for Truth.Simon Shogry - 2018 - Ancient Philosophy 38 (2):357-381.
    This paper offers a new defense of the externalist interpretation of the kataleptic impression. My strategy is to situate the kataleptic impression within the larger context of the Stoic account of expertise. I argue that, given mastery in recognizing the limitations of her own state of mind, the subject can restrict her assent to kataleptic impressions, even if they are phenomenologically indistinguishable from those which are not kataleptic.
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  29. Arcesilaus: Socratic Skepticism in Plato's Academy.Harald Thorsrud - 2018 - Lexicon Philosophicum: Hellenistic Theories of Knowledge.
    The fundamental issue regarding Arcesilaus’ skepticism is whether it should be understood as a philosophical position or as a strictly dialectical practice with no doctrinal content. In this paper I argue that it is both by providing an account of the epistemic principles informing his practice along with a positive doxastic attitude that he may consistently take towards those principles. I further show how Arcesilaus may have reasonably derived his Socratic project, including the epistemic principles and his distinctive cognitive attitude, (...)
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  30. Carneades.Harald Thorsrud - 2018 - In Diego E. Machuca & Baron Reed (eds.), Skepticism: From Antiquity to the Present. London, UK: pp. 51-66.
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  31. Ciceronian Academic Skepticism, Augustinian Anti-Skepticism, and the Argument From Second Place.Scott F. Aikin - 2017 - Ancient Philosophy 37 (2):387-405.
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  32. Plato and the Freedom of the New Academy.Charles E. Snyder - 2017 - In Harold Tarrant, François Renaud, Dirk Baltzly & Danielle A. Layne (eds.), Brill’s Companion to the Reception of Plato in Antiquity. Leiden/Boston: Brill. pp. 58–71.
    Scholars of Greek and Roman antiquity advance a variety of reasons to explain why the study of Hellenistic philosophy remains dependent on fragments and testimonies. Mansfeld observes such dependence in his use of the premise that philosophers of late antiquity based philosophical instruction and school curricula on a core set of writings from the classical period. On this basis, Mansfeld infers that schools of late antiquity continually transcribed and preserved writings of instructional significance. The schools routinely excluded other classical and (...)
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  33. Transgressions Are Equal, and Right Actions Are Equal: Some Philosophical Reflections on Paradox III in Cicero’s Paradoxa Stoicorum.Daniel Rönnedal - 2017 - Philosophia 45 (1):317-334.
    In Paradoxa Stoicorum, the Roman philosopher Cicero defends six important Stoic theses. Since these theses seem counterintuitive, and it is not likely that the average person would agree with them, they were generally called "paradoxes". According to the third paradox, (P3), (all) transgressions (wrong actions) are equal and (all) right actions are equal. According to one interpretation of this principle, which I will call (P3′), it means that if it is forbidden that A and it is forbidden that B, then (...)
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  34. ‘Cicero's’ Philosophical Views - Altman the Revival of Platonism in Cicero's Late Philosophy. Platonis Aemulus and the Invention of Cicero. Pp. XXXII + 350. Lanham, Boulder, New York and London: Lexington Books, 2016. Cased, £70, Us$100. Isbn: 978-1-4985-2711-8. [REVIEW]Malcolm Schofield - 2017 - The Classical Review 67 (2):391-393.
  35. Cicero’s De Finibus.Julia Annas & Gábor Betegh (eds.) - 2016 - Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Cicero is increasingly recognised as a highly intelligent contributor to the ongoing ethical debates between Epicureans, Stoics and other schools. In this work on the fundamentals of ethics his learning as a scholar, his skill as a lawyer and his own passion for the truth result in a work which dazzles us in its presentation of the debates and at the same time exhibits the detachment of the ancient sceptic. Many kinds of reader will find themselves engaged with Cicero as (...)
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  36. Grasp and Dissent: Cicero and Epicurean Philosophy by Stefano Maso. [REVIEW]Harald Thorsrud - 2016 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 54 (4):675-676.
    This book will be of considerable interest to those familiar with Hellenistic philosophy generally and with Cicero’s philosophical dialogues in particular. Maso’s close readings of the primary texts produce many valuable insights into Cicero’s philosophical worldview and his complex and nuanced attitude toward Epicurean physics, theology, epistemology, and ethics. One of the central themes of the work is the tempering of Cicero’s devotion to the primacy of the political life. Maso aims to show how this is reflected over time in (...)
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  37. Grasp and Dissent: Cicero and Epicurean Philosophy.Stefano Maso - 2015 - Brepols Publishers.
    The present study centres on the distinctive characteristics of Cicero's philosophical training. Not only does Cicero exhibit his lofty philosophical proficiency anchored in the Academic school, but he also proves an excellent authority on Epicurus's proposed philosophy.
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  38. Carneades’ Approval as a Weak Assertion: A Non-Dialectical Interpretation of Academic Skepticism.Renata Zieminska - 2015 - The European Legacy 20 (6):591-602.
    Academic skepticism is usually interpreted as a type of discourse without an assertion (a dialectical interpretation). I argue against this interpretation. One can interpret Carneades’ notion of approval as our notion of weak assertion and thereby ascribe to him his own views (a non-dialectical interpretation). In Academica Cicero reports the debate about the status of approval as a kind of assent among Carneades’ followers, especially the views of Clitomachus and Philo of Larissa. According to Clitomachus, approving impressions implies acting on (...)
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  39. Roman Political Thought: From Cicero to Augustine.Dean Hammer - 2014 - Cambridge University Press.
    Roman Political Thought is the first comprehensive treatment of the political thought of the Romans. Dean Hammer argues that the Romans were engaged in a wide-ranging and penetrating reflection on politics. The Romans did not create utopias. Instead, their thinking was relentlessly shaped by their own experiences of violence, the enormity and frailty of power, and an overwhelming sense of loss of the traditions that oriented them to their responsibilities as social, political, and moral beings. However much the Romans are (...)
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  40. Der Schiffbrüchige Odysseus Oder: Wie Arkesilaos Zum Skeptiker Wurde.Michael Lurie - 2014 - Philologus: Zeitschrift für Antike Literatur Und Ihre Rezeption 158 (1):183-186.
    The paper proposes a new interpretation of Timon's attack on Arcesilaus in fr. 806 SH.
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  41. The Stoic Account of Apprehension.Tamer Nawar - 2014 - Philosophers' Imprint 14:1-21.
    This paper examines the Stoic account of apprehension (κατάληψις) (a cognitive achievement similar to how we typically view knowledge). Following a seminal article by Michael Frede (1983), it is widely thought that the Stoics maintained a purely externalist causal account of apprehension wherein one may apprehend only if one stands in an appropriate causal relation to the object apprehended. An important but unanswered challenge to this view has been offered by David Sedley (2002) who offers reasons to suppose that the (...)
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  42. The Socratic Benevolence of Arcesilaus’ Dialectic.Charles E. Snyder - 2014 - Ancient Philosophy 34 (2):341-363.
  43. Learned and Wise: Cotta the Sceptic in Cicero's On the Nature of the Gods.J. P. F. Wynne - 2014 - Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 47:245-273.
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  44. Making Sense of Arcesilaus.Casey Perin - 2013 - Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 45:313-340.
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  45. Plutarch on the Difference Between the Pyrrhonists and the Academics.M. Bonazzi - 2012 - In Brad Inwood (ed.), Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy. Oxford University Press. pp. 43--271.
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  46. Plutarch on the Difference Between the Pyrrhonists and the Academics.Mauro Bonazzi - 2012 - Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 43:271-298.
  47. Antiochus' Epistemology.C. Brittain - 2012 - In D. N. Sedley (ed.), The Philosophy of Antiochus. Cambridge University Press. pp. 104--30.
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  48. Augustine and the Dialogue.Erik Kenyon - 2012 - Dissertation,
    One cannot understand the literary form of a dialogue without understanding its philosophical project and vice versa. This dissertation seeks to establish how Augustine's Cassiciacum dialogues work as dialogues. Each of these works, Contra Academicos, De beata vita and De ordine, pursues two streams of inquiry: one dialectical, one self-reflexive. The first uses aporetic debates to identify problems with individuals' current beliefs. The second reflects on the act of debate as an instance of rational activity and through this draws attention (...)
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  49. From Skepticism to Paralysis: The Apraxia Argument in Cicero’s Academica.Suzanne Obdrzalek - 2012 - Ancient Philosophy 32 (2):369-392.
    This paper analyzes the apraxia argument in Cicero’s Academica. It proposes that the argument assumes two modes: the evidential mode maintains that skepticism is false, while the pragmatic claims that it is disadvantageous. The paper then develops a tension between the two modes, and concludes by exploring some differences between ancient and contemporary skepticism.
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  50. Antiochus and the Academy.R. Polito - 2012 - In D. N. Sedley (ed.), The Philosophy of Antiochus. Cambridge University Press. pp. 55--79.
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