123 found
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  1.  88
    Ethical Challenges Arising in the COVID-19 Pandemic: An Overview from the Association of Bioethics Program Directors (ABPD) Task Force.Amy L. McGuire, Mark P. Aulisio, F. Daniel Davis, Cheryl Erwin, Thomas D. Harter, Reshma Jagsi, Robert Klitzman, Robert Macauley, Eric Racine, Susan M. Wolf, Matthew Wynia & Paul Root Wolpe - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics 20 (7):15-27.
    The COVID-19 pandemic has raised a host of ethical challenges, but key among these has been the possibility that health care systems might need to ration scarce critical care resources. Rationing p...
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  2.  72
    Ethical aspects of brain computer interfaces: a scoping review.Sasha Burwell, Matthew Sample & Eric Racine - 2017 - BMC Medical Ethics 18 (1):60.
    Brain-Computer Interface is a set of technologies that are of increasing interest to researchers. BCI has been proposed as assistive technology for individuals who are non-communicative or paralyzed, such as those with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or spinal cord injury. The technology has also been suggested for enhancement and entertainment uses, and there are companies currently marketing BCI devices for those purposes as well as health-related purposes. The unprecedented direct connection created by BCI between human brains and computer hardware raises various (...)
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  3. Imaging or imagining? A neuroethics challenge informed by genetics.Judy Illes & Eric Racine - 2005 - American Journal of Bioethics 5 (2):5 – 18.
    From a twenty-first century partnership between bioethics and neuroscience, the modern field of neuroethics is emerging, and technologies enabling functional neuroimaging with unprecedented sensitivity have brought new ethical, social and legal issues to the forefront. Some issues, akin to those surrounding modern genetics, raise critical questions regarding prediction of disease, privacy and identity. However, with new and still-evolving insights into our neurobiology and previously unquantifiable features of profoundly personal behaviors such as social attitude, value and moral agency, the difficulty of (...)
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  4.  46
    The value and pitfalls of speculation about science and technology in bioethics: the case of cognitive enhancement.Eric Racine, Tristana Martin Rubio, Jennifer Chandler, Cynthia Forlini & Jayne Lucke - 2014 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 17 (3):325-337.
    In the debate on the ethics of the non-medical use of pharmaceuticals for cognitive performance enhancement in healthy individuals there is a clear division between those who view “cognitive enhancement” as ethically unproblematic and those who see such practices as fraught with ethical problems. Yet another, more subtle issue, relates to the relevance and quality of the contribution of scholarly bioethics to this debate. More specifically, how have various forms of speculation, anticipatory ethics, and methods to predict scientific trends and (...)
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  5.  65
    Pragmatism and the Importance of Interdisciplinary Teams in Investigating Personality Changes Following DBS.Cynthia S. Kubu, Paul J. Ford, Joshua A. Wilt, Amanda R. Merner, Michelle Montpetite, Jaclyn Zeigler & Eric Racine - 2019 - Neuroethics 14 (1):95-105.
    Gilbert and colleagues point out the discrepancy between the limited empirical data illustrating changes in personality following implantation of deep brain stimulating electrodes and the vast number of conceptual neuroethics papers implying that these changes are widespread, deleterious, and clinically significant. Their findings are reminiscent of C. P. Snow’s essay on the divide between the two cultures of the humanities and the sciences. This division in the literature raises significant ethical concerns surrounding unjustified fear of personality changes in the context (...)
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  6.  66
    Moral Enhancement Meets Normative and Empirical Reality: Assessing the Practical Feasibility of Moral Enhancement Neurotechnologies.Veljko Dubljević & Eric Racine - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (5):338-348.
    Moral enhancement refers to the possibility of making individuals and societies better from a moral standpoint. A fierce debate has emerged about the ethical aspects of moral enhancement, notably because steering moral enhancement in a particular direction involves choosing amongst a wide array of competing options, and these options entail deciding which moral theory or attributes of the moral agent would benefit from enhancement. Furthermore, the ability and effectiveness of different neurotechnologies to enhance morality have not been carefully examined. In (...)
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  7.  79
    The Impact of a Landmark Neuroscience Study on Free Will: A Qualitative Analysis of Articles Using Libet and Colleagues' Methods.Victoria Saigle, Veljko Dubljević & Eric Racine - 2018 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 9 (1):29-41.
    Gathering evidence across disciplines is a strength of interdisciplinary fields like neuroethics. However, conclusions can only be made if the evidence applies to the issue at hand. Libet and colleagues' Citation1983 experiment is an interesting case study in this problem. Despite ongoing critiques about the methods used and the replicability of its findings, many people consider Libet and colleagues' methodology a valid strategy to investigate free will and related topics. We reviewed studies using methods similar to those of Libet and (...)
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  8.  51
    Pragmatism and the Importance of Interdisciplinary Teams in Investigating Personality Changes Following DBS.Cynthia S. Kubu, Paul J. Ford, Joshua A. Wilt, Amanda R. Merner, Michelle Montpetite, Jaclyn Zeigler & Eric Racine - 2019 - Neuroethics 14 (1):95-105.
    Gilbert and colleagues point out the discrepancy between the limited empirical data illustrating changes in personality following implantation of deep brain stimulating electrodes and the vast number of conceptual neuroethics papers implying that these changes are widespread, deleterious, and clinically significant. Their findings are reminiscent of C. P. Snow’s essay on the divide between the two cultures of the humanities and the sciences. This division in the literature raises significant ethical concerns surrounding unjustified fear of personality changes in the context (...)
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  9.  48
    Pragmatism and the Importance of Interdisciplinary Teams in Investigating Personality Changes Following DBS.Cynthia S. Kubu, Paul J. Ford, Joshua A. Wilt, Amanda R. Merner, Michelle Montpetite, Jaclyn Zeigler & Eric Racine - 2019 - Neuroethics 14 (1):95-105.
    Gilbert and colleagues point out the discrepancy between the limited empirical data illustrating changes in personality following implantation of deep brain stimulating electrodes and the vast number of conceptual neuroethics papers implying that these changes are widespread, deleterious, and clinically significant. Their findings are reminiscent of C. P. Snow’s essay on the divide between the two cultures of the humanities and the sciences. This division in the literature raises significant ethical concerns surrounding unjustified fear of personality changes in the context (...)
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  10. Cognitive enhancement, lifestyle choice or misuse of prescription drugs?Eric Racine & Cynthia Forlini - 2008 - Neuroethics 3 (1):1-4.
    The prospects of enhancing cognitive or motor functions using neuroscience in otherwise healthy individuals has attracted considerable attention and interest in neuroethics (Farah et al., Nature Reviews Neuroscience 5:421–425, 2004; Glannon Journal of Medical Ethics 32:74–78, 2006). The use of stimulants is one of the areas which has propelled the discussion on the potential for neuroscience to yield cognition-enhancing products. However, we have found in our review of the literature that the paradigms used to discuss the non-medical use of stimulant (...)
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  11.  15
    Living ethics: a stance and its implications in health ethics.Eric Racine, Sophie Ji, Valérie Badro, Aline Bogossian, Claude Julie Bourque, Marie-Ève Bouthillier, Vanessa Chenel, Clara Dallaire, Hubert Doucet, Caroline Favron-Godbout, Marie-Chantal Fortin, Isabelle Ganache, Anne-Sophie Guernon, Marjorie Montreuil, Catherine Olivier, Ariane Quintal, Abdou Simon Senghor, Michèle Stanton-Jean, Joé T. Martineau, Andréanne Talbot & Nathalie Tremblay - 2024 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 27 (2):137-154.
    Moral or ethical questions are vital because they affect our daily lives: what is the best choice we can make, the best action to take in a given situation, and ultimately, the best way to live our lives? Health ethics has contributed to moving ethics toward a more experience-based and user-oriented theoretical and methodological stance but remains in our practice an incomplete lever for human development and flourishing. This context led us to envision and develop the stance of a “living (...)
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  12. Can Neuroscience Contribute to Practical Ethics? A Critical Review and Discussion of the Methodological and Translational Challenges of the Neuroscience of Ethics.Eric Racine, Veljko Dubljević, Ralf J. Jox, Bernard Baertschi, Julia F. Christensen, Michele Farisco, Fabrice Jotterand, Guy Kahane & Sabine Müller - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (5):328-337.
    Neuroethics is an interdisciplinary field that arose in response to novel ethical challenges posed by advances in neuroscience. Historically, neuroethics has provided an opportunity to synergize different disciplines, notably proposing a two-way dialogue between an ‘ethics of neuroscience’ and a ‘neuroscience of ethics’. However, questions surface as to whether a ‘neuroscience of ethics’ is a useful and unified branch of research and whether it can actually inform or lead to theoretical insights and transferable practical knowledge to help resolve ethical questions. (...)
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  13.  5
    Deciphering moral intuition: How agents, deeds, and consequences influence moral judgment.Veljko Dubljević, Sebastian Sattler & Eric Racine - 2018 - PLoS ONE 13 (10):e0204631.
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  14.  89
    Beyond Consent in Research.Emily Bell, Eric Racine, Paula Chiasson, Maya Dufourcq-Brana, Laura B. Dunn, Joseph J. Fins, Paul J. Ford, Walter Glannon, Nir Lipsman, Mary Ellen Macdonald, Debra J. H. Mathews & Mary Pat Mcandrews - 2014 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 23 (3):361-368.
    Abstract:Vulnerability is an important criterion to assess the ethical justification of the inclusion of participants in research trials. Currently, vulnerability is often understood as an attribute inherent to a participant by nature of a diagnosed condition. Accordingly, a common ethical concern relates to the participant’s decisionmaking capacity and ability to provide free and informed consent. We propose an expanded view of vulnerability that moves beyond a focus on consent and the intrinsic attributes of participants. We offer specific suggestions for how (...)
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  15. An Analysis of the Impact of Brain-Computer Interfaces on Autonomy.Orsolya Friedrich, Eric Racine, Steffen Steinert, Johannes Pömsl & Ralf J. Jox - 2018 - Neuroethics 14 (1):17-29.
    Research conducted on Brain-Computer Interfaces has grown considerably during the last decades. With the help of BCIs, users can gain a wide range of functions. Our aim in this paper is to analyze the impact of BCIs on autonomy. To this end, we introduce three abilities that most accounts of autonomy take to be essential: the ability to use information and knowledge to produce reasons; the ability to ensure that intended actions are effectively realized ; and the ability to enact (...)
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  16.  69
    Two Problematic Foundations of Neuroethics and Pragmatist Reconstructions.Eric Racine & Matthew Sample - 2018 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 27 (4):566-577.
    Common understandings of neuroethics, i.e., of its distinctive nature, are premised on two distinct sets of claims: (1) neuroscience can change views about the nature of ethics itself and neuroethics is dedicated to reaping such an understanding of ethics; (2) neuroscience poses challenges distinct from other areas of medicine and science and neuroethics tackles those issues. Critiques have rightfully challenged both claims, stressing how the first may lead to problematic forms of reductionism while the second relies on debatable assumptions about (...)
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  17.  18
    tDCS for Memory Enhancement: Analysis of the Speculative Aspects of Ethical Issues.Nathalie Voarino, Veljko Dubljević & Eric Racine - 2017 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 10.
  18. “Currents of Hope”: Neurostimulation Techniques in U.S. and U.K. Print Media.Eric Racine, Sarah Waldman, Nicole Palmour, David Risse & Judy Illes - 2007 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 16 (3):312-316.
    The application of neurostimulation techniques such as deep brain stimulation —often called a brain pacemaker for neurological conditions like Parkinson's disease —has generated “currents of hope.” Building on this hope, there is significant interest in applying neurostimulation to psychiatric disorders such as major depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder. These emerging neurosurgical practices raise a number of important ethical and social questions in matters of resource allocation, informed consent for vulnerable populations, and commercialization of research.
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  19.  38
    The ADC of Moral Judgment: Opening the Black Box of Moral Intuitions With Heuristics About Agents, Deeds, and Consequences.Veljko Dubljević & Eric Racine - 2014 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 5 (4):3-20.
    This article proposes a novel integrative approach to moral judgment and a related model that could explain how unconscious heuristic processes are transformed into consciously accessible moral intuitions. Different hypothetical cases have been tested empirically to evoke moral intuitions that support principles from competing moral theories. We define and analyze the types of intuitions that moral theories and studies capture: those focusing on agents (A), deeds (D), and consequences (C). The integrative ADC approach uses the heuristic principle of “attribute substitution” (...)
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  20.  78
    Free Will and the Brain Disease Model of Addiction: The Not So Seductive Allure of Neuroscience and Its Modest Impact on the Attribution of Free Will to People with an Addiction.Eric Racine, Sebastian Sattler & Alice Escande - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8:246537.
    Free will has been the object of debate in the context of addiction given that addiction could compromise an individual’s ability to choose freely between alternative courses of action. Proponents of the brain-disease model of addiction have argued that a neuroscience perspective on addiction reduces the attribution of free will because it relocates the cause of the disorder to the brain rather than to the person, thereby diminishing the blame attributed to the person with an addiction. Others have worried that (...)
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  21.  24
    Beyond Consent in Research.Emily Bell, Eric Racine, Paula Chiasson, Maya Dufourcq-Brana & Laura Macdonald - 2014 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 23 (3):361-368.
    Abstract:Vulnerability is an important criterion to assess the ethical justification of the inclusion of participants in research trials. Currently, vulnerability is often understood as an attribute inherent to a participant by nature of a diagnosed condition. Accordingly, a common ethical concern relates to the participant’s decisionmaking capacity and ability to provide free and informed consent. We propose an expanded view of vulnerability that moves beyond a focus on consent and the intrinsic attributes of participants. We offer specific suggestions for how (...)
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  22.  68
    A Critical Review of Methodologies and Results in Recent Research on Belief in Free Will.Esthelle Ewusi-Boisvert & Eric Racine - 2017 - Neuroethics 11 (1):97-110.
    There might be value in examining the phenomenon of free will, without attempting to solve the debate surrounding its existence. Studies have suggested that diminishing belief in free will increases cheating behavior and that basic physiological states such as appetite diminish free will. These findings, if robust, could have important philosophical and ethical implications. Accordingly, we aimed to critically review methodologies and results in the body of literature that speaks to the two following questions: whether certain factors can change belief (...)
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  23.  23
    How to evaluate the quality of an ethical deliberation? A pragmatist proposal for evaluation criteria and collaborative research.Abdou Simon Senghor & Eric Racine - 2022 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 25 (3):309-326.
    Ethics designates a structured process by which important human values and meanings of life are understood and tackled. Therein, the ability to discuss openly and reflect on (aka deliberation) understandings of moral problems, on solutions to these problems, and to explore what a meaningful resolution could amount to is highly valued. However, the indicators of what constitutes a high-quality ethical deliberation remain vague and unclear. This article proposes and develops a pragmatist approach to evaluate the quality of deliberation. Deliberation features (...)
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  24.  44
    How Does Functional Neurodiagnostics Inform Surrogate Decision-Making for Patients with Disorders of Consciousness? A Qualitative Interview Study with Patients’ Next of Kin.Leah Schembs, Maria Ruhfass, Eric Racine, Ralf J. Jox, Andreas Bender, Martin Rosenfelder & Katja Kuehlmeyer - 2020 - Neuroethics 14 (3):327-346.
    BackgroundFunctional neurodiagnostics could allow researchers and clinicians to distinguish more accurately between the unresponsive wakefulness syndrome and the minimally conscious state. It remains unclear how it informs surrogate decision-making.ObjectiveTo explore how the next of kin of patients with disorders of consciousness interpret the results of a functional neurodiagnostics measure and how/why their interpretations influence their attitudes towards medical decisions.Methods and SampleWe conducted problem-centered interviews with seven next of kin of patients with DOC who had undergone a functional HD-EEG examination at (...)
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  25.  77
    Do Publics Share Experts’ Concerns about Brain–Computer Interfaces? A Trinational Survey on the Ethics of Neural Technology.Matthew Sample, Sebastian Sattler, David Rodriguez-Arias, Stefanie Blain-Moraes & Eric Racine - 2019 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 2019 (6):1242-1270.
    Since the 1960s, scientists, engineers, and healthcare professionals have developed brain–computer interface (BCI) technologies, connecting the user’s brain activity to communication or motor devices. This new technology has also captured the imagination of publics, industry, and ethicists. Academic ethics has highlighted the ethical challenges of BCIs, although these conclusions often rely on speculative or conceptual methods rather than empirical evidence or public engagement. From a social science or empirical ethics perspective, this tendency could be considered problematic and even technocratic because (...)
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  26.  66
    Media Portrayal of a Landmark Neuroscience Experiment on Free Will.Eric Racine, Valentin Nguyen, Victoria Saigle & Veljko Dubljevic - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (4):989-1007.
    The concept of free will has been heavily debated in philosophy and the social sciences. Its alleged importance lies in its association with phenomena fundamental to our understandings of self, such as autonomy, freedom, self-control, agency, and moral responsibility. Consequently, when neuroscience research is interpreted as challenging or even invalidating this concept, a number of heated social and ethical debates surface. We undertook a content analysis of media coverage of Libet’s et al.’s :623–642, 1983) landmark study, which is frequently interpreted (...)
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  27.  55
    Which naturalism for bioethics? A defense of moderate (pragmatic) naturalism.Eric Racine - 2008 - Bioethics 22 (2):92–100.
    ABSTRACT There is a growing interest in various forms of naturalism in bioethics, but there is a clear need for further clarification. In an effort to address this situation, I present three epistemological stances: anti‐naturalism, strong naturalism, and moderate pragmatic naturalism. I argue that the dominant paradigm within philosophical ethics has been a form of anti‐naturalism mainly supported by a strong ‘is’ and ‘ought’ distinction. This fundamental epistemological commitment has contributed to the estrangement of academic philosophical ethics from major social (...)
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  28.  17
    Developing a living lab in ethics: Initial issues and observations.Eric Racine, Bénédicte D'Anjou, Clara Dallaire, Vincent Dumez, Caroline Favron-Godbout, Anne Hudon, Marjorie Montreuil, Catherine Olivier, Ariane Quintal & Vanessa Chenel - 2024 - Bioethics 38 (2):153-163.
    Living labs are interdisciplinary and participatory initiatives aimed at bringing research closer to practice by involving stakeholders in all stages of research. Living labs align with the principles of participatory research methods as well as recent insights about how participatory ways of generating knowledge help to change practices in concrete settings with respect to specific problems. The participatory, open, and discussion‐oriented nature of living labs could be ideally suited to accompany ethical reflection and changes ensuing from reflection. To our knowledge, (...)
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  29.  57
    Hope and Patients’ Expectations in Deep Brain Stimulation: Healthcare Providers’ Perspectives and Approaches.Emily Bell, Bruce Maxwell, Mary Pat McAndrews, Abbas Sadikot & Eric Racine - 2010 - Journal of Clinical Ethics 21 (2):112-124.
    In this article we report relevant data that shed light on the topic of hope and patients’ expectations in the use of DBS, for standard, approved, and established indications, based on a broader qualitative study on the ethical and social challenges that healthcare providers face in the field of DBS.
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  30.  30
    Cognitive Enhancement: Unanswered Questions About Human Psychology and Social Behavior.Wren Boehlen, Sebastian Sattler & Eric Racine - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (2):1-25.
    Stimulant drugs, transcranial magnetic stimulation, brain-computer interfaces, and even genetic modifications are all discussed as forms of potential cognitive enhancement. Cognitive enhancement can be conceived as a benefit-seeking strategy used by healthy individuals to enhance cognitive abilities such as learning, memory, attention, or vigilance. This phenomenon is hotly debated in the public, professional, and scientific literature. Many of the statements favoring cognitive enhancement (e.g., related to greater productivity and autonomy) or opposing it (e.g., related to health-risks and social expectations) rely (...)
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  31.  57
    Disagreements with implications: diverging discourses on the ethics of non-medical use of methylphenidate for performance enhancement.Cynthia Forlini & Eric Racine - 2009 - BMC Medical Ethics 10 (1):9.
    There is substantial evidence that methylphenidate (MPH; Ritalin), is being used by healthy university students for non-medical motives such as the improvement of concentration, alertness, and academic performance. The scope and potential consequences of the non-medical use of MPH upon healthcare and society bring about many points of view.
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  32.  27
    Enriching the concept of vulnerability in research ethics: An integrative and functional account.Eric Racine & Dearbhail Bracken‐Roche - 2018 - Bioethics 33 (1):19-34.
    The concept of vulnerability is widely used in research ethics to signal attention to participants who require special protections in research. However, this concept is vague and under‐theorized. There is also growing concern that the dominant categorical approach to vulnerability (as exemplified by research ethics regulations and guidelines delineating vulnerable groups) is ethically problematic because of its assumptions about groups of people and is, in fact, not very guiding. An agreed‐upon strategy is to move from categorical towards analytical approaches (focused (...)
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  33.  6
    How Ethics Liberates Experience: Insights from Pragmatist Theory and Contemporary Research.Eric Racine - 2022 - Journal of Speculative Philosophy 36 (4):517-536.
    Ethics is often viewed as the elaboration of and compliance to norms, a.k.a. as the deductive model of ethics. This is well illustrated by the mainstream development of codes of ethics and ethics committees in the healthcare setting and beyond. Drawing upon a recent synthesis of pragmatist insights on the nature of ethics as well as contemporary scholarship on human flourishing, I explain how ethics is not primarily about the compliance of experience and agency to preset norms but about liberation (...)
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  34.  61
    Public Discourse on the Biology of Alcohol Addiction: Implications for Stigma, Self-Control, Essentialism, and Coercive Policies in Pregnancy.Eric Racine, Emily Bell, Natalie Zizzo & Courtney Green - 2015 - Neuroethics 8 (2):177-186.
    International media have reported cases of pregnant women who have had their children apprehended by social services, or who were incarcerated or forced into treatment programs based on a history of substance use or lack of adherence to addiction treatment programs. Public discourse on the biology of addiction has been criticized for generating stigma and a diminished perception of self-control in individuals with an addiction, potentially contributing to coercive approaches and criminalization of women who misuse substances during pregnancy. We explored (...)
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  35. Neuroethics.Eric Racine & Judy Illes - 2008 - In Peter A. Singer & A. M. Viens (eds.), The Cambridge textbook of bioethics. New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. 495--503.
     
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  36.  50
    Cognitive Enhancement and Academic Misconduct: A Study Exploring Their Frequency and Relationship.Veljko Dubljević, Sebastian Sattler & Éric Racine - 2014 - Ethics and Behavior 24 (5):408-420.
    We investigated the acceptability and frequency of the use of cognitive enhancement (CE) drugs and three different types of academic misconduct (plagiarism, cheating in exams, and falsifying/fabricating data). Data from a web-based survey among German university students were used. Moral acceptability was relatively low for CE drug use and moderate for academic misconduct, while the correlation of their respective acceptability was moderately weak. Prevalence of CE drug use was lower than for academic misconduct and (very) lightly correlated with the prevalence (...)
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  37.  28
    Drug Legalization, Democracy and Public Health: Canadian Stakeholders’ Opinions and Values with Respect to the Legalization of Cannabis.Marianne Rochette, Matthew Valiquette, Claudia Barned & Eric Racine - 2023 - Public Health Ethics 16 (2):175-190.
    The legalization of cannabis in Canada instantiates principles of harm-reduction and safe supply. However, in-depth understanding of values at stake and attitudes toward legalization were not part of extensive democratic deliberation. Through a qualitative exploratory study, we undertook 48 semi-structured interviews with three Canadian stakeholder groups to explore opinions and values with respect to the legalization of cannabis: (1) members of the general public, (2) people with lived experience of addiction and (3) clinicians with experience treating patients with addiction. Across (...)
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  38.  43
    A Proposal for a Scientifically-Informed and Instrumentalist Account of Free Will and Voluntary Action.Eric Racine - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
  39.  23
    Understanding Rare Disease Experiences Through the Concept of Morally Problematic Situations.Ariane Quintal, Élissa Hotte, Caroline Hébert, Isabelle Carreau, Annie-Danielle Grenier, Yves Berthiaume & Eric Racine - forthcoming - HEC Forum:1-38.
    Rare diseases, defined as having a prevalence inferior to 1/2000, are poorly understood scientifically and medically. Appropriate diagnoses and treatments are scarce, adding to the burden of living with chronic medical conditions. The moral significance of rare disease experiences is often overlooked in qualitative studies conducted with adults living with rare diseases. The concept of morally problematic situations arising from pragmatist ethics shows promise in understanding these experiences. The objectives of this study were to (1) acquire an in-depth understanding of (...)
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  40.  13
    What Is Everyday Ethics? A Review and a Proposal for an Integrative Concept.Eric Racine, Emily Bell & Natalie Zizzo - 2016 - Journal of Clinical Ethics 27 (2):117-128.
    “Everyday ethics” is a term that has been used in the clinical and ethics literature for decades to designate normatively important and pervasive issues in healthcare. In spite of its importance, the term has not been reviewed and analyzed carefully. We undertook a literature review to understand how the term has been employed and defined, finding that it is often contrasted to “dramatic ethics.” We identified the core attributes most commonly associated with everyday ethics. We then propose an integrative model (...)
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  41.  39
    Addressing the Practical Implications of Intersectionality in Clinical Medicine: Ethical, Embodied and Institutional Dimensions.Claudia Barned, Corinne Lajoie & Eric Racine - 2019 - American Journal of Bioethics 19 (2):27-29.
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  42.  22
    Instrumentalist analyses of the functions of ethics concept-principles: a proposal for synergetic empirical and conceptual enrichment.Eric Racine, M. Ariel Cascio, Marjorie Montreuil & Aline Bogossian - 2019 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 40 (4):253-278.
    Bioethics has made a compelling case for the role of experience and empirical research in ethics. This may explain why the movement for empirical ethics has such a firm grounding in bioethics. However, the theoretical framework according to which empirical research contributes to ethics—and the specific role it can or should play—remains manifold and unclear. In this paper, we build from pragmatic theory stressing the importance of experience and outcomes in establishing the meaning of ethics concepts. We then propose three (...)
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  43.  28
    The Voluntary Nature of Decision‐Making in Addiction: Static Metaphysical Views Versus Epistemologically Dynamic Views.Simon Rousseau-Lesage & Eric Racine - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (5):349-359.
    The degree of autonomy present in the choices made by individuals with an addiction, notably in the context of research, is unclear and debated. Some have argued that addiction, as it is commonly understood, prevents people from having sufficient decision-making capacity or self-control to engage in choices involving substances to which they have an addiction. Others have criticized this position for being too radical and have counter-argued in favour of the full autonomy of people with an addiction. Aligning ourselves with (...)
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  44.  25
    Consciousness and Personhood in Medical Care.Stefanie Blain-Moraes, Eric Racine & George A. Mashour - 2018 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 12.
  45.  30
    The Therapeutic “Mis”conception: An Examination of its Normative Assumptions and a Call for its Revision.Debra J. H. Mathews, Joseph J. Fins & Eric Racine - 2018 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 27 (1):154-162.
    Dissecting Bioethics, edited by Tuija Takala and Matti Hayry, welcomes contributions on the conceptual and theoretical dimensions of bioethics. The department is dedicated to the idea that words defined by bioethicists and others should not be allowed to imprison people’s actual concerns, emotions, and thoughts. Papers that expose the many meanings of a concept, describe the different readings of a moral doctrine, or provide an alternative angle to seemingly self-evident issues are particularly appreciated. To submit a paper or to discuss (...)
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  46.  55
    Nudging Without Ethical Fudging: Clarifying Physician Obligations to Avoid Ethical Compromise.Emily Bell, Veljko Dubljevic & Eric Racine - 2013 - American Journal of Bioethics 13 (6):18-19.
    In the article “Nudging and Informed Consent”, Cohen argues that the use of “nudging” by physicians in the clinical encounter may be ethically warranted because it results in an informed consent where obligations for beneficence and respect for autonomy are both met. However, the author's overenthusiastic support for nudging and his quick dismissal of shared decision-making leads him to assume that “soft” manipulation is un-problematic and that “wisdom” on the side of medical professionals will suffice to guard against abuse. Opposing (...)
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  47.  27
    It’s a Shame! Stigma Against Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder: Examining the Ethical Implications for Public Health Practices and Policies.Emily Bell, Gail Andrew, Nina Di Pietro, Albert E. Chudley, James N. Reynolds & Eric Racine - 2016 - Public Health Ethics 9 (1):65-77.
    Stigma can influence the prevention and identification of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, a leading cause of developmental delay in North America. Understanding the effects of public health practices and policies on stigma is imperative. We reviewed social science and biomedical literatures to understand the nature of stigma in FASD and its relevance from an ethics standpoint in matters of health practices and policies. We propose a descriptive model of stigma in FASD and note current knowledge gaps; discuss the ethical implications (...)
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  48.  33
    Instrumentalist Analyses of the Functions of Health Ethics Concepts and Principles: Methodological Guideposts.Eric Racine, M. Ariel Cascio & Aline Bogossian - 2017 - American Journal of Bioethics 17 (12):16-18.
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  49. Perspectives and Experience of Healthcare Professionals on Diagnosis, Prognosis, and End-of-Life Decision Making in Patients with Disorders of Consciousness.Catherine Rodrigue, Richard J. Riopelle, James L. Bernat & Eric Racine - 2011 - Neuroethics 6 (1):25-36.
    In the care of patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC), some ethical difficulties stem from the challenges of accurate diagnosis and the uncertainty of prognosis. Current neuroimaging research on these disorders could eventually improve the accuracy of diagnoses and prognoses and therefore change the context of end-of-life decision making. However, the perspective of healthcare professionals on these disorders remains poorly understood and may constitute an obstacle to the integration of research. We conducted a qualitative study involving healthcare professionals from an (...)
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  50. Another Look at the Legal and Ethical Consequences of Pharmacological Memory Dampening: The Case of Sexual Assault.Jennifer A. Chandler, Alexandra Mogyoros, Tristana Martin Rubio & Eric Racine - 2013 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 41 (4):859-871.
    Research on the use of propranolol as a pharmacological memory dampening treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder is continuing and justifies a second look at the legal and ethical issues raised in the past. We summarize the general ethical and legal issues raised in the literature so far, and we select two for in-depth reconsideration. We address the concern that a traumatized witness may be less effective in a prosecution emerging from the traumatic event after memory dampening treatment. We analyze this (...)
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