Birth

Edited by Maja Sidzińska (University of Pennsylvania)
About this topic
Summary Philosophy of birth may engage or occur within a number of areas of philosophical research: metaphysics, philosophy of biology, bioethics, feminist philosophy, history of philosophy, phenomenology, and sometimes political philosophy. As such, birth is a topic or a theme in philosophy, rather than a cohesive area of research, although in many cases it lies at some intersection of the aforementioned areas. Discussions about birth may regard questions about when organisms, human beings, or persons, begin to exist; they may regard comparative questions about birth and reproduction across biological taxa; they may regard medical and bioethical questions about birth having to do with patient autonomy, modes of birth including vaginal delivery and cesarean section, assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs), and risk; they may regard questions about sex, gender, and birth, for instance, questions about how the birthing woman or birthing person is, or is not, feminized, discriminated against, oppressed, or exploited; they may regard questions about the history of birth, midwifery, and obstetric care; and they may regard questions about birth as a phenomenal experience or as a political or other kind of metaphor. 
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  1. Procreative Justice Reconceived.Emmalon Davis - forthcoming - Journal of the American Philosophical Association (First View):1-23.
    This paper reconsiders Tommie Shelby's (2016) analysis of procreation in poor black communities. I identify three conceptual frames within which Shelby situates his analysis—feminization, choice-as-control, and moralization. I argue that these frames should be rejected on conceptual, empirical, and moral grounds. As I show, this framing engenders a flawed understanding of poor black women's procreative lives. I propose an alternative framework for reconceiving the relationship between poverty and procreative justice, one oriented around reproductive flourishing instead of reproductive responsibility. More generally, (...)
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  2. Being Being Born: Birth and Philosophy.Elton Vitoriano Ribeiro - forthcoming - Horizonte:1427.
    RESENHA: STONE, ALISON. Being Born: Birth and Philosophy. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 20219. ISBN: 978-0-19-884578-2.
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  3. Why There is No Dilemma for the Birth Strategy: A Response to Bobier and Omelianchuk.Prabhpal Singh - forthcoming - Journal of Medical Ethics.
    Bobier and Omelianchuk argue that the Birth Strategy for addressing analogies between abortion and infanticide is saddled with a dilemma. It must be accepted that non-therapeutic late-term abortions are either, impermissible, or they are not. If accepted, then the Birth Strategy is undermined. If not, then the highly unintuitive claim that non-therapeutic late-term abortions are permissible must be accepted. I argue that the moral principle employed to defend the claim that non-therapeutic late-term abortions are morally impermissible fails to do so. (...)
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  4. Human Enhancement and Reproductive Ethics on Generation Ships.Steven Umbrello & Maurizio Balistreri - forthcoming - Argumenta:1-14.
    The past few years has seen a resurgence in the public interest in space flight and travel. Spurred mainly by the likes of technology billionaires like Elon Musk and Jeff Bezos, the topic poses both unique scientific as well as ethical challenges. This paper looks at the concept of generation ships, conceptual behemoth ships whose goal is to bring a group of human settlers to distant exoplanets. These ships are designed to host multiple generations of people who will be born, (...)
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  5. The limitations of liberal reproductive autonomy.J. Y. Lee - 2022 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 25 (3):523-529.
    The common liberal understanding of reproductive autonomy – characterized by free choice and a principle of non-interference – serves as a useful way to analyse the normative appeal of having certain choices open to people in the reproductive realm, especially for issues like abortion rights. However, this liberal reading of reproductive autonomy only offers us a limited ethical understanding of what is at stake in many kinds of reproductive choices, particularly when it comes to different uses of reproductive technologies and (...)
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  6. Book Review: No Perfect Birth: Trauma and Obstetric Care in the Rural United States by Kristin Haltinner. [REVIEW]Ophra Leyser-Whalen - 2022 - Gender and Society 36 (4):611-612.
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  7. Does birth matter?Walter Veit - 2022 - Journal of Medical Ethics 48 (3):194-195.
    This paper is a response to a recent paper by Bobier and Omelianchuk in which they argue that the critics of Giubilini and Minerva’s defence of infanticide fail to adequately justify a moral difference at birth. They argue that such arguments would lead to an intuitively less plausible position: that late-term abortions are permissible, thus creating a dilemma for those who seek to argue that birth matters. I argue that the only way to resolve this dilemma, is to bite the (...)
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  8. No Perfect Birth: Trauma and Obstetric Care in the Rural United States.[author unknown] - 2021
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  9. Giving Birth, Transhumanism and Human Nature.Eduardo R. Cruz - 2021 - Revista de Filosofia Aurora 33 (May/August):631-651.
    Philosopher Fiona Wollard recently advocated interpreting the achievements of women while giving birth. People readily recognize men-related achievements, like running a marathon, but not achievements related to giving birth. We expand on Woollard's notion of reproductive achievements, comparing them with ideas of human enhancement, which aims at humans becoming "stronger and faster". Criticisms to evolutionary psychology challenge its defense of a notion of a fixed human nature, and its disregard for the experience of birth. Some female scholars link human evolution (...)
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  10. Birthing Alone: An Ethical Analysis of Pandemic Policies Banning Birthing Partners.Phoebe Friesen, Sarah Towle & Tamara Perez - 2021 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 14 (2):114-143.
    During the COVID-19 pandemic, several hospitals implemented “birthing alone” policies, banning companions from accompanying individuals giving birth. We offer an ethical analysis of these policies. First, we examine them through a consequentialist framework of risks and benefits. Second, we consider the significance of birth, highlighting the unique ways in which risks, relationships, and rights are understood in the context of obstetrics. We conclude that birthing alone policies are largely unjustified, as the harm they are certain to cause outweighs their possible (...)
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  11. Harming one to benefit another: The paradox of autonomy and consent in maternity care.Elselijn Kingma - 2021 - Bioethics 35 (5):456-464.
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  12. The Beginning of Life Issues: An Islamic Perspective.Piyali Mitra - 2021 - Journal of Religion and Health 60 (2):663-683.
    Islam gives legal precedence to purity of lineage and known parenthood of all children. In Islam treatment to infertility using IVF is permitted within validity of marriage contract with no genes mixing. The paper shows that the Qur’ān, the word of Allah, and science, the deeds of Allah are not in major conflicts in defining the start of human life. The Holy Qur’ān provides an elegant description of origin, developmental stages of intra-uterine life. The Hadith explains two positions one that (...)
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  13. What Is Birth Affirmation?: The Meaning of Saying “Yes” to Having Been Born.Masahiro Morioka - 2021 - Journal of Philosophy of Life 11 (1):43-59.
    In this paper, the concept of birth affirmation is clarified in both the psychological dimension and the philosophical dimension. In the psychological dimension, we propose two interpretations: 1) Possible world interpretation: Even if I could imagine a possible world in which my ideal was realized or my grave sufferings were resolved, I would never think, at the bottom of my heart, that it would have been better to have been born to that possible world. 2) Anti-antinatalistic interpretation: I would never (...)
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  14. We birth with others: Towards a Beauvoirian understanding of obstetric violence.Sara Cohen Shabot - 2021 - European Journal of Women's Studies 28 (2):213-228.
    Obstetric violence – psychological and physical violence by medical staff towards women giving birth – has been described as structural violence, specifically as gender violence. Many women are affected by obstetric violence, with awful consequences. The phenomenon has so far been mainly investigated by the health and social sciences, yet fundamental theoretical and conceptual questions have gone unnoticed. Until now, the phenomenon of obstetric violence has been understood as one impeding autonomy and individual agency and control over the body. In (...)
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  15. Home Birth and the Maternity Outcomes Emergency: Attending to Race and Gender in Childbirth.Susan A. Stark - 2021 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 14 (1):2-18.
    Childbirth in the United States is in crisis. This is especially true for Black and brown mothers. This childbirth emergency constitutes a failure of the social contract: because society has failed to provide minimally decent care for all birthing mothers, but especially for Black and brown mothers, it is necessary to allow mothers to choose home birth. I amplify the voices of Black and brown scholars and midwives to defend home birth, and I argue that home birth is safe and (...)
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  16. Sensory Stimulation of Oxytocin Release Is Associated With Stress Management and Maternal Care.Toku Takahashi - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
    It has been shown that various types of stress initiate different physiological and neuroendocrine disorders. Oxytocin is mainly produced in the supraoptic nucleus and paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. Hypothalamic OT has antistress effects and attenuates the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis. One mechanism behind the antistress effects of OT is mediated through the inhibition from GABAA receptors on corticotropin-releasing factor expression at the PVN. Various manual therapies such as acupuncture, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, and massage initiate the stimulation of somatosensory neurons of (...)
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  17. Development and Validation of a Measure of Birth-Related PTSD for Fathers and Birth Partners: The City Birth Trauma Scale.Rebecca Webb, Ann M. Smith, Susan Ayers, Daniel B. Wright & Alexandra Thornton - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    Research suggests that some fathers and birth partners can experience post-traumatic stress disorder after witnessing a traumatic birth. Birth-related PTSD may impact on many aspects of fathers’ and birth partners’ life, including relationship breakdown, self-blame and reducing plans for future children. Despite the potential impact on birth partners’ lives there is currently no measure of birth-related PTSD validated for use with birth partners. The current study therefore adapted the City Birth Trauma Scale for use with birth partners. The City Birth (...)
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  18. Unplanned Cesarean Birth: Can the Quality of Consent Affect Birth Experiences?Paul Burcher, Shazneen Hushmendy, Meredith Chan-Mahon, Megha Dasani, Jazmine Gabriel & Erin Crosby - 2020 - AJOB Empirical Bioethics 11 (4):268-274.
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  19. Birth: Stories from Contemporary Literature and Film.Simona Corso - 2020 - Phenomenology and Mind 19 (19):34.
    Advances in reproductive medicine have opened up new scenarios, changing our experience and our understanding of what it means to be a parent. Literature and cinema have quickly turned their attention to new forms of reproduction, and often do what doctors in centres for assisted reproduction advise against: they reveal secrets, re-unite the various different protagonists, who make the new life possible, and explore the dramatic and sometimes tragic entanglement of birth stories. Significantly, literary and filmic stories also give voice (...)
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  20. Jacqueline H. Wolf. Cesarean Section: An American History of Risk, Technology, and Consequence. 320 pp., notes, bibl., index. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2018. $49.95 (cloth). ISBN 9781421425528. [REVIEW]Lara Freidenfelds - 2020 - Isis 111 (2):422-423.
  21. Addressing Rising Cesarean Rates: Maternal Request Cesareans, Defensive Practice, and the Power of Choice in Childbirth.Elizabeth Chloe Romanis - 2020 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 13 (1):1-26.
    The number of cesarean sections performed globally has been consistently rising since the 1980s.1 The number of cesareans performed now greatly exceeds the number that experts predict are necessary.2 In Brazil, the world's "cesarean capital," over half of births are surgical. In the United States, approximately one third of babies are delivered by cesarean, and in the United Kingdom around 26 percent of births are by cesarean.3 Cesarean section can be a life-saving intervention when vaginal birth poses a risk to (...)
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  22. Ectogenesis and the case against the right to the death of the foetus.Bruce P. Blackshaw & Daniel Rodger - 2019 - Bioethics 33 (1):76-81.
    Ectogenesis, or the use of an artificial womb to allow a foetus to develop, will likely become a reality within a few decades, and could significantly affect the abortion debate. We first examine the implications for Judith Jarvis Thomson’s violinist analogy, which argues for a woman’s right to withdraw life support from the foetus and so terminate her pregnancy, even if the foetus is granted full moral status. We show that on Thomson’s reasoning, there is no right to the death (...)
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  23. Cesarean Section or Natural Childbirth? Cesarean Birth May Damage Your Health.Hongyan Chen & Dingliang Tan - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
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  24. Artificial Wombs, Birth, and "Birth": A Response to Romanis.Nicholas Colgrove - 2019 - Journal of Medical Ethics:medethics-2019-105845.
    Recently, I argued that human subjects in artificial wombs (AWs) “share the same moral status as newborns” and so, deserve the same treatment and protections as newborns. This thesis rests on two claims: (A) “Subjects of partial ectogenesis—those that develop in utero for at time before being transferred to AWs—are newborns,” and (B) “Subjects of complete ectogenesis—those who develop in AWs entirely—share the same moral status as newborns.” In response, Elizabeth Chloe Romanis argued that the subject in an AW is (...)
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  25. Labour Pain, ‘Natal Politics’ and Reproductive Justice for Black Birth Givers.Maria Fannin - 2019 - Body and Society 25 (3):22-48.
    The reception of Elaine Scarry’s landmark text, The Body in Pain, focuses in part on exploring how pain might be understood as beneficial or therapeutic. Childbirth is often cited as the paradigmatic instance of this kind of beneficial pain. This essay examines conceptualizations of labour pain in biomedical, natural childbirth and reproductive justice movements that explore the limits of Scarry’s description of pain as ‘unshareable’. Political struggles over pain in childbirth centre on the legibility of pain in labour. Feminist and (...)
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  26. Immune Regulation in Eutherian Pregnancy: Live Birth Coevolved with Novel Immune Genes and Gene Regulation.Jiyun M. Moon, John A. Capra, Patrick Abbot & Antonis Rokas - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (9):1900072.
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  27. Challenging the ‘Born Alive’ Threshold: Fetal Surgery, Artificial Wombs, and the English Approach to Legal Personhood.Elizabeth Chloe Romanis - 2019 - Medical Law Review.
    English law is unambiguous that legal personality, and with it all legal rights and protections, is assigned at birth. This rule is regarded as a bright line that is easily and consistently applied. The time has come, however, for the rule to be revisited. This article demonstrates that advances in fetal surgery and (anticipated) artificial wombs do not marry with traditional conceptions of birth and being alive in law. These technologies introduce the possibility of ex utero gestation, and/or temporary existence (...)
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  28. Being Born.Alison Stone - 2019 - The Philosophers' Magazine 86:30-35.
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  29. Being Born: Birth and Philosophy.Alison Stone - 2019 - Oxford University Press.
    Alison Stone investigates how human existence is conditioned by the fact that it begins with birth. How does birth shape the way we are in the world, and the meaning of our lives? Philosophers have written much about death, but neglected birth. Stone brings natality into philosophical view, offering fascinating insights into the human condition.
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  30. Domesticating Bodies: The Role of Shame in Obstetric Violence.Sara Cohen Shabot & Keshet Korem - 2018 - Hypatia 33 (3):384-401.
    Obstetric violence—violence in the labor room—has been described in terms not only of violence in general but specifically of gender violence. We offer a philosophical analysis of obstetric violence, focused on the central role of gendered shame for construing and perpetuating such violence. Gendered shame in labor derives both from the reifying gaze that transforms women's laboring bodies into dirty, overly sexual, and “not‐feminine‐enough” dysfunctional bodies and from a structural tendency to relate to laboring women mainly as mothers‐to‐be, from whom (...)
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  31. Birth with dignity from the Confucian perspective.Jianhui Li & Yaming Li - 2018 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 39 (5):375-388.
    The development of biotechnologies has broadly interfered with a number of life processes, including human birth. An important moral question arises from the application of such medical technologies to birth: do biotechnological advancements violate human dignity? Many valid arguments have been raised. Yet bioethicists are still far from reaching a consensus on how best to protect the dignity of human birth. Confucianism is an influential ethical theory in China and presents a distinctive understanding of human dignity. In this paper, we (...)
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  32. Natality and Disability: From Augustine to Arendt and Back.Lorraine Krall McCrary - 2018 - Arendt Studies 2:75-98.
    Arendt’s “natality,” a promising foundation for humanness that might be expanded to include those with profound cognitive disabilities, emerges in part out of Arendt’s creative interpretation of Augustine. Returning to Augustine provides natality with resources to escape the weaknesses of Arendt’s thought when viewed from the perspective of disability theory: The traps of grounding human dignity in rationality, of downplaying expressions of creativity in non-political spheres, and of denigrating the role of the body.
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  33. Opportunistic Salpingectomy during Cesarean Section.Jonathan Scrafford & Lisa Gilbert - 2018 - The National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 18 (3):487-500.
    Medical literature on the protective effects of salpingectomy against ovarian cancer has challenged Catholic health care institutions to reexamine policies that prohibit tubal sterilization at the time of cesarean section. Salpingectomy performed for a woman whose fallopian tubes are known or suspected to have a serious and present pathology—risk-reducing salpingectomy—is morally justifiable as a therapeutic intervention. However, salpingectomy performed at the time of another medically indicated procedure, such as cesarean section, on an otherwise fertile woman whose fallopian tubes are presumed (...)
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  34. Natality or Birth? Arendt and Cavarero on the Human Condition of Being Born.Fanny Söderbäck - 2018 - Hypatia 33 (2):273-288.
    This essay offers a critical analysis of Hannah Arendt's notion of natality through the lens of Adriana Cavarero's feminist philosophy of birth. First, I argue that the strength of Arendtian natality is its rootedness in an ontology of uniqueness, and a commitment to human plurality and relationality. Next, I trace with Cavarero three critical concerns regarding Arendtian natality, namely that it is curiously abstract; problematically disembodied and sexually neutral; and dependent on a model of vulnerability that assumes equality rather than (...)
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  35. Trasformazione e germinazione: per una nuova filosofia della nascita.Guido Cusinato - 2017 - Thaumàzein 4.
    The thesis of this paper is that – in order to avoid trivializations – a Philosophy of Birth needs to elaborate a precise concept of transformation and distinguish it carefully from that of adaptation. While transformation goes beyond the limited self-referential perspective of an individual and, on the social level, of the gregarious identity, adaptation aims at strengthening or preserving the old self-referential equilibrium. Transformation is driven by what Zambrano has called, with an exceptionally happy expression, the “hunger to be (...)
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  36. Hunger for Being Born Completely. Plasticity and Desire.Guido Cusinato - 2017 - Philosophical News 14:65-77.
    The main claim of this article is that the plasticity of the human formation process does not consist in receiving passively an already-given shape, like hot wax stamped by a seal. Rather, it creates ever new shapes and makes a person overcome her own self-referential horizon. Furthermore, I argue that this formation process is directed by desire, meant as “hunger for being born completely” (Zambrano). The human being comes into the world without being born completely, and it is precisely such (...)
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  37. Engaging with birth stories in pregnancy : a hermeneutic phenomenological study of women’s experiences across two generations.Kay Lesley, Downe Soo, Thomson Gill & Finlayson Kenny - 2017 - BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 17 (283):1471-2393.
    Background: The birth story has been widely understood as a crucial source of knowledge about childbirth. What has not been reported is the effect that birth stories may have on primigravid women’s understandings of birth. Findings are presented from a qualitative study exploring how two generations of women came to understand birth in the milieu of other’s stories. The prior assumption was that birth stories must surely have a positive or negative influence on listeners, steering them towards either medical or (...)
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  38. Life, Birth and Death in Democritus. Atomistic Reflections Between Physics and Ethics.Miriam Campolina Diniz Peixoto - 2017 - Peitho 8 (1):141-154.
    The subject of life, birth and death constitutes one of the main topics in Democritus’ reflection on human questions. He seeks to understand what men think about the processes of birth and death and how they, accordingly, determine their behavior and attitudes. His reflections comprise a wide range of perspectives and aspects that include examining human behaviour and investigating how it reveals a certain temperament or inclination, inquiring about the nature of these processes and extending the analyses of the processes (...)
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  39. Not One, Not Two: Toward an Ontology of Pregnancy.Maja Sidzinska - 2017 - Feminist Philosophy Quarterly 3 (4):1-23.
    Basic understandings of subjectivity are derived from the principles of masculine embodiment such as temporal stability and singularity. But pregnancy challenges such understandings because it represents a sort of splitting of the body. In the pregnant situation, a subject may experience herself as both herself and an other, as well as neither herself nor an other. This is logically untenable—an impossibility. If our discourse depends on singular, fixed referents, then what paradigms of identity are available to the pregnant subject? What (...)
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  40. Arendt’s notion of natality: An attempt at clarification.Wolfhart Totschnig - 2017 - Ideas Y Valores 66 (165):327-346.
    Arendt claims that our natality (i.e., our condition of being born) is the “source” or “root” of our capacity to begin (i.e., of our capacity to initiate something new). But she does not fully explain this claim. How does the capacity to begin derive from the condition of birth? That Arendt does not immediately and unambiguously provide an answer to this question can be seen in the fact that her notion of natality has received very different interpretations. In the present (...)
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  41. Why Should Ethicists Think About Pregnancy Sickness?Fiona Woolard - 2017 - The Philosophers' Magazine 77:41-46.
    I became a philosopher because I was fascinated by the ethics of abortion. Not only is abortion a crucial practical issue – a matter of life or death – but it forces us to grapple with some of the hardest and yet most significant philosophical questions: If we agree that all human beings have a right to life, what entities do we count as human beings? What characteristics, if any, are necessary? What happens when one entity’s life clashes with another’s (...)
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  42. Moral implications of obstetric technologies for pregnancy and motherhood.Susanne Brauer - 2016 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 19 (1):45-54.
    Drawing on sociological and anthropological studies, the aim of this article is to reconstruct how obstetric technologies contribute to a moral conception of pregnancy and motherhood, and to evaluate that conception from a normative point of view. Obstetrics and midwifery, so the assumption, are value-laden, value-producing and value-reproducing practices, values that shape the social perception of what it means to be a “good” pregnant woman and to be a “good” mother. Activities in the medical field of reproduction contribute to “kinning”, (...)
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  43. There Is No Place Like Home: Why Women Are Choosing Home Birth in the Era of "Homelike" Hospitals.Paul Burcher & Jazmine Gabriel - 2016 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 9 (1):149-165.
    In a recent article in the American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Frank Chervenak et al. argue that home birth is less safe than hospital birth, and that physicians have a dual duty to avoid any collaboration with home birth midwives and to make hospital birth more psychologically and socially supportive to accommodate women who want more choices during labor. The assertion that home birth is significantly less safe than hospital birth has been responded to by Howard Minkoff and Jeffrey (...)
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  44. Philosophie des Geborenseins.Christina Schües - 2016 - München/Freiburg: Verlag Karl Alber.
    Ziel dieser Studie ist die Konzeption eines Menschenbildes, einer Denk- und Handlungsdimension, die nicht nur den universalen Menschen in den Mittelpunkt ruckt, sondern auch die Pluralitat, Herkunftigkeit, Leiblichkeit, Geschlechtlichkeit und Endlichkeit der Menschen als grundlegend anerkennt. Ein Denken von der Geburt her bestatigt den generativen Zusammenhang der Menschen untereinander und bestimmt deren Selbstverstandnis und ihr Verhaltnis zu sich selbst, zum Anderen, zur Welt und Geschichte. Somit hat die philosophische Ergrundung und Neufassung des Geborenseins Konsequenzen fur Politik und Ethik. Vor dem (...)
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  45. Making Loud Bodies “Feminine”: A Feminist-Phenomenological Analysis of Obstetric Violence.Sara Cohen Shabot - 2016 - Human Studies 39 (2):231-247.
    Obstetric violence has been analyzed from various perspectives. Its psychological effects have been evaluated, and there have been several recent sociological and anthropological studies on the subject. But what I offer in this paper is a philosophical analysis of obstetric violence, particularly focused on how this violence is lived and experienced by women and why it is frequently described not only in terms of violence in general but specifically in terms of gender violence: as violence directed at women because they (...)
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  46. Birth, meaningful viability and abortion.David Jensen - 2015 - Journal of Medical Ethics 41 (6):460-463.
    What role does birth play in the debate about elective abortion? Does the wrongness of infanticide imply the wrongness of late-term abortion? In this paper, I argue that the same or similar factors that make birth morally significant with regard to abortion make meaningful viability morally significant due to the relatively arbitrary time of birth. I do this by considering the positions of Mary Anne Warren and José Luis Bermúdez who argue that birth is significant enough that the wrongness of (...)
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  47. “Lethal” Fetal Anomalies and Elective Cesarean.Mejebi T. Mayor & Amina White - 2015 - Hastings Center Report 45 (6):13-14.
    Deborah is a thirty-three-year-old who presented to labor and delivery at thirty-seven weeks gestation with complaints of contractions. Upon arrival, she explained that her fetus, Nathan, had been diagnosed with a “lethal” condition by her primary obstetrician. At twenty-two weeks gestation, an amniocentesis confirmed trisomy 13, a chromosomal abnormality leading to miscarriage or stillbirth in nearly one-half of affected pregnancies. During the admission process, Deborah voices the worry that due to Nathan's brain and heart structure, vaginal delivery could be traumatic (...)
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  48. The Ethics of Access: Who Is Offered a Cesarean Delivery, and Why?Steven J. Ralston & Ruth M. Farrell - 2015 - Hastings Center Report 45 (6):15-19.
    Much of the discourse in the bioethics literature on what is often called “cesarean delivery on maternal request” has focused on balancing respect for patient autonomy with attention to the short- and long-term risks of this procedure to maternal and neonatal well-being. And while there has been some analysis of the social and economic costs inherent in performing cesareans, much of the clinical and ethical analysis has concluded that, given the degree of risk to the mother and neonate from a (...)
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  49. Planned home birth in the united states and professionalism: a critical assessment.F. A. Chervenak, L. B. McCullough, A. Grünebaum, B. Arabin, M. I. Levene & R. L. Brent - 2013 - Journal of Clinical Ethics 24 (3):184-191.
    Planned home birth has been considered by some to be consistent with professional responsibility in patient care. This article critically assesses the ethical and scientific justification for this view and shows it to be unjustified. We critically assess recent statements by professional associations of obstetricians, one that sanctions and one that endorses planned home birth. We base our critical appraisal on the professional responsibility model of obstetric ethics, which is based on the ethical concept of medicine from the Scottish and (...)
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  50. Transhumanism and the fate of natality: An introduction.Eduardo R. Cruz - 2013 - Zygon 48 (4):916-935.
    Transhumanist thought on overpopulation usually invokes the welfare of present human beings and the control over future generation, thus minimizing the need and meaning of new births. Here we devise a framework for a more thorough screening of the relevant literature, to have a better appreciation of the issue of natality. We follow the lead of Hannah Arendt and Brent Waters in this respect. With three overlapping categories of words, headed by “natality,” “birth,” and “intergenerations,” a large sample of books (...)
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