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  1. Contraception and Abortion: A Utilitarian View.Leslie Allan - manuscript
    Conservative and liberal approaches to the problem of abortion are oversimplified and deeply flawed. Accepting that the moral status of the conceptus changes during gestation, the author advances a more nuanced perspective. Through applying a form of rules in practice utilitarianism within the context of overall population policy, he provides a compelling ethical and legal framework for regulating contraception and abortion practices.
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  2. Colombian adolescents’ preferences for independently accessing sexual and reproductive health services: a cross-sectional and bioethics analysis.Julien Brisson, Bryn Williams-Jones & Vardit Ravitsky - forthcoming - Sexual and Reproductive Healthcare 100698 (32).
    Objective Our study sought to (1) describe the practices and preferences of Colombian adolescents in accessing sexual and reproductive health services: accompanied versus alone; (2) compare actual practices with stated preferences; and (3) determine age and gender differences regarding the practice and these stated preferences. -/- Methods 812 participants aged 11–24 years old answered a survey in two Profamilia clinics in the cities of Medellin and Cali in Colombia. A cross-sectional analysis was performed to compare participants’ answers based on the (...)
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  3. Procreative Justice Reconceived.Emmalon Davis - forthcoming - Journal of the American Philosophical Association (First View):1-23.
    This paper reconsiders Tommie Shelby's (2016) analysis of procreation in poor black communities. I identify three conceptual frames within which Shelby situates his analysis—feminization, choice-as-control, and moralization. I argue that these frames should be rejected on conceptual, empirical, and moral grounds. As I show, this framing engenders a flawed understanding of poor black women's procreative lives. I propose an alternative framework for reconceiving the relationship between poverty and procreative justice, one oriented around reproductive flourishing instead of reproductive responsibility. More generally, (...)
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  4. The Axiology of Abortion: Should We Hope Pro-Choicers or Pro-Lifers are Right?Perry Hendricks - forthcoming - Ergo: An Open Access Journal of Philosophy.
    The ethics of abortion considers whether abortion is immoral. Pro-choice philosophers think that it is not immoral, while pro-life philosophers think that it is. The axiology of abortion considers whether world would be better if the pro-choice or pro-life position is right. While much attention has been given to the ethics of abortion, there has been no attention given to the axiology of abortion. In this article, I seek to change that. I consider various arguments for thinking our world would (...)
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  5. Colombian adolescents’ perceptions of autonomy and access to sexual and reproductive health services: an ethical analysis.Bryn Williams-Jones, Julien Brisson & Vardit Ravitsky - forthcoming - Journal of Adolescent Research.
    There are conceptual and ethical challenges to defining adolescents’ autonomy to access health care, and these can lead to health care norms and practices that could be maladjusted to the needs and preferences of adolescents. Particularly sensitive is access to sexual and reproductive health care services (SRHS). Yet, while there has been substantial conceptual work to conceptualize autonomy (e.g., as independence), there is a lack of empirical research that documents the perceptions of adolescents regarding on how they access or wish (...)
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  6. Colombian youth express interest in receiving sex education from their parents.Julien Brisson, Vardit Ravitsky & Bryn Williams-Jones - 2023 - Sexuality and Culture 1 (27):266-289.
    Despite having essential health needs regarding sexual and reproductive health services (SRHS), young people (e.g., adolescents) in many countries show low use of such services. The World Health Organization advocates fostering young people’s autonomy to access health services to address this global health problem. However, there are gaps in the literature to understand how young people’s autonomy can be fostered to access SRHS. In 2019–2020, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 45 young people aged 14–23 years old in Colombia to explore (...)
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  7. The Sin of Onan and Contraception.Toni C. Saad - 2023 - Heythrop Journal 64 (1):60-74.
    Our thesis is that the story of Onan in Genesis chapter 38 offers scriptural and logical grounds for believing that contraceptive acts are sinful. We set out a five-part modus ponens argument which considers the meaning and significance the story of Onan and, by showing that contraceptive acts are substantially similar to the act for which Onan is infamous, conclude that Christians ought not to practise contraception. We then respond to objections to this conclusion before finally and briefly touching upon (...)
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  8. The Sin of Onan and Contraception.Toni C. Saad - 2023 - Heythrop Journal 64 (1):60-74.
    Our thesis is that the story of Onan in Genesis chapter 38 offers scriptural and logical grounds for believing that contraceptive acts are sinful. We set out a five-part modus ponens argument which considers the meaning and significance the story of Onan and, by showing that contraceptive acts are substantially similar to the act for which Onan is infamous, conclude that Christians ought not to practise contraception. We then respond to objections to this conclusion before finally and briefly touching upon (...)
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  9. The FDA Ought to Change Plan B’s Label.Christopher ChoGlueck - 2022 - Contraception 106.
    This commentary defends 3 arguments for changing the label of levonorgestrel-based emergency contraception (LNG EC) so that it no longer supports the possibility of a mechanism of action after fertilization. First, there is no direct scientific evidence confirming any postfertilization mechanisms. Second, despite the weight of evidence, there is still widespread public misunderstanding over the mechanism of LNG EC. Third, this FDA label is not a value-free claim, but instead it has functioned like a political tool for reducing contraceptive access. (...)
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  10. Conscientious Objection to Emergency Contraception.Fiona Griffin - 2022 - Voices in Bioethics 8.
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  11. Objection or Obstacle: Applying Amartya Sen’s Capability Approach to the Conscientious Refusal of Emergency Contraception.Claire M. Moore - 2022 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 15 (2):40-50.
    The conscientious refusal to dispense emergency contraception is legally protected in fourteen states. While the ethical dimensions of these objections have been explored within moral and feminist philosophy, conscientious refusal to the over-the-counter sale of EC has not been significantly studied through an egalitarian lens, especially with attention to the existing reproductive healthcare landscape in which these refusals occur. This article argues, through Amartya Sen’s capability approach, that conscientious refusal to EC creates a burdensome inequality for people wishing to prevent (...)
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  12. Women doctors and contraception.Teresa Ortiz-Gómez - 2022 - Metascience 31 (3):373-377.
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  13. Acts and distance—a commentary on Brummett's ‘when conscientious objection runs amok’.Michal Pruski - 2022 - Clinical Ethics 17 (2):211-216.
    In his ‘When conscientious objection runs amok: A physician refusing human immunodeficiency virus preventative to a bisexual patient’, Brummett has argued that Catholic physicians should not be able to raise conscientious objections to HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis for bisexual patients, as this constitutes discrimination. Brummett argues that such a conscientious objection represents an instance of conscience creep, which he argues is undesirable. Here I re-analyse the case presented by Brummett using a teleological framework and making reference to Catholic teaching on cooperation (...)
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  14. Monopolizing contraception: Jessica Borge: Protective practices: A history of the London Rubber Company and the condom business. Montreal and Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2020, 296 pp, £22.50 HB. [REVIEW]Hannah Charnock - 2021 - Metascience 30 (3):487-490.
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  15. DRUG FACTS, VALUES, AND THE MORNING-AFTER PILL.Christopher ChoGlueck - 2021 - Public Affairs Quarterly 35 (1):51-82.
    While the Value-Free Ideal of science has suffered compelling criticism, some advocates like Gregor Betz continue to argue that science policy advisors should avoid value judgments by hedging their hypotheses. This approach depends on a mistaken understanding of the relations between facts and values in regulatory science. My case study involves the morning-after pill Plan B and the “Drug Fact” that it “may” prevent implantation. I analyze the operative values, which I call zygote-centrism, responsible for this hedged drug label. Then, (...)
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  16. Review of Donna Drucker's "Contraception: A Concise History". [REVIEW]Nicholas Danne - 2021 - Metapsychology Online Reviews.
    Drucker's contribution succeeds as a handbook of contraceptive history, but I criticize her definition of contraception as too broad, and I argue that a narrower definition undermines her reproductive justice claims.
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  17. If Homosexuality Is Wrong, So Is Contraception.Timothy Hsiao - 2021 - Philosophia Christi 23 (2):341-355.
    Historically, the Christian church was united in firm opposition to both homosexuality and contraception. Today most evangelical Christians continue to oppose the former but have embraced the latter. This paper argues that there is a clear tension between these views, especially when it comes to the evangelical use of natural law–type reasoning. The conclusion of this paper is that Christians who view homosexual activity as immoral must also view artificial contraception in the same light. They are wrong for the same (...)
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  18. Placement of long-acting reversible contraception for minors who are mothers should not require parental consent.Savannah Kaszubinski - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 48 (11):857-860.
    Decreasing unintended teenage pregnancy, especially repeat teenage pregnancy, is an important public health goal. Unfortunately, legal barriers in the USA impede this goal as all minors are unable to consent for birth control in 24 states, and only 10 of those states allow consent after the minor has given birth according to state statutory law. Placement of long-acting reversible contraception is one of the most effective methods of preventing rapid repeat pregnancies. However, restrictions are placed on adolescents who may not (...)
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  19. Jill B. Delston, Medical Sexism: Contraception Access, Reproductive Medicine, and Health Care. [REVIEW]Emily McGill - 2021 - Ethics 131 (4):781-785.
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  20. Medical Sexism: Contraception Access, Reproductive Medicine, and Health Care by Jill B. Delston.Deborah McNabb & Lisa Campo-Engelstein - 2021 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 14 (2):200-204.
    In Medical Sexism: Contraception Access, Reproductive Medicine, and Health Care, Jill B. Delston uses a feminist lens to examine the overwhelmingly common gynecological practice of declining to write prescriptions for oral contraceptives unless a woman agrees to an annual Pap smear, which is used to detect precancerous changes, as well as cancer of the cervix. Employing a comprehensive evaluation of the medical literature, Delston methodically builds a strong argument that these measures not only do not follow evidence-based medical guidelines, but (...)
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  21. How not to count the health benefits of family planning.Jacob Zionts & Joseph Millum - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 1:1-4.
    Several influential organisations have attempted to quantify the costs and benefits of expanding access to interventions-like contraceptives-that are expected to decrease the number of pregnancies. Such health economic evaluations can be invaluable to those making decisions about how to allocate scarce resources for health. Yet how the benefits should be measured depends on controversial value judgments. One such value judgment is found in recent analyses from the Disease Control Priority Network (DCPN) and the Study Group for the Global Investment Framework (...)
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  22. A Defence of Voluntary Sterilisation.Paddy McQueen - 2020 - Res Publica 26 (2):237-255.
    Many women identify sterilisation as their preferred form of contraception. However, their requests to be sterilised are frequently denied by doctors. Given a commitment to ensuring women’s reproductive autonomy, can these denials be justified? To answer this question, I assess the most commonly reported reasons for a denied sterilisation request: that the woman is too young, that she is child-free, that she will later regret her decision, and that it will lower her well-being. I argue that these worries are misplaced (...)
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  23. Broadening the scope of our understanding of mechanisms: lessons from the history of the morning-after pill.Christopher ChoGlueck - 2019 - Synthese 198 (3):2223-2252.
    Philosophers of science and medicine now aspire to provide useful, socially relevant accounts of mechanism. Existing accounts have forged the path by attending to mechanisms in historical context, scientific practice, the special sciences, and policy. Yet, their primary focus has been on more proximate issues related to therapeutic effectiveness. To take the next step toward social relevance, we must investigate the challenges facing researchers, clinicians, and policy makers involving values and social context. Accordingly, we learn valuable lessons about the connections (...)
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  24. Reply to the National Catholic Bioethics Center’s Commentary on the CDF’s 2018 Responsum.William Matthew Diem - 2019 - The National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 19 (4):533-544.
    The National Catholic Bioethics Center’s commentary on the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith’s 2018 responsum concerning hysterectomy fails to address the explicit reasoning that the CDF offers to justify its response. The CDF does not condone the hysterectomies in question as indirect sterilizations, justified by double effect. Rather, it defines procreation—and consequently sterilization—such that the moral categories of direct and indirect sterilization are not applicable in such cases. The CDF responsum is far more radical and consequential than the (...)
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  25. Even if the fetus is not a person, abortion is immoral: The impairment argument.Perry Hendricks - 2019 - Bioethics 33 (2):245-253.
    Much of the discussion surrounding the ethics of abortion has centered around the notion of personhood. This is because many philosophers hold that the morality of abortion is contingent on whether the fetus is a person - though, of course, some famous philosophers have rejected this thesis (e.g. Judith Thomson and Don Marquis). In this article, I construct a novel argument for the immorality of abortion based on the notion of impairment. This argument does not assume that the fetus is (...)
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  26. Contemporary Controversies in Catholic Bioethics.Jason T. Eberl (ed.) - 2017 - Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer.
    This volume comprises various viewpoints representing a Catholic perspective on contemporary practices in medicine and biomedical research. The Roman Catholic Church has had a significant impact upon the formulation and application of moral values and principles to a wide range of controversial issues in bioethics. Catholic leaders, theologians, and bioethicists have elucidated and marshaled arguments to support the Church’s definitive positions on several bioethical issues, such as abortion, euthanasia, and reproductive cloning. Not all bioethical issues, however, have been definitively addressed (...)
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  27. Wrongness, Responsibility, and Conscientious Refusals in Health Care.Alida Liberman - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (7):495-504.
    In this article, I address what kinds of claims are of the right kind to ground conscientious refusals. Specifically, I investigate what conceptions of moral responsibility and moral wrongness can be permissibly presumed by conscientious objectors. I argue that we must permit HCPs to come to their own subjective conclusions about what they take to be morally wrong and what they take themselves to be morally responsible for. However, these subjective assessments of wrongness and responsibility must be constrained in several (...)
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  28. Autonomy, age and sterilisation requests.Paddy McQueen - 2017 - Journal of Medical Ethics 43 (5):310-313.
    Sterilisation requests made by young, childfree adults are frequently denied by doctors, despite sterilisation being legally available to individuals over the age of 18. A commonly given reason for denied requests is that the patient will later regret their decision. In this paper I examine whether the possibility of future regret is a good reason for denying a sterilisation request. I argue that it is not and hence that decision-competent adults who have no desire to have children should have their (...)
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  29. Pope Francis, the Zika virus and contraception.George Woodall - 2016 - Alpha Omega 19 (1):157-163.
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  30. Uzasadnienie sprzeciwu sumienia: lekarze, poborowi i żołnierze.Tomasz Żuradzki - 2016 - Diametros 47:98-128.
    I will argue that physicians have an ethical obligation to justify their conscientious objection and the most reliable interpretation of the Polish legal framework claims that conscientious objection is permissible only when the justification shows the genuineness of the judgment of conscience that is not based on false beliefs and arises from a moral norm that has a high rank. I will demonstrate that the dogma accepted in the Polish doctrine that the reasons that lie behind conscientious objection in medicine (...)
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  31. Moralna niepewność w argumentacji bioetycznej.Tomasz Żuradzki - 2016 - Filozofia W Praktyce 2 (14).
    Niektórzy twierdzą, że nawet jeśli ktoś nie wierzy, że embriony lub płody ludzkie mają jakiś szczególnie wyróżniony status moralny, to z ostrożności powinien traktować je tak, jak gdyby miały pełny status moralny. Pokażę, dlaczego takie rozumowanie jest niepoprawne.
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  32. Review of John P. Lizza, ed., Potentiality: Metaphysical and Bioethical Dimensions. [REVIEW]Jake Earl - 2015 - American Journal of Bioethics 15 (8):10-12.
    Each of the 13 articles in this collection wrestles with intricate metaphysical and moral aspects of the widespread belief that a thing’s potential—what it could, would, might, or will be, but isn’t yet—matters for how we should treat that thing. As John Lizza explains in his lucid introduction, the articles are grouped into three parts according to their aims and theoretical constraints. In this review, I briefly summarize and offer some critical discussion of each part.
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  33. Conscientious Refusal and Access to Abortion and Contraception.Chloe Fitzgerald & Carolyn McLeod - 2015 - In John Arras, Elizabeth Fenton & Rebecca Kukla (eds.), Routledge Companion to Bioethics. New York: Routledge. pp. 343-356.
    An overview of the philosophical and bioethics literature on conscientious refusals by health care professionals to provide abortion and contraceptive services.
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  34. Contraception and Informed Consent.David J. Hilger - 2015 - Ethics and Medics 40 (12):1-4.
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  35. Klauzula sumienia: lekarze jak poborowi.Tomasz Żuradzki - 2015 - Filozofia W Praktyce 1 (1).
    „Skoro powszechnie przyjmuje się, że sumienie jest suwerenne, to nie wiadomo, po co lekarz miałby uzasadniać pisemnie swój światopogląd” – napisała Naczelna Izba Lekarska w skardze do Trybunału Konstytucyjnego. Trybunał tę część skargi oddalił w wyroku z 7 października 2015 r., ale stwierdził, że „Celem prowadzenia dokumentacji medycznej nie jest (…) utrwalanie na piśmie poglądów filozoficzno-prawnych lekarza”. Uznał też, że uzasadnienie „powinno mieć charakter medyczny, a nie służyć wyjaśnieniu światopoglądu lekarza, czy też wskazaniu zasady moralnej leżącej u podstaw jego zachowania”. (...)
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  36. Public Goods and Procreation.Jonny Anomaly - 2014 - Monash Bioethics Review 32 (3-4):172-188.
  37. Contraception and Double Effect.Ezio Di Nucci - 2014 - American Journal of Bioethics 14 (7):42-43.
  38. Conscientious Refusals and Reason‐Giving.Jason Marsh - 2014 - Bioethics 28 (6):313-319.
    Some philosophers have argued for what I call the reason-giving requirement for conscientious refusal in reproductive healthcare. According to this requirement, healthcare practitioners who conscientiously object to administering standard forms of treatment must have arguments to back up their conscience, arguments that are purely public in character. I argue that such a requirement, though attractive in some ways, faces an overlooked epistemic problem: it is either too easy or too difficult to satisfy in standard cases. I close by briefly considering (...)
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  39. Embryonic viability, parental care and the pro-life thesis: a defence of Bovens.Jonathan Surovell - 2014 - Journal of Medical Ethics 40 (4):260-263.
    On the basis of three empirical assumptions about the rhythm method and the viability of embryos, Bovens concludes that the pro-life position regarding empbryos implies that it is prima facie wrong to use the rhythm method. Pruss objects to Bovens's philosophical presuppositions and Kennedy to his empirical premises. This essay defends two revised versions of Bovens's argument. These arguments revise Bovens's empirical assumptions in response to Kennedy and, in response to Pruss, supplement Bovens's argument with what I call ‘the principle (...)
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  40. Conscientious objections in pharmacy practice in great Britain.Zuzana Deans - 2013 - Bioethics 27 (1):48-57.
    Pharmacists who refuse to provide certain services or treatment for reasons of conscience have been criticized for failing to fulfil their professional obligations. Currently, individual pharmacists in Great Britain can withhold services or treatment for moral or religious reasons, provided they refer the patient to an alternative source. The most high-profile cases have concerned the refusal to supply emergency hormonal contraception, which will serve as an example in this article.I propose that the pharmacy profession's policy on conscientious objections should be (...)
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  41. Reframing the Contraception Debate.Elliott Louis Bedford - 2012 - Ethics and Medics 37 (9):1-4.
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  42. Catholicism, Cooperation, and Contraception.Patrick C. Beeman - 2012 - The National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 12 (2):283-309.
    A Catholic physician practices in a world that condones the use of contraception. In the effort to be morally consistent, Catholic physicians are faced with questions about the extent to which their participation in providing contraceptives constitutes immoral cooperation in evil. Particular challenges face resident physicians, who practice under attending physicians and within the constraints of local and specialty-wide training requirements. The author examines the nature of the moral act of referring for contraception and argues that, in limited cases, there (...)
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  43. Una popolazione sana, virtuosa e felice. Malthus dalla morale sessuale all’etica della procreazione.Sergio Volodia Marcello Cremaschi - 2012 - In M. Loi & Roberto Mordacci (eds.), Etica e genetica. Storia, concetti e pratiche. Milano: Bruno Mondadori. pp. 3-22.
    I argue that Malthus’s Essay on Population is more a treatise in applied ethics than the first treatise in demography. I argue also that, as an ethical work, it is a highly innovative one. The substitution of procreation for sex as the focus makes for a drastic change in the agenda. what had been basically lacking in the discussion up to Malthus’s time was a consideration of human beings’ own responsibility in the decision of procreating. This makes for a remarkable (...)
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  44. Four Different Paths under the Contraception Mandate.John M. Haas, John A. Di Camillo, Edward J. Furton, Marie T. Hilliard & Tadeusz Pacholczyk - 2012 - Ethics and Medics 37 (10):1-4.
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  45. Antinatalism, Asymmetry, and an Ethic of Prima Facie Duties.Gerald Harrison - 2012 - South African Journal of Philosophy 31 (1):94-103.
    Benatar’s central argument for antinatalism develops an asymmetry between the pain and pleasure in a potential life. I am going to present an alternative route to the antinatalist conclusion. I argue that duties require victims and that as a result there is no duty to create the pleasures contained within a prospective life but a duty not to create any of its sufferings. My argument can supplement Benatar’s, but it also enjoys some advantages: it achieves a better fit with our (...)
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  46. The Morning After: A History of Emergency Contraception in the United States. [REVIEW]Erika Milam - 2012 - Isis 103:620-621.
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  47. Contraception Confusion: Why Casey and Colleagues Have It Wrong.Andrew Dean Foley Ross - 2012 - American Journal of Bioethics 12 (7):40 - 41.
    The American Journal of Bioethics, Volume 12, Issue 7, Page 40-41, July 2012.
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  48. Michael Dummett on the Morality of Contraception.John Schwenkler - 2012 - Heythrop Journal 53 (5):763-767.
    In his recent writings, Sir Michael Dummett has reflected twice on the Catholic position on the morality of contraception, focusing his attention especially on Humanae Vitae’s prohibition of the contraceptive use of the birth control pill. On examination, Dummett finds this prohibition ‘incoherent’, arguing that its promulgation ‘greatly damaged the respect of the faithful for the Catholic Church’s moral teaching in general’, as well as ‘the integrity of Catholic moral theology’. Given Dummett’s earlier defense of Paul VI’s reaffirmation of the (...)
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  49. Typical-Use Contraception and Pharmaceutical Research.William D. Winkelman & David I. Shalowitz - 2012 - American Journal of Bioethics 12 (7):42 - 43.
    The American Journal of Bioethics, Volume 12, Issue 7, Page 42-43, July 2012.
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  50. Conscientious Objection, Emergency Contraception, and Public Policy.Robert F. Card - 2011 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 36 (1):53-68.
    Defenders of medical professionals’ rights to conscientious objection (CO) regarding emergency contraception (EC) draw an analogy to CO in the military. Such professionals object to EC since it has the possibility of harming zygotic life, yet if we accept this analogy and utilize jurisprudence to frame the associated public policy, those who refuse to dispense EC would not have their objection honored. Legal precedent holds that one must consistently object to all forms of the relevant activity. In the case at (...)
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