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  1. Accessing Self-Control.Polaris Koi - forthcoming - Erkenntnis:1-20.
    Self-control is that which is enacted to align our behaviour with intentions, motives, or better judgment in the face of conflicting impulses of motives. In this paper, I ask, what explains interpersonal differences in self-control? After defending a functionalist conception of self-control, I argue that differences in self-control are analogous to differences in mobility: they are modulated by inherent traits and environmental supports and constraints in interaction. This joint effect of individual biology and environmental factors is best understood in terms (...)
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  2. Letter Regarding Canada's Bill C-7, Medical Assistance in Dying (MAID) and Disability.Robert A. Wilson & Matthew J. Barker - manuscript
    This letter was submitted to the Senate Standing Committee on Legal and Constitutional Affairs, Government of Canada, on 29th January, 2021, as final debate over Bill C-7 was being undertaken in the Senate regarding MAiD and the strong opposition to the legislation expressed across the Canadian disability community. It draws on our individual and joint work on eugenics, well-being, and disability.
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  3. Genetics on the Neurodiversity Spectrum: Genetic, Phenotypic and Endophenotypic Continua in Autism and ADHD.Polaris Koi - 2021 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 89 (October 2021):52–62.
    How we ought to diagnose, categorise and respond to spectrum disabilities such as autism and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a topic of lively debate. The heterogeneity associated with ADHD and autism is described as falling on various continua of behavioural, neural, and genetic difference. These continua are varyingly described either as extending into the general population, or as being continua within a given disorder demarcation. Moreover, the interrelationships of these continua are likewise often vague and subject to diverse interpretations. (...)
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  4. Considering the Boundaries of Intellectual Disability: Using Philosophy of Science to Make Sense of Borderline Cases.Veerle Garrels - forthcoming - Philosophical Psychology:1-17.
    Who should be diagnosed with intellectual disability and who should not? For borderline cases, the answer to this question may be as difficult to decide on as determining the borderline between being bald or not. While going bald may be upsetting to some, it is also an inevitable and relatively undramatic course of nature. In contrast, getting a diagnosis of intellectual disability is likely to have more far-reaching consequences. This makes the question of where the cutoff point for intellectual disability (...)
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  5. Relationship Between Cognitive Fusion, Experiential Avoidance, and Obsessive–Compulsive Symptoms in Patients With Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder.Ai Xiong, Xiong Lai, Siliang Wu, Xin Yuan, Jun Tang, Jinyuan Chen, Yang Liu & Maorong Hu - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    Objective: This study aimed to explore the relationship among cognitive fusion, experiential avoidance, and obsessive–compulsive symptoms in patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder.Methods: A total of 118 outpatient and inpatient patients with OCD and 109 healthy participants, gender- and age-matched, were selected using cognitive fusion questionnaire, acceptance and action questionnaire−2nd edition, Yale–Brown scale for obsessive–compulsive symptoms, Hamilton anxiety scale, and Hamilton depression scale for questionnaire testing and data analysis.Results: The levels of cognitive fusion and experiential avoidance in the OCD group were significantly (...)
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  6. ‘Deep Brain Stimulation is No ON/OFF-Switch’: An Ethnography of Clinical Expertise in Psychiatric Practice.Maarten van Westen, Erik Rietveld, Annemarie van Hout & Damiaan Denys - forthcoming - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences:1-20.
    Despite technological innovations, clinical expertise remains the cornerstone of psychiatry. A clinical expert does not only have general textbook knowledge, but is sensitive to what is demanded for the individual patient in a particular situation. A method that can do justice to the subjective and situation-specific nature of clinical expertise is ethnography. Effective deep brain stimulation for obsessive-compulsive disorder involves an interpretive, evaluative process of optimizing stimulation parameters, which makes it an interesting case to study clinical expertise. The aim of (...)
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  7. Marrying Past and Present Neuropsychology: Is the Future of the Process-Based Approach Technology-Based?Unai Diaz-Orueta, Alberto Blanco-Campal, Melissa Lamar, David J. Libon & Teresa Burke - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
    A cognitive assessment strategy that is not limited to examining a set of summary test scores may be more helpful for early detection of emergent illness such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and may permit a better understanding of cognitive functions and dysfunctions in those with AD and other dementia disorders. A revisit of the work already undertaken by Kaplan and colleagues using the Boston Process-Approach provides a solid basis for identifying new opportunities to capture data on neurocognitive processes, test-taking strategies (...)
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  8. Multi-Modal Dual-Task Measurement: A New Virtual Reality for Assessment.Tom Burke & Brendan Rooney - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
  9. The Network Theory of Psychiatric Disorders: A Critical Assessment of the Inclusion of Environmental Factors.Nina S. de Boer, Leon C. de Bruin, Jeroen J. G. Geurts & Gerrit Glas - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    Borsboom and colleagues have recently proposed a “network theory” of psychiatric disorders that conceptualizes psychiatric disorders as relatively stable networks of causally interacting symptoms. They have also claimed that the network theory should include non-symptom variables such as environmental factors. How are environmental factors incorporated in the network theory, and what kind of explanations of psychiatric disorders can such an “extended” network theory provide? The aim of this article is to critically examine what explanatory strategies the network theory that includes (...)
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  10. Acupuncture for Improving Cognitive Impairment After Stroke: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.Liang Zhou, Yao Wang, Jun Qiao, Qing Mei Wang & Xun Luo - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
    Objective: This meta-analysis evaluated the efficacy of acupuncture in improving cognitive impairment of post-stroke patients.Design: Randomized controlled trials investigating the effects of acupuncture compared with no treatment or sham acupuncture on post-stroke cognitive impairment before December 2019 were identified from databases. The literature searching and data extracting were independently performed by two investigators. Study quality was assessed using the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Meta-analyses were performed for the eligible RCTs with Revman 5.3 software.Results: Thirty-seven RCTs were included (...)
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  11. Internet Addiction and Related Clinical Problems: A Study on Italian Young Adults.Lorenzo Zamboni, Igor Portoghese, Alessio Congiu, Silvia Carli, Ruggero Munari, Angela Federico, Francesco Centoni, Adelelmo Lodi Rizzini & Fabio Lugoboni - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
    The considerable prominence of internet addiction (IA) in adolescence is at least partly explained by the limited knowledge thus far available on this complex phenomenon. In discussing IA, it is necessary to be aware that this is a construct for which there is still no clear definition in the literature. Nonetheless, its important clinical implications, as emerging in recent years, justify the lively interest of researchers in this new form of behavioral addiction. Over the years, studies have associated IA with (...)
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  12. Disenfranchisement and the Capacity / Equality Puzzle: Why Disenfranchise Children But Not Adults Living with Cognitive Disabilities?Attila Mráz - 2020 - Moral Philosophy and Politics 7 (2):255-279.
    In this paper, I offer a solution to the Capacity/Equality Puzzle. The puzzle holds that an account of the franchise may adequately capture at most two of the following: (1) a political equality-based account of the franchise, (2) a capacity-based account of disenfranchising children, and (3) universal adult enfranchisement. To resolve the puzzle, I provide a complex liberal egalitarian justification of a moral requirement to disenfranchise children. I show that disenfranchising children is permitted by both the proper political liberal and (...)
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  13. Recognition and Humans with Reduced Person-Making Capacities (Handbuch Anerkennung).Heikki Ikäheimo - 2020 - Handbuch Anerkennung.
    People whose person-making capacities or status are diminished or who lack them altogether are mostly ignored in mainstream theories of recognition. This entry clarifies the conceptual landscape around and some of the key questions about recognition in relation to these people. The concept of personhood is analyzed into three different sub-concepts – juridical, moral and psychological – and the connection of these to recognition on relevant concepts of recognition is discussed.
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  14. Merleau-Ponty's Sexual Schema and the Sexual Component Of Body Integrity Identity Disorder.Helena Preester - 2013 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy: A European Journal 16 (2):171-184.
    Body Integrity Identity Disorder, formerly also known as apotemnophilia is characterized by a desire for amputation of a healthy limb and is claimed to straddle or to even blur the boundary between psychiatry and neurology. The neurological line of approach, however, is a recent one, and is accompanied or preceded by psychodynamical, behavioural, philosophical, and psychiatric approaches and hypotheses. Next to its confusing history in which the disorder itself has no fixed identity and could not be classified under a specific (...)
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  15. Changing The Definition of The Kilogram: Insights For Psychiatric Disease Classification.Hanna M. Van Loo, Jan-Willem Romeijn & Kenneth S. Kendler - 2019 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 26 (4):97-108.
    In psychiatry, many scientists desire to move from a classification system based on symptoms toward a system based on biological causes. The idea is that psychiatric diseases should be redefined such that each disease would be associated with specific biological causes. This desire is intelligible because causal disease models often facilitate understanding and identification of new ways to intervene in disease processes. In its attempt to move from syndromal to specific etiological definitions, psychiatry follows the trend of general medicine.Current psychiatric...
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  16. Reasonable Doubt as Affective Experience: Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder, Epistemic Anxiety and the Feeling of Uncertainty.Juliette Vazard - 2019 - Synthese 1:1-18.
    How does doubt come about? What are the mechanisms responsible for our inclinations to reassess propositions and collect further evidence to support or reject them? In this paper, I approach this question by focusing on what might be considered a distorting mirror of unreasonable doubt, namely the pathological doubt of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Individuals with OCD exhibit a form of persistent doubting, indecisiveness, and over-cautiousness at pathological levels (Rasmussen and Eisen, 1992; Reed, 1985; Tolin et al., 2003). I (...)
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  17. Epistemic Anxiety, Adaptive Cognition, and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.Juliette Vazard - 2018 - Discipline Filosofiche 2 (Philosophical Perspectives on Af):137-158.
    Emotions might contribute to our being rational cognitive agents. Anxiety – and more specifically epistemic anxiety – provides an especially interesting case study into the role of emotion for adaptive cognition. In this paper, I aim at clarifying the epistemic contribution of anxiety, and the role that ill-calibrated anxiety might play in maladaptive epistemic activities which can be observed in psychopathology. In particular, I argue that this emotion contributes to our ability to adapt our cognitive efforts to how we represent (...)
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  18. Learning From My Daughter: The Value and Care of Disabled Minds.Eva Kittay & Eva Feder Kittay - 2019 - New York, NY, USA: Oxford UP.
    Does life have meaning? What is flourishing? How do we attain the good life? Philosophers, and many others of us, have explored these questions for centuries. As Eva Feder Kittay points out, however, there is a flaw in the essential premise of these questions: they seem oblivious to the very nature of the ways in which humans live, omitting a world of co-dependency, and of the fact that we live in and through our bodies, whether they are fully abled or (...)
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  19. Execution Exemption Should Be Based on Actual Vulnerability, Not Disability Label.Harvey N. Switzky & Stephen Greenspan - 2003 - Ethics and Behavior 13 (1):19-26.
    Mental retardation is an invented bureaucratic category, currently undergoing radical rethinking and likely renaming, that includes many who have biologically based brain disorders, but is itself determined on functional criteria that are purely arbitrary. People with MR are socially vulnerable and thus are more likely to be "naíve confessors," "naíve defendants," and "naíve offenders." That is most likely the rationale and justification for the Supreme Court's decision, in Atkins v. Virginia, to exempt the class from execution. Although the decision is (...)
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  20. Disability and Domination: Lessons From Republican Political Philosophy.Tom O'Shea - 2018 - Journal of Applied Philosophy.
    The republican ideal of non-domination identifies the capacity for arbitrary interference as a fundamental threat to liberty that can generate fearful uncertainty and servility in those dominated. I argue that republican accounts of domination can provide a powerful analysis of the nature of legal and institutional power that is encountered by people with mental disorders or cognitive disabilities. In doing so, I demonstrate that non-domination is an ideal which is pertinent, distinctive, and desirable in thinking through psychological disability. Finally, I (...)
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  21. The Eugenic Mind Project.Robert A. Wilson - 2017 - Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    The Eugenic Mind Project is a wide-ranging, philosophical book that explores and critiques both past and present eugenic thinking, drawing on the author’s intimate knowledge of eugenics in North America and his previous work on the cognitive, biological, and social sciences, the fragile sciences. Informed by the perspectives of Canadian eugenics survivors in the province of Alberta, The Eugenic Mind Project recounts the history of eugenics and the thinking that drove it, and critically engages contemporary manifestations of eugenic thought, newgenics. (...)
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  22. The Moorean Argument for the Full Moral Status of Those with Profound Intellectual Disability: A Rejoinder to Roberts.Benjamin Curtis & Simo Vehmas - 2016 - Journal of Medical Ethics 42 (4):266-267.
    In a recent paper we argued that a Moorean strategy can be employed to justify our continuing to believe the following proposition, even in the presence of philosophical views that entail it is false, without any philosophical argument against those views, and without any positive philosophical argument in its favour: -/- H>A: Humans have an equal moral status that is higher than the moral status of non-human animals. -/- The basic idea is that our confidence in the truth of this (...)
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  23. Marcum, James A. : The Bloomsbury Companion to Contemporary Philosophy of Medicine: Bloomsbury Academic, London, 2017. 424 Pp, $172.00 , ISBN: 9781474233002. [REVIEW]Mary Walker - 2017 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 38 (6):501-506.
  24. Profound Intellectual Disability and the Bestowment View of Moral Status.Simo Vehmas & Benjamin Curtis - 2017 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 26 (3):505-516.
    This article engages with debates concerning the moral worth of human beings with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMDs). Some argue that those with such disabilities are morally less valuable than so-called normal human beings, whereas others argue that all human beings have equal moral value and so each group of humans ought to be treated with equal concern. We will argue in favor of a reconciliatory view that takes points from opposing camps in the debates about the moral worth (...)
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  25. Self-Management as Management of Self – Contributions From Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy.Sattel Heribert & Henningsen Peter - 2017 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 24 (2):115-126.
    Self-management interventions are a heterogeneous group of interventions that are regarded as important tools for the management of chronic diseases. They consist of a broad range of techniques and are available for a large variety of chronic organic as well as mental conditions or illnesses, which are by definition generally chronic. These interventions aim that the individual concerned takes substantial responsibility for managing the symptoms, treatment, and physical and psychosocial consequences associated with having a chronic medical condition, disability or disease. (...)
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  26. Who Has the Capacity to Participate as a Rearee in a Person-Rearing Relationship?Agnieszka Jaworska & Julie Tannenbaum - 2015 - Ethics 125 (4):1096-1113.
    We discuss applications of our account of moral status grounded in person-rearing relationships: which individuals have higher moral status or not, and why? We cover three classes of cases: (1) cases involving incomplete realization of the capacity to care, including whether infants or fetuses have this incomplete capacity; (2) cases in which higher moral status rests in part on what is required for the being to flourish; (3) hypothetical cases in which cognitive enhancements could, e.g., help dogs achieve human-like cognitive (...)
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  27. John Dewey’s Contributions to an Educational Philosophy of Intellectual Disability.Scot Danforth - 2008 - Educational Theory 58 (1):45-62.
    Leading researchers describe the field of special education as sharply divided between two different theories of disability. In this article Scot Danforth takes as his project addressing that division from the perspective of a Deweyan philosophy of the education of students with intellectual disabilities. In 1922, John Dewey authored two articles in New Republic that criticized the use of intelligence tests as both undemocratic and impractical in meeting the needs of teachers. Drawing from these two articles and a variety of (...)
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  28. M. Opler's "Culture and Social Psychiatry". [REVIEW]Ronald A. Steffenhagen - 1968 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 29 (1):139.
  29. The Moral Personhood of Individuals Labeled “Mentally Retarded”: A Rawlsian Response to Nussbaum.Sophia Isako Wong - 2007 - Social Theory and Practice 33 (4):579-594.
  30. Autism in the Wild: Bridging the Gap Between Experiment and Experience.Nicola Shaughnessy & Melissa Trimingham - unknown
    Traditional accounts conceive of the autistic individual as being locked in his/her own world due to difficulties in social interaction, communication and imagination. The paradoxical association between autism and creativity is one of the reasons the condition causes such fascination and yet remains an enigma. This essay draws upon practical research exploring applications of performance to engage with atypical neuro-cognitive experience. The research explores new insights into the imagination and perception in autism through the multisensory multimodalities of performance, which, it (...)
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  31. The Role of Associative Sector in Intervention of Children with Autism.Mihaela Grasu - 2015 - Revista Romaneasca pentru Educatie Multidimensionala 7 (1):117-128.
    The aim of this empirical investigation is to analyse the role of associations in the development of intervention on children with autism in Iasi. Research methodology is a qualitative fieldwork based on observation and semi-structured interview. Professionals from two NGOs and a special school and parents of children with autism were interviewed. Research results show that associations have set up establishment of specialized structures, adapted to children with autism care. The development of these services was achieved through financial and logistical (...)
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  32. Asking More of Our Metaphors: Narrative Strategies to End the “War on Alzheimer's” and Humanize Cognitive Aging.Daniel R. George, Erin R. Whitehouse & Peter J. Whitehouse - 2016 - American Journal of Bioethics 16 (10):22-24.
  33. The Hysterical Anorexia Epidemic in the French Nineteenth-Century.Sara Valente - 2016 - Dialogues in Philosophy, Mental and Neuro Sciences 9 (1):22-23.
    The official birth of hysterical anorexia is attributed to the French alienist Ernest Charles Lasègue (1816-1883). Starting from his 1873 article, anorexia as a ‘new’ psychopathological picture is subjected to extensive clinical and theoreticalstudy. This paper is not an analysis about the process through which anorexia was formalized as specific psychiatric condition. Rather, it focuses on another important issue: the possibility that the ‘same’ disorder may have different meaning depending on the historical period considered. Furthermore, it is asserted that the (...)
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  34. Mental Disorder or Creative Gift? The Cognitive Scientific Approach to Synesthesia.Józef Bremer - 2015 - Forum Philosophicum: International Journal for Philosophy 20 (1):73-98.
    In cases where one sense-modality is stimulated by another, we speak of synesthesia, i.e., of a subjective experience of multiple distinct sensations as being quite literally conjoined. The term “synesthesia” is derived indirectly from the Greek words “syn,” meaning “together,” and “aisthesis,” meaning “sensation.” This article focuses on the question of whether synesthesia is in fact a mental disorder or a creative gift. Both the commonsense views that have emerged in recent times, and neurological research, demonstrate that our knowledge of (...)
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  35. Roger Smith, Trial by Medicine: Insanity and Responsibility in Victorian Trials. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1981. Pp. Ix + 238. £15.00. [REVIEW]Joan Busfield - 1985 - British Journal for the History of Science 18 (1):89-90.
  36. Psychiatry and the CinemaKrin Gabbard Glen O. Gabbard.John Forrester - 1989 - Isis 80 (1):97-99.
  37. From Mesmer to Medical PsychologyThe Discovery of the Unconscious. The History and Evolution of Dynamic Psychiatry. Henri F. Ellenberger. [REVIEW]John C. Burnham - 1971 - Isis 62 (4):527-529.
  38. A Comment on D. J. Moore and D. A. Shiek's 'Toward a Theory of Early Infantile Autism.'.Rober A. Webb & Dewey J. Moore - 1972 - Psychological Review 79 (3):278-279.
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  39. Toward a Theory of Early Infantile Autism.Dewey J. Moore & David A. Shiek - 1971 - Psychological Review 78 (5):451-456.
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  40. Children with Autism Social Engagement in Interaction with Nao, an Imitative Robot: A Series of Single Case Experiments.Adriana Tapus, Andreea Peca, Amir Aly, Cristina Pop, Lavinia Jisa, Sebastian Pintea, Alina S. Rusu & Daniel O. David - 2012 - Interaction Studiesinteraction Studies Social Behaviour and Communication in Biological and Artificial Systems 13 (3):315-347.
    This paper presents a series of 4 single subject experiments aimed to investigate whether children with autism show more social engagement when interacting with the Nao robot, compared to a human partner in a motor imitation task. The Nao robot imitates gross arm movements of the child in real-time. Different behavioral criteria were analyzed based on the video data of the interaction. The results are mixed and suggest a high variability in reactions to the Nao robot. The results are as (...)
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  41. Children with Autism Encounter an Unfamiliar Pet: Application of theStrange Animal Situationtest.Marine Grandgeorge, Michel Deleau, Eric Lemonnier, Sylvie Tordjman & Martine Hausberger - 2012 - Interaction Studiesinteraction Studies Social Behaviour and Communication in Biological and Artificial Systems 13 (2):165-188.
    Autistic disorders are characterized by deficits in social interactions and communication, strong aversion or non-response to social stimuli. However, these children are often reported to develop strong bonds with companion animals. We hypothesized that children with autism would present different behavioural profiles when encountering an unfamiliar animal in aStrange Animal Situationclose-to-life test. Twenty seven CAD were compared to 59 children with typical development. Our results. revealed similarities in the behaviour of both groups of children as well as patterns specific to (...)
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  42. Lionel Penrose and the Concept of Normal Variation in Human Intelligence.Sean A. Valles - 2012 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 43 (1):281-289.
    Lionel Penrose (1898–1972) was an important leader during the mid-20th century decline of eugenics and the development of modern medical genetics. However, historians have paid little attention to his radical theoretical challenges to mainline eugenic concepts of mental disease. Working from a classification system developed with his colleague, E. O. Lewis, Penrose developed a statistically sophisticated and clinically grounded refutation of the popular position that low intelligence is inherently a disease state. In the early 1930s, Penrose advocated dividing “mental defect” (...)
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  43. A Moorean Argument for the Full Moral Status of Those with Profound Intellectual Disability.Benjamin Curtis & Simo Vehmas - 2016 - Journal of Medical Ethics 42 (1):41-45.
    This paper is about the moral status of those human beings with profound intellectual disabilities (PIDs). We hold the common sense view that they have equal status to ‘normal’ human beings, and a higher status than any non-human animal. We start with an admission, however: we don’t know how to give a fully satisfying theoretical account of the grounds of moral status that explains this view. And in fact, not only do we not know how to give such an account, (...)
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  44. The Ethical and Legal Aspects of Palliative Sedation in Severely Brain Injured Patients: A French Perspective.Antoine Baumann, Frederique Claudot, Gerard Audibert, Paul-Michel Mertes & Louis Puybasset - 2011 - Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 6:4.
    To fulfill their crucial duty of relieving suffering in their patients, physicians may have to administer palliative sedation when they implement treatment-limitation decisions such as the withdrawal of life-supporting interventions in patients with poor prognosis chronic severe brain injury. The issue of palliative sedation deserves particular attention in adults with serious brain injuries and in neonates with severe and irreversible brain lesions, who are unable to express pain or to state their wishes. In France, treatment limitation decisions for these patients (...)
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  45. From Cure to Community: Transforming Notions of Autism.Nancy Bagatell - 2010 - Ethos: Journal of the Society for Psychological Anthropology 38 (1):33-55.
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  46. What a Dog Can Do: Children with Autism and Therapy Dogs in Social Interaction.Olga Solomon - 2010 - Ethos: Journal of the Society for Psychological Anthropology 38 (1):143-166.
  47. Autistic States in Children.Frances Tustin - 1992 - Routledge.
    Frances Tustin's classic text _Autistic States in Children_ put forward convincing clinical evidence that some forms of childhood autism are psychogenic and respond to methods of treatment very different from the behavioural techniques often adopted without success. Her pioneering work with such children has gained ground since the book was first published and she herself has revised her understanding of the aetiology of psychogenic autism. This revised edition of the book incorporates her new thinking based on recent infant observational studies (...)
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  48. The Philosophy of Autism.Jami L. Anderson & Simon Cushing (eds.) - 2012 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    This book examines autism from the tradition of analytic philosophy, working from the premise that Autism Spectrum Disorders raise interesting philosophical questions that need to be and can be addressed in a manner that is clear, jargon-free, and accessible. The goal of the original essays in this book is to provide a philosophically rich analysis of issues raised by autism and to afford dignity and respect to those impacted by autism by placing it at the center of the discussion.
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  49. "Autistic" Children: New Hope for a Cure By Niko Tinbergen and Elizabeth A. Tinbergen.M. R. A. Chance - 1985 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 28 (4):636-638.
  50. Dimensions Relevant to the Health Care and Therapeutic Use of Self-Control Strategies: A System Model for Applied Research.Deane H. Shapiro - 1983 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 26 (4):568-586.
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