About this topic
Summary If metaphysics is the study of what there is and what it is like— of what exists and the nature of that which exists (actually or potentially), then feminist metaphysics is metaphysics that pays particular attention to potential gender biases in our metaphysical methods, concepts, and theories. Along with other branches of feminist inquiry, it is a central tenet of feminist metaphysics that knowledge, including metaphysical knowledge, is socially situated, and thus that we need to attend to the social environment in which our theorizing takes place and the potential impact it has on our theorizing and theories. Of special importance to feminist metaphysics is the inquiry into feminist tools and methods, such as the concepts of gender, sex, gendering, social construction, objectivity, and bias.
Key works Important 20th century works include de Beauvoir & Parshley 2010, Frye 1983, Spelman 1988, Butler 1989, Butler 1993, and the edited collection Meyers 1997. Recent works include Alcoff 2006, Witt 2011, Haslanger 2012, and the edited volume Witt 2010.
Introductions The encyclopædia article Haslanger & Sveinsdóttir 2008;2011 provides an introduction and an overview.
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  1. Social kinds and conceptual change: A reply to Haslanger.Esa Diaz-Leon - manuscript
    Sally Haslanger (2006) is concerned with the debate between so-called social constructionists and error theorists about a given category, such as race or gender. For example, social constructionists about race claim that race is socially constructed, that is, the kind or property that unifies all instances of the category is a social feature (not a natural or physical feature, as naturalists about race would hold). On the other hand, error theorists about race claim that the term ‘race’ is an empty (...)
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  2. What even is 'gender'?B. R. George - manuscript
    (Added April 2023: This draft is superseded by Briggs, R.A., & George, B.R. (2023). 'What Even Is Gender?'. Routledge. DOI 10.4324/9781003053330, and in particular by the first three chapters thereof. While this much earlier draft remains available for archival purposes, you are encouraged to read and cite the 2023 book and to use its terminology.) -/- This paper presents a new taxonomy of sex/gender concepts based on the idea of starting with a few basic components of the sex/gender system, and (...)
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  3. Not the Social Kind: anti-naturalist mistakes in the philosophical history of womanhood.Kathleen Stock - manuscript
    I trace a brief history of philosophical discussion of the concept WOMAN and identify two key points at which, I argue, things went badly wrong. The first was where when it was agreed that the concept WOMAN must identify a social not biological kind. The second was where it was decided that the concept WOMAN faced a legitimate challenge of being insufficiently “inclusive”, understood in a certain way. I’ll argue that both of these moves are only intelligible, if at all, (...)
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  4. Experience and Knowledge: The Case of Sexual Abuse Memories.L. M. Alcoff - forthcoming - Feminist Metaphysics:209--223.
  5. Imitation and Gender Insubordination1.J. Butler - forthcoming - Cultural Theory and Popular Culture:255.
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  6. Reimagining Transgender.Robin Dembroff - forthcoming - In Talia Bettcher, Perry Zurn, Andrea Pitts & P. J. DiPietro (eds.), Trans Philosophy: Meaning and Mattering. University of Minnesota Press.
    'Transgender’ is often described either as an identity, or else as the full spectrum of gender nonconformity. In this essay, I suggest that these descriptions do not align with the conceptual labor that we often ask ‘transgender’ to do: highlighting people who engage in forms of self-directed gender nonconformity that are heavily penalized.
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  7. Intersection Is Not Identity, or How to Distinguish Overlapping Systems of Injustice.Robin Dembroff - forthcoming - In Ruth Chang & Amia Srinivasan (eds.), New Conversations in Philosophy, Law, and Politics. Oxford University Press.
    When one takes an intersectional perspective on patterns of oppression and domination, it becomes clear that familiar forms of systemic injustice, such as misogyny and anti-Black racism, are inseparable. Some feminist theorists conclude, from this, that the systems behind these injustices cannot be individuated—for example, that there isn’t patriarchy and white supremacy, but instead only white supremacist patriarchy. This chapter offers a different perspective. Philosophers have long observed that a statue and a lump of clay can be individuated although inseparable, (...)
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  8. Political philosophy and the patriarchal unconscious: A psychoanalytic perspective on epistemology and metaphysics.J. Flax - forthcoming - Discovering Reality:245--281.
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  9. The instability of the analytical categories of feminist theory.S. Harding - forthcoming - Signs:645--664.
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  10. Gender and Social Construction: Who? What? When? Where? How?S. Haslanger - forthcoming - Theorizing Feminisms:16--23.
  11. Oppressions: Racial and other.S. Haslanger - forthcoming - Racism in Mind:97--123.
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  12. Objective reality, male reality, and social construction.S. Haslanger - forthcoming - Women, Knowledge, and Reality:84.
  13. Masks, Finks, and Gender.Gus Turyn - forthcoming - Erkenntnis:1-34.
    According to the dispositional account of gender, to have a gender is to have some set of behavioral dispositions. Robin Dembroff (2020) levels a strong objection to Jennifer McKitrick’s (2015) dispositional view of gender, arguing that it can neither capture the extension of genderqueer identities nor treat them with the respect that they warrant. In this paper, I offer a defense of the dispositional view against these charges. I argue that accounts of dispositions tailored to deal with masks and finks—phenomena (...)
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  14. Form, Normativity and Gender in Aristotle A Feminist Perspective.C. Witt - forthcoming - Feminist Reflections on the History of Philosophy:117--136.
  15. Gender Essentialisms.John Horden & Dan López de Sa - 2023 - Feminist Philosophy Quarterly 9 (2).
    Charlotte Witt has argued that gender is essential to women and men, in a way that unifies them as social individuals but precludes each of them from being identified with the corresponding person or human organism. We respond to Witt’s modal and normative arguments for this view, and we argue that they fail to support anything stronger than a moderate version of kind essentialism, which generally allows women and men to be identified with people. We finish by pointing out that (...)
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  16. Critical social ontology.Kevin Richardson - 2023 - Synthese 201 (6):1-19.
    Critical social ontology is any study of social ontology that is done in order to critique ideology or end social injustice. The goal of this paper is to outline what I call the fundamentality approach to critical social ontology. On the fundamentality approach, social ontologists are in the business of distinguishing between appearances and (fundamental) reality. Social reality is often obscured by the acceptance of ideology, where an ideology is a distorted system of beliefs that leads people to promote or (...)
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  17. Gender and first-person authority.Gus Turyn - 2023 - Synthese 201 (122):1-19.
    Following Talia Mae Bettcher, many philosophers distinguish between ethical and epistemic conceptions of the first-person authority that we have over our gender identities. Rather than construing this authority as explained by our superior epistemic access to our own gender identities, many have argued that we should view this authority as explained by ethical obligations that we have towards others. But such views remain silent on what we ought to believe about others’ gender identities: when someone avows their gender identity, should (...)
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  18. Public Health, Political Solidarity, and the Ethics of Orientation Ascriptions.Matthew Andler - 2022 - Ergo 8 (27).
    How ought we socially to categorize individuals with respect to sexual orientation? In this paper, I engage with philosophical work on the foundations of political solidarity as well as public health research on the treatment and prevention of HIV/AIDS in order to develop a categorization scheme conducive to the normatively important aims of LGBTQIA+ social movements.
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  19. The Minority Body: A Theory of Disability, by Elizabeth Barnes.Chong-Ming Lim - 2022 - Mind 131 (522):650–659.
  20. Review of Donna Drucker's "Contraception: A Concise History". [REVIEW]Nicholas Danne - 2021 - Metapsychology Online Reviews.
    Drucker's contribution succeeds as a handbook of contraceptive history, but I criticize her definition of contraception as too broad, and I argue that a narrower definition undermines her reproductive justice claims.
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  21. Escaping the Natural Attitude About Gender.Robin Dembroff - 2021 - Philosophical Studies 178 (3):983-1003.
    Alex Byrne’s article, “Are Women Adult Human Females?”, asks a question that Byrne treats as nearly rhetorical. Byrne’s answer is, ‘clearly, yes’. Moreover, Byrne claims, 'woman' is a biological category that does not admit of any interpretation as (also) a social category. It is important to respond to Byrne’s argument, but mostly because it is paradigmatic of a wider phenomenon. The slogan “women are adult human females” is a political slogan championed by anti-trans activists, appearing on billboards, pamphlets, and anti-trans (...)
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  22. The Metaphysics of Intersectionality Revisited.Holly Lawford-Smith & Kate Phelan - 2021 - Journal of Political Philosophy 30 (2):166-187.
    ‘Intersectionality’ is one of the rare pieces of academic jargon to make it out of the university and into the mainstream. The message is clear and well-known: your feminism had better be intersectional. But what exactly does this mean? This paper is partly an exercise in conceptual clarification, distinguishing at least six distinct types of claim found across the literature on intersectionality, and digging further into the most philosophically complex of these claims—namely the metaphysical and explanatory. It’s also partly a (...)
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  23. Feminism in science: an imposed ideology and a witch hunt.Martín López Corredoira - 2021 - Scripta Philosophiae Naturalis 20:id. 3.
    Metaphysical considerations aside, today’s inheritors of the tradition of natural philosophy are primarily scientists. However, they are oblivious to the human factor involved in science and in seeing how political, religious, and other ideologies contaminate our visions of nature. In general, philosophers observe human (historical, sociological, and psychological) processes within the construction of theories, as well as in the development of scientific activity itself. -/- In our time, feminism—along with accompanying ideas of identity politics under the slogan “diversity, inclusion, equity”—has (...)
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  24. Hermeneutical Injustice.Rebecca Mason - 2021 - In Justin Khoo & Rachel Sterken (eds.), Routledge Handbook of Social and Political Philosophy of Language. Routledge.
  25. Finean Feminist Metaphysics.Asya Passinsky - 2021 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 64 (9):937-954.
    Feminist metaphysicians have recently argued that many of the most influential contemporary meta-metaphysical frameworks are at odds with feminist metaphysics. In this paper I argue that the Finean framework of grounding, essence, and reality evades the main challenges that have been raised for alternative frameworks. The upshot of my discussion is that the Finean framework is an apt one for feminist metaphysics.
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  26. Oxford Handbook of Feminist Philosophy.Ásta Sveinsdóttir & Kim Q. Hall (eds.) - 2021
    This exciting new Handbook offers a comprehensive overview of the contemporary state of the field in feminist philosophy. The editors' introduction and forty-five essays cover feminist critical engagements with philosophy and adjacent scholarly fields, as well as feminist approaches to current debates and crises across the world. Authors cover topics ranging from the ways in which feminist philosophy attends to other systems of oppression, and the gendered, racialized, and classed assumptions embedded in philosophical concepts, to feminist perspectives on prominent subfields (...)
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  27. The Social Construction of Human Categories. Review of Ásta, Categories We Live By: The Construction of Sex, Gender, Race, and Other Social Categories (New York: Oxford University Press, 2018). [REVIEW]Jonathan Y. Tsou - 2021 - Metascience 30 (1):115-118.
  28. Women as Victims of ‘Misogyny’: Re-centering Gender Marginalization.Xinyi Angela Zhao - 2021 - Canadian Journal of Practical Philosophy 7.
    Among various views concerning the nature of womanhood, one kind of divergence between the materialist and the pluralist account centres on whether a woman should be defined or identified based on her typical female biological features. The former treats “woman” as the social meaning of the biological female, while the latter insists that one can be a woman in virtue of their internal identity without also having the normatively associated biological features. In this paper, I argue against the latter view (...)
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  29. Categories We Live by: The Construction of Sex, Gender, Race, and Other Social Categories, by Ásta. [REVIEW]Elizabeth Barnes & Matthew Andler - 2020 - Mind 129 (515):939-947.
  30. Cisgender Commonsense and Philosophy's Transgender Trouble [Chinese].Robin Dembroff - 2020 - TSQ 3 (7).
    Chinese translation by Zhuanxu Xu. Analytic philosophy has transgender trouble. In this paper, I explore potential explanations for this trouble, focusing on the notion of 'cisgender commonsense' and its place in philosophical methodology.
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  31. Beyond Binary: Genderqueer as Critical Gender Kind.Robin Dembroff - 2020 - Philosophers' Imprint 20 (9):1-23.
    We want to know what gender is. But metaphysical approaches to this question solely have focused on the binary gender kinds men and women. By overlooking those who identify outside of the binary–the group I call ‘genderqueer’–we are left without tools for understanding these new and quickly growing gender identifications. This metaphysical gap in turn creates a conceptual lacuna that contributes to systematic misunderstanding of genderqueer persons. In this paper, I argue that to better understand genderqueer identities, we must recognize (...)
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  32. Beyond Binary: Genderqueer as Critical Gender Kind [Chinese].Robin Dembroff - 2020 - Philosophers' Imprint 20 (9):1-23.
    Chinese translation courtesy of Zhuanxu Xu. We want to know what gender is. But metaphysical approaches to this question solely have focused on the binary gender kinds men and women. By overlooking those who identify outside of the binary–the group I call ‘genderqueer’–we are left without tools for understanding these new and quickly growing gender identifications. This metaphysical gap in turn creates a conceptual lacuna that contributes to systematic misunderstanding of genderqueer persons. In this paper, I argue that to better (...)
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  33. Why I Don’t Believe in Patriarchy: Comments on Kate Manne’s Down Girl.Sally Haslanger - 2020 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 101 (1):220-229.
  34. Do We Need to Challenge or Change the Perspective? A Re-Reading of the Feminist Metaphysics.Baiju Anthony - 2019 - English Studies: International Research Journal 7 (1):48-53.
    Presentation of feminism from the perspectives of philosophical branches brings variety and vitality to feministic reflections. Often feminist thinkers challenge the existing metaphysical ideas in order to present feminist metaphysics. However, it is also possible to present feminist metaphysics without challenging the definitions of metaphysics. In doing that it helps us to see the interconnections with other branches of philosophy.
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  35. Categorical Injustice. Ásta - 2019 - Journal of Social Philosophy 50 (4):392-406.
  36. Against Abolition.Matthew J. Cull - 2019 - Feminist Philosophy Quarterly 5 (3).
    Analytic metaphysics of gender has taken an ameliorative turn towards ethical and political questions regarding what our concept of gender ought to be, and how gendered society should be structured. Abolitionism about gender, which claims that we ought to mandate gender out of existence, has therefore seen renewed interest. I consider three arguments for abolitionism from radically different perspectives: Haslanger’s simple argument, Escalante’s Gender Nihilism, and Okin’s argument from ideal theory. I argue that none of the above manage to establish (...)
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  37. 'Yep, I'm Gay': Understanding Agential Identity.Robin Dembroff & Cat Saint-Croix - 2019 - Ergo: An Open Access Journal of Philosophy 6:571-599.
    What’s important about ‘coming out’? Why do we wear business suits or Star Trek pins? Part of the answer, we think, has to do with what we call agential identity. Social metaphysics has given us tools for understanding what it is to be socially positioned as a member of a particular group and what it means to self-identify with a group. But there is little exploration of the general relationship between self-identity and social position. We take up this exploration, developing (...)
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  38. Reconceptualizing Women for Intersectional Feminism.Youjin Kong - 2019 - Dissertation, Michigan State University
    This dissertation addresses the question of how to reconceptualize “women” in order to do a more intersectional feminism. Intersectionality—the idea that gender, race, class, sexuality, and so on operate not as separate entities but as mutually constructing phenomena—has become a gold standard in contemporary feminist scholarship. In particular, intersectionality has achieved success in showing that the old conception of women as a single, uniform concept marginalizes women and others who exist at the intersecting axes of multiple oppressions (e.g., women of (...)
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  39. Categories We Live By: The Construction of Sex, Gender, Race, and Other Social Categories.Ásta . - 2018 - New York, USA: Oxford University Press.
    We are women, we are men. We are refugees, single mothers, people with disabilities, and queers. We belong to social categories and they frame our actions, self-understanding, and opportunities. But what are social categories? How are they created and sustained? How does one come to belong to them? -/- Ásta approaches these questions through analytic feminist metaphysics. Her theory of social categories centers on an answer to the question: what is it for a feature of an individual to be socially (...)
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  40. Beyond Acting and Being Acted Upon.Emanuela Bianchi - 2018 - Philosophy Today 62 (3):1025-1036.
  41. Real Talk on the Metaphysics of Gender.Robin Dembroff - 2018 - Philosophical Topics 46 (2):21-50.
    Gender classifications often are controversial. These controversies typically focus on whether gender classifications align with facts about gender kind membership: Could someone really be nonbinary? Is Chris Mosier really a man? I think this is a bad approach. Consider the possibility of ontological oppression, which arises when social kinds operating in a context unjustly constrain the behaviors, concepts, or affect of certain groups. Gender kinds operating in dominant contexts, I argue, oppress trans and nonbinary persons in this way: they marginalize (...)
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  42. Why Be Nonbinary?Robin Dembroff - 2018 - Aeon.
    In this article, Dembroff argues that the category nonbinary should not be understood in terms of presentation or psychological states, but instead in terms of how its members are politically situated with respect to the binary expectations of Western gender ideology.
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  43. Disabilities Are Also Legitimately Medically Interesting Constraints on Legitimate Interests.Chong-Ming Lim - 2018 - Mind 127 (508):977-1002.
    What is it for something to be a disability? Elizabeth Barnes, focusing on physical disabilities, argues that disability is a social category. It depends on the rules undergirding the judgements of the disability rights movement. Barnes’ account may strike many as implausible. I articulate the unease, in the form of three worries about Barnes’ account. It does not fully explain why the disability rights movement is constituted in such a way that it only picks out paradigmatic disability traits, nor why (...)
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  44. Philosophy and the Apparatus of Disability.Shelley Tremain - 2018 - In Adam Cureton & David Wasserman (eds.), Oxford Handbook of Philosophy and Disability. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    Abstract and Keywords Mainstream philosophers take for granted that disability is a prediscursive, transcultural, and transhistorical disadvantage, an objective human defect or characteristic that ought to be prevented, corrected, eliminated, or cured. That these assumptions are contestable, that it might be the case that disability is a historically and culturally specific, contingent social phenomenon, a complex apparatus of power, rather than a natural attribute or property that certain people possess, is not considered, let alone seriously entertained. This chapter draws on (...)
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  45. Realism and social structure.Elizabeth Barnes - 2017 - Philosophical Studies 174 (10):2417-2433.
    Social constructionism is often considered a form of anti-realism. But in contemporary feminist philosophy, an increasing number of philosophers defend views that are well-described as both realist and social constructionist. In this paper, I use the work of Sally Haslanger as an example of realist social constructionism. I argue: that Haslanger is best interpreted as defending metaphysical realism about social structures; that this type of metaphysical realism about the social world presents challenges to some popular ways of understanding metaphysical realism.
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  46. Die Geschlechtstheorie Freuds: Ihre Neuartigkeit und Anwendung auf den Feminismus.Yusuke Kaneko - 2017 - HACETTEPE UNIVERSITY JOURNAL OF FACULTY OF LETTERS 33 (2):150-167.
    Not a few feminist writers, such as Kristeva, Irigaray, and Chodorow, have dealt with Freud’s psychoanalysis so far, but it is not clear to what degree the Freudian theory grounds their arguments, because Freud himself developed his psychoanalysis mainly for the male mental world (Seelenleben). In this paper, we shall follow Freud’s train of thought exclusively from this angle. After the geneses of Pcpt.-Cs., id, ego, and super-ego (W-Bw, Es, Ich, and Über-Ich, respectively) are treated (§§7-10), we shed light on (...)
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  47. Unsexing Subjects: Marie de Gournay's philosophy of sex eliminativism.Eloy LaBrada - 2017 - In Claudia Brodsky & Eloy LaBrada (eds.), Inventing Agency: essays on the literary and philosophical production of the modern subject. Bloomsbury Academic. pp. 51-80.
  48. On the apparent antagonism between feminist and mainstream metaphysics.Mari Mikkola - 2017 - Philosophical Studies 174 (10):2435-2448.
    The relationship between feminism and metaphysics has historically been strained. Metaphysics has until recently remained dismissive of feminist insights, and many feminist philosophers have been deeply skeptical about any value that metaphysics might have when thinking about advancing gender justice. Nevertheless, feminist philosophers have in recent years increasingly taken up explicitly metaphysical investigations. Such feminist investigations have expanded the scope of metaphysics in holding that metaphysical tools can help advance debates on topics outside of traditional metaphysical inquiry. Moreover, feminist philosophers (...)
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  49. Substantivity in feminist metaphysics.Theodore Sider - 2017 - Philosophical Studies 174 (10):2467-2478.
    Elizabeth Barnes and Mari Mikkola raise the important question of whether certain recent approaches to metaphysics exclude feminist metaphysics. My own approach does not, or so I argue. I do define “substantive” questions in terms of fundamentality; and the concepts of feminist metaphysics are nonfundamental. But my definition does not count a question as being nonsubstantive simply because it involves nonfundamental concepts. Questions about the causal structure of the world, including the causal structure of the social world, are generally substantive (...)
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  50. The Minority Body: A Theory of Disability.Elizabeth Barnes - 2016 - Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press.
    Disability is primarily a social phenomenon -- a way of being a minority, a way of facing social oppression, but not a way of being inherently or intrinsically worse off. This is how disability is understood in the Disability Rights and Disability Pride movements; but there is a massive disconnect with the way disability is typically viewed within analytic philosophy. The idea that disability is not inherently bad or sub-optimal is one that many philosophers treat with open skepticism, and sometimes (...)
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