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Summary There are three fundamental questions guiding Kant's ethics: (1) What is the supreme principle of morality? (2) What makes this principle binding? and (3) What duties arise from it? In answering the first question, Kant seeks to derive a principle of morality from the universal form we are capable of giving our maxims, whereby we exercise our power of self-legislation or what Kant calls ‘autonomy’. In answering the second question, Kant seeks to justify the principle of autonomy as a presupposition of rational agency and as a ‘fact’ illustrated in common moral thought, judgment, and feeling. In answering the third question, Kant offers a system of duties, both self-regarding and other-regarding. While commentators disagree over its ultimate success, Kant’s ethics presents us with one of the most systematic accounts of morality, autonomy, and agency in the history of moral thought, and it continues to have a lasting influence on contemporary ethics.
Key works The Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals (Kant 2011) is Kant’s first book devoted to ethics, although he worked on similar issues much earlier. Other key works include the Critique of Practical Reason (Kant 1997) and the Metaphysics of Morals (Kant 1797/1996). Kant’s Religion Within the Boundaries of Mere Reason (Kant 1996), while guided by historical and theological questions, also contains insights relevant for his ethics.
Introductions For comprehensive studies, see Allison 1990Korsgaard 1996, Wood 1999Guyer 2000Reath 2006, and the collection of essays in Hill 2009. For contemporary versions of Kantian ethics, see Herman 2007Korsgaard 2009, and E. Hill Jr & E. Hill 2012.
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  1. Why Transparency has Little (if Anything) to do with the Age of Enlightenment.Emmanuel Alloa - 2022 - In This Obscure Thing Called Transparency. Politics and Aesthetics of a Contemporary Metaphor. University Press Leuven. pp. 167-188.
  2. Kant on Moral Feeling and Practical Judgment.Nicholas Dunn - forthcoming - In Edgar J. Valdez (ed.), Rethinking Kant: Volume 7. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. pp. 72-96.
    Commentators have shown a steady interest in the role of feeling in Kant’s moral and practical philosophy over the last few decades. Much attention has been given to the notion of ‘moral feeling’ in general, as well as to what Kant calls the ‘feeling of respect’ for the moral law. My focus in this essay is on the role of feeling in practical judgment. My claim in what follows is that the act of judging in the practical domain—i.e., determining what (...)
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  3. The Duty to Promote Digital Minimalism in Group Agents.Timothy Aylsworth & Clinton Castro - forthcoming - In Kantian Ethics and the Attention Economy: Duty and Distraction. Palgrave Macmillan.
    In this chapter, we turn our attention to the effects of the attention economy on our ability to act autonomously as a group. We begin by clarifying which sorts of groups we are concerned with, which are structured groups (groups sufficiently organized that it makes sense to attribute agency to the group itself). Drawing on recent work by Purves and Davis (2022), we describe the essential roles of trust (i.e., depending on groups to fulfill their commitments) and trustworthiness (i.e., the (...)
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  4. Kant and the Freedom to Do What We Want.Anastasia Berg - 2024 - In James F. Conant & Dawa Ometto (eds.), Practical Reason in Historical and Systematic Perspective. De Gruyter. pp. 211-236.
    Even a morally good practical agent does not act solely from the recog- nition of the abstract demands of moral duty. Often, she acts to satisfy desires for particular ends that are not intrinsically moral. But if freedom, as Kant claims, consists in acting from universal principles one adopts from respect for the moral law, how can agents freely act to satisfy desires for particular ends? The standard answer to this question, the so-called Incorporation Thesis, is, I argue, unsatisfactory both (...)
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  5. "European Savages": Kant's Defence and Critique of Colonialism.Thomas Khurana - 2023 - Historische Urteilskraft 5.
  6. Kant's Reason: The Unity of Reason and the Limits of Comprehension in Kant.Karl Schafer - 2023 - Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Kant's Reason develops a novel interpretation of Kant’s conception of reason and its philosophical significance, focusing on two claims. First, it argues that Kant presents a powerful model for understanding the unity of theoretical and practical reason as two manifestations of a unified capacity for theoretical and practical understanding (or “comprehension”). This model allows us to do justice to the deep commonalities between theoretical and practical rationality, without reducing either to the other. In particular, through it, we see why the (...)
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  7. Legacies of the Death Penalty: Sacrifice, Survival, and the Possibility of Justice.Sarah Kathryn Marshall - 2022 - Dissertation, University of Memphis
    Whereas traditional abolitionist arguments call for putting an end to capital punishment, French-Algerian philosopher Jacques Derrida emphasizes its survival, writing that “even when it will have been abolished, the death penalty will survive.” My dissertation interprets this perplexing claim by attending to the specificity of Derrida’s discourse on survival or survivance, contending that the death penalty serves an irreducible role in the constitution of the (individual or collective) subject, such that, even in the event of its abolition, some form of (...)
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  8. Practical judgment as reflective judgment: On moral salience and Kantian particularist universalism.Sabina Vaccarino Bremner - 2023 - European Journal of Philosophy 31 (3):600-621.
    Moral particularists and generalists alike have struggled over how to incorporate the role of moral salience in ethical reasoning. In this paper, I point to neglected resources in Kant to account for the role of moral salience in maxim formation: Kant's theory of reflective judgment. Kant tasks reflective judgment with picking out salient empirical particulars for formation into maxims, associating it with purposiveness, or intentional activity (action on ends). The unexpected resources in Kantian reflective judgment suggest the possibility of a (...)
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  9. Kantian Naturalism.E. Sonny Elizondo - forthcoming - Australasian Journal of Philosophy.
    I offer a qualified defence of Kant’s natural teleological argument, that is, his inference from the (un)naturalness of an act to its (im)morality. Though I reject many of Kant’s conclusions, I think the form of argument he uses to support these conclusions is not as wrong-headed as it might at first appear. I consider and answer two objections: first, that the argument is inconsistent with Kant’s moral rationalism; and second, that the argument is inconsistent with post-Kantian developments in science. I (...)
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  10. واردن، هلگا (۱۴۰۱). جستارهایی در اخلاق و فلسفه سیاسی کانت. ترجمه علی پیرحیاتی. نشر نقد فرهنگ.Helga Varden (ed.) - forthcoming - Naghd-e Farhang Publications.
    This is an anthology that is coming out in Farsi. -/- Table of Contents (in English): -/- 1. (2021). “On a Supposed Right to Lie from Philanthropy.” The Cambridge Kant Lexicon, ed. Julian Wuerth, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 691-695. 2. (2010). “Kant and Lying to the Murderer at the Door . . . One More Time: Kant’s Legal Philosophy and Lies to Murderers and Nazis.” The Journal of Social Philosophy, Vol. 41(4), pp. 403-421. 3. (2006). “Kant and Dependency Relations: (...)
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  11. Rationality: What difference does it make?Colin McLear - 2023 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 107 (1):1-26.
    A variety of interpreters have argued that Kant construes the animality of human beings as ‘transformed’, in some sense, through the possession of rationality. I argue that this interpretation admits of multiple readings and that it is either wrong, or doesn't result in the conclusion for which its proponents argue. I also explain the sense in which rationality nevertheless significantly differentiates human beings from other animals.
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  12. Christian Wolff's German Ethics: New Essays.Sonja Schierbaum, Michael Walschots & John Walsh (eds.) - forthcoming - Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    This is a collection of sixteen essays by a diverse group of international scholars that offers a wide-ranging and contemporary perspective on the major aspects of Christian Wolff’s ethics. The volume focuses on Wolff’s German Ethics, arguably his most important and influential text on moral philosophy, but many of the chapters also consider the development of the basic tenets of Wolff’s moral theory in his later Latin writings. The contributions cover a range of topics, including the systematic structure of the (...)
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  13. Kant on the Nature of Logical and Moral Laws.Daniele Mezzadri - 2023 - Res Philosophica 100 (3):389-412.
    In this article I engage with a recent debate vis-à-vis Kant’s conception of logic, which deals with whether Kant saw logical laws as normative for, or rather as constitutive of, the faculty of understanding. On the former view, logical laws provide norms for the correct exercise of the understanding; on the latter, they define the necessary structure of the faculty of understanding per se. I claim that these two positions are not mutually exclusive, as Kant held both a normative and (...)
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  14. Kant's Favorite Argument for Our Immortality: The Teleological Argument.Alexander T. Englert - 2023 - Res Philosophica 100 (3):357-388.
    Kant’s claim that we must postulate the immortality of the soul is polarizing. While much attention has been paid to two standard arguments in its defense (one moral-psychological, the other rational), I contend that a favorite argument of Kant’s from the apogee of his critical period, namely, the teleological argument, deserves renewed attention. This paper reconstructs it and exhibits what makes it unique (though not necessarily superior) in relation to the other arguments. In particular, its form (as third-personal or descriptive, (...)
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  15. The Idea of Freedom: New Essays on the Kantian Theory of Freedom.Dai Heide & Evan Tiffany (eds.) - 2023 - Oxford, GB: Oxford University Press.
    Kant describes the concept of freedom as "the keystone of the whole structure of a system of pure reason, even of speculative reason." Kant's theory of freedom thus plays a foundational and unifying role in all aspects of his philosophy and is thus of significant interest to historians of Kant's philosophy. Kant's theory of freedom has also played a significant role in contemporary debates in metaphysics, normative ethics, and metaethics. This volume brings historians of Kant's philosophy into conversation with contemporary (...)
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  16. Dilek Huseyinzadegan, Kant's Nonideal Theory of Politics (Northwestern University Press, 2019). [REVIEW]Jennifer Mensch - 2021 - SGIR Review 4 (1-2):127-132.
    In Dilek Huseyinzadegan’s analysis of Kant’s ‘impure’ politics what we have is a startling, innovative, and ultimately convincing portrait of Kant’s systematic attention to the material conditions underlying the everyday world of political subjects. Much as theorists have sought to enrich scholarly discussions of Kant’s moral philosophy by way of attention to Kant’s ‘practical anthropology’—the empirical counterpart to an a priori formal account of morals—in this book Huseyinzadegan provides us with a parallel look at Kant’s ‘political anthropology.’ By paying close (...)
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  17. Morality and Politics in Kant's Philosophy of History.Jennifer Mensch - 2005 - In Anindita Balslev (ed.), Toward Greater Human Solidarity: Options for a Plural World. Kolkata: Dasgupta & Co.. pp. 69-85.
    This paper takes up the possibilities for thinking about human solidarity that can be found in Immanuel Kant’s writings on history. One way of approaching Kant’s philosophy of history is to focus on what would seem to be an antinomy in Kant’s account between the role of nature and the demands of freedom. Whereas nature, according to Kant, ruthlessly drives us into a state of perpetual war until finally, exhausted and bankrupt, we are forced into an international treaty for peace, (...)
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  18. Owen Ware, "Kant’s Justification of Ethics". [REVIEW]Olga Lenczewska - 2023 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 31 (5):1071-1075.
    Owen Ware’s Kant’s Justification of Ethics is certainly a worthwhile read for scholars of Kant and normative ethics as well as advanced students of Kant’s practical philosophy. Well-written, concep...
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  19. O realismo transcendental e os fundamentos da terceira antinomia da Crítica da Razão Pura.Gerson Luiz Louzado - 2013 - Analytica. Revista de Filosofia 12 (1):13-30.
    The paper investigates some principles of transcendental realism and their role in the third antinomy of the Critique of Pure Reason. We try to show that things and representations, as well as distinctive types of faculties, are differently confl ated according to diff erent ways in which space and time are said independent of our sensibility. We try to explain the diff erent claims of partisans of thesis and antithesis in the third antinomy based on these different ways in which (...)
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  20. Self-Legislation and the Apriority of the Moral Law.Pauline Kleingeld - 2023 - Philosophia 51 (2):609-623.
    Marcus Willaschek and I have argued against the widespread assumption that Kant claims the Moral Law—the supreme principle of morality—is (or must be regarded as) ‘self-legislated’. We argue that Kant instead describes the Moral Law as an _a priori_ principle of the will. We also argue that his conception of autonomy concerns not the Moral Law but substantive moral laws such as the law that requires promoting the happiness of others. In the present essay, I respond to the commentary by (...)
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  21. Kant, Race, and Racism: Views from Somewhere.Huaping Lu-Adler - 2023 - New York, US: Oxford University Press.
    Kant scholars have paid relatively little attention to his raciology. They assume that his racism, as personal prejudice, can be disentangled from his core philosophy. They also assume that racism contradicts his moral theory. In this book, philosopher Huaping Lu-Adler challenges both assumptions. She shows how Kant's raciology--divided into racialism and racism--is integral to his philosophical system. She also rejects the individualistic approach to Kant and racism. Instead, she uses the notion of racism as ideological formation to demonstrate how Kant, (...)
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  22. Kant’s Formula of Autonomy: Continuity or Discontinuity?Pauline Kleingeld - 2023 - Philosophia 51 (2):555-569.
    In two recent articles I have argued that Kant’s legal and political philosophy can shed new light on his much-contested account of moral autonomy and that important changes in his political theory help to explain why in his later work the Formula of Autonomy disappears. In the present essay, I respond to comments by Sorin Baiasu and Marie Newhouse, who argue that the changes in Kant’s political theory fail to explain the disappearance of the Formula of Autonomy, since in both (...)
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  23. The Life of Form: Practical Reason in Kant and Hegel.Thomas Khurana - 2022 - In Ways of Being Bound: Perspectives from post-Kantian Philosophy and Relational Sociology. Cham: pp. 47-70.
    This chapter investigates the Kantian idea that a rational life is a life of “mere form”—a life in which a “mere form” is the force or spring of action. I start by developing Kant’s practical notion of life—the capacity to be the cause of what one represents. In a second step, I investigate the way in which Kant characterizes a rational life—the capacity to act in accordance with the representation of laws and to determine ourselves by the mere form of (...)
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  24. Conspiracy Theories and Rational Critique: A Kantian Procedural Approach.Janis David Schaab - forthcoming - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy.
    This paper develops a new kind of approach to conspiracy theories – a procedural approach. This approach promises to establish that belief in conspiracy theories is rationally criticisable in general. Unlike most philosophical approaches, a procedural approach does not purport to condemn conspiracy theorists directly on the basis of features of their theories. Instead, it focuses on the patterns of thought involved in forming and sustaining belief in such theories. Yet, unlike psychological approaches, a procedural approach provides a rational critique (...)
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  25. Kant's Doctrine of Virtue.Mark Timmons - 2021 - New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
    Immanuel Kant's final publication in ethics was The Doctrine of Virtue, Part II of the 1797 The Metaphysics of Morals. This text presents Kant's normative ethical theory. This guide is meant to be read alongside Kant's text, combining accessible explanations and novel interpretations of this difficult text. It is the first book in English devoted to The Doctrine of Virtue, one of Kant's most significant works. -/- Timmons divides the guide into five parts. Part I reviews Kant's life, the history (...)
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  26. Recovering Kant’s Account of Freedom.Jessica Tizzard - forthcoming - In James Conant & Jonas Held (eds.), The Palgrave Handbook for German Idealism and Analytic Philosophy.
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  27. Beauty Makes Humanity: The Application of Kant’s Aesthetic Power of Judgment in Value Choice.Zhengmi Zhouhuang - 2022 - Kant Studien 113 (4):689-724.
    In this paper, I use Kant’s theory of the aesthetic power of judgment to solve the problem of nonmoral value choice, which Kant himself did not deal with, and prove that my reconstruction can fit into Kant’s philosophy and function as a harmonization and unification of morality and happiness. First, I revisit Kant’s early view of intellectualized happiness to establish the feasibility of this project in Kant’s ethics. Second, by analogy with the contemplative judgment of taste and practical artistic creation, (...)
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  28. Kant and the Fate of Freedom: 1788-1800.Owen Ware - 2023 - In Joe Saunders (ed.), Freedom After Kant: From German Idealism to Ethics and the Self. London, UK: Bloomsbury. pp. 45-62.
    Kant’s early readers were troubled by the appearance of a dilemma facing his theory of freedom. On the one hand, if we explain human actions according to laws or rules, then we risk reducing the activity of the will to necessity (the horn of determinism). But, on the other hand, if we explain human actions without laws or rules, then we face an equally undesirable outcome: that of reducing the will’s activity to mere chance (the horn of indeterminism). After providing (...)
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  29. Kant, Immanuel.Sanjit Chakraborty & Sreetama Misra - 2022 - Encyclopedia of Business and Professional Ethics. Springer, Cham.
    Immanuel Kant, with his “brilliantly dry style” (Schopenhauer), expounds the notable theory that “objects are approaching to the mind” via the spectacle metaphor by addressing transcendental idealism in support of the mind as an active knower (mind-making nature), not passive in a realistic sense, while objects of knowledge conform to the mind begotten in categories of understanding. On Kant’s view, James Conant writes, “Kant’s term for this unity, considered at this level of abstraction, is the original synthetic unity of the (...)
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  30. Taking metaphysics seriously: Kant on the foundations of ethics.E. Sonny Elizondo - 2021 - European Journal of Philosophy 30 (2):793-807.
    Ask most philosophers for an example of a moral rationalist, and they will probably answer “Kant.” And no wonder. Kant’s first great work of moral philosophy, Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals, opens with a clarion call for rationalism, proclaiming the need to work out for once a pure moral philosophy, a metaphysics of morals. That this metaphysics includes the first principle of ethics, the moral law, is obvious. But what about the second principles, particular moral laws, such as duties (...)
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  31. Kant and Rawls on the Moral and Political Development of Persons.Olga Lenczewska - 2021 - Dissertation, Stanford University
    My dissertation examines Kant’s and Rawls’s theories of the moral development of individuals within structured political communities. I reconstruct Kant’s under-studied account of the emergence of reason by looking at his remarks on the transition our species underwent from mere irrational animals into primitive human beings. I show how his account of the emergence of reason fits with his broader view of humankind’s rational progress and the moral development of an individual. Next, I argue that Kant’s anthropological and pedagogical writings (...)
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  32. What Should we Hope?Seniye Tilev - 2022 - Philosophia 50 (5).
    In this paper I propose an interpretation of Kant’s notion of the highest good which bears political, ethical, and religious layers simultaneously. I argue that a proper analysis of what Kant allows us to hope for necessarily involves what we should hope for as moral agents. I argue that Kant’s conception of the highest good plays a crucial role in his moral theory as it designates the ideal “context” of moral experience which can be described as “a moral world”. Each (...)
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  33. Zum analytischen und synthetischen Moment in Kants Grundlegung zur Metaphysik der Sitten.Roberta Pasquarè - manuscript
    Vortragstext für die VI. Tagung für Praktische Philosophie Universität Salzburg 27. & 28. September 2018.
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  34. Duties to Oneself.Oliver Sensen - 2017 - In Matthew C. Altman (ed.), The Palgrave Kant Handbook. Palgrave Macmillan Uk. pp. 285–306.
    Sensen analyzes Kant’s justification of duties to oneself. Why does Kant say that duties to oneself have priority over other duties? Sensen concludes that there is a common idea behind the different formulas of the categorical imperative: the idea that our human capacities have a high importance. Kant’s ethics needs anthropology to derive concrete duties from this general idea.
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  35. Knowledge and Belief: Comparative Approach.Seniye Tilev - 2022 - Beytulhikme An International Journal of Philosophy 12 (1):91-106.
    In this paper, I discuss the legitimacy of using the term “to know” in morality and I develop an approach based on Kantian morality. In my analysis, I take the notion “to know” in the sense that Timothy Williamson does. That is to say, I regard it in opposition to the perspectives that claim “knowledge is jus-tified true belief”. Therefore, in the first part, I briefly introduce “knowledge first epistemology”. In the second part, I build a perspective pointing to the (...)
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  36. Review: Kant's Justification of Ethics, by Owen Ware. [REVIEW]Jessica Tizzard - 2023 - Studi Kantiani 35:221-224.
    Review of Ware, O, "Kant's Justification of Ethics," Oxford University Press, 2021, 176 pages.
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  37. Presentacion de las editoras. El impacto de Onora O'Neill en los estudios Kantianos en lengua espanola.Paula Satne - 2018 - In Construyendo la autonomía, la autoridad y la justicia. Leer a Kant con Onora O'Neill. Valencia, Spain: pp. 21-26.
  38. The Fate of Autonomy in Kant’s Metaphysics of Morals.Stefano Bacin - 2022 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 30 (1):90-108.
    The idea of autonomy, presented as Kant’s main achievement in the Groundwork and the second Critique, is hardly present in the ethics of the “Doctrine of Virtue”. Against Pauline Kleingeld’s recent interpretation, I argue that this does not amount to a disappearance of the Principle of Autonomy, but to an important development of the notion of autonomy. I first show that Kant still advocated the Principle of Autonomy in the 1790s along with the thought of lawgiving through one’s maxims. I (...)
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  39. Can Love Be Excessive? Baumgarten and Kant on Love, Respect, and Friendship.Toshiro Osawa - 2021 - In Camilla Serck-Hanssen & Beatrix Himmelmann (eds.), The Court of Reason: Proceedings of the 13th International Kant Congress. De Gruyter. pp. 1483-1492.
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  40. Two Conceptions of Kantian Autonomy.Seniye Tilev - 2021 - In Camilla Serck-Hanssen & Beatrix Himmelmann (eds.), The Court of Reason: Proceedings of the 13th International Kant Congress. De Gruyter. pp. 1579-1586.
    How to interpret autonomy plays a crucial role that leads to different readings in Kant’s moral metaphysics, philosophy of religion and moral psychology. In this paper I argue for a two-layered conception of autonomy with varying degrees of justification for each: autonomy as a capacity and autonomy as a paragon-like paradigm. I argue that all healthy rational humans possess the inalienable capacity of autonomy, i. e. share the universal ground for the communicability of objective basic moral principles. This initial understanding (...)
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  41. What Emerged: Autonomy and Heteronomy in the Groundwork_ and Second _Critique.Andrews Reath - 2018 - In Stefano Bacin (ed.), The Emergence of Autonomy in Kant's Moral Philosophy. Cambridge University Press. pp. 176-195.
    This essay explains Kant’s idea of autonomy of the will and advances a thesis about how it emerges in his moral conception. Kant defines “autonomy” as “the property of the will by which it is a law to itself…” and argues that the Categorical Imperative is that law. I take the autonomy of the will to mean that the nature of rational volition is the source of the formal principle that authoritatively governs rational volition. I give a sense to this (...)
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  42. How Can Freedom Be a Law to Itself? The Concept of Autonomy in the “Introduction” to the Naturrecht Feyerabend Lecture Notes (1784).Marcus Willaschek - 2018 - In Stefano Bacin & Oliver Sensen (eds.), The Emergence of Autonomy in Kant’s Moral Philosophy. Cambridge University Press. pp. 141-157.
    The ‘Introduction’ to Naturrecht Feyerabend is the transcript of a lecture Kant held at the very time he began writing the Groundwork. It contains the first securely dated occurrence of the term ‘autonomy’ (and its first occurrence in the context of moral philosophy) in Kant’s work. It argues that moral imperatives are categorical and asks how they are possible. Kant’s attempts to answer this question circle around the idea that freedom must be ‘a law to itself’ and lead him to (...)
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  43. Autonomy and the Legislation of Laws in the Prolegomena (1783).Eric Watkins - 2018 - In Stefano Bacin (ed.), The Emergence of Autonomy in Kant's Moral Philosophy. Cambridge University Press. pp. 122-140.
    This paper attempts to shed light on Kant’s notion of autonomy in his moral philosophy by considering the extent to which he presents a similar doctrine in his theoretical philosophy, where he strikingly claims (e.g., in the Prolegomena) that the understanding prescribes laws to nature. It argues that even though there are important points of difference between the cases of theoretical legislation of the laws of nature and autonomy in moral philosophy, their extensive parallels make a strong, even if not (...)
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  44. Freedom for Losing Oneself: Lessons in Spontaneity and Temporality in Kant and Heidegger.Addison Ellis - forthcoming - In Möglichkeit und Wirklichkeit der Freiheit: Kant und Heidegger über Freiheit, Willen, und Recht.
  45. Kant on the History and Development of Practical Reason.Olga Lenczewska - forthcoming - Cambridge University Press.
    Under contract for the series Elements in the Philosophy of Immanuel Kant. -/- The focus of this Element is Kant’s history of human reason: his teleological vision of the past development of our rational capacities from their very emergence until Kant’s own “age of Enlightenment”. One of the goals of this Element is to connect Kant’s speculative account of the very beginning of rationality – a topic which has thus far been largely neglected or at least under-studied in Kantian scholarship (...)
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  46. Kant’s coherent theory of the highest good.Saniye Vatansever - 2020 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 89 (3):263-283.
    In the second Critique, Kant argues that for the highest good to be possible we need to postulate the existence of God and the immortality of the soul in a future world. In his other writings, however, he suggests that the highest good is attainable through mere human agency in this world. Based on the apparent incoherence between these texts, Andrews Reath, among others, argues that Kant’s texts reveal two competing conceptions of the highest good, namely a secular and a (...)
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  47. Immanuel Kant: From Universal Rationality to Perpetual Peace.Joseph Hatfield - 2017 - Middletown, RI, USA: Stone Tower Press.
    Hatfield, Joseph M. 2017. “Immanual Kant: from Universal Rationality to Perpetual Peace,” book chapter in Philosophers and War, edited by Timothy Demy, Eric Patterson, and Jeffrey Shaw. Middletown, RI: Stone Tower Press.
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  48. Elogio de la razón mundana. Antropología y política en Kant, por Nuria Sánchez Madrid. [REVIEW]Marina García-Granero - 2021 - Quaderns de Filosofia 7 (2):183.
    RESEÑA / RESSENYA / REVIEW Elogio de la razón mundana. Antropología y política en Kant, por Nuria Sánchez Madrid.
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  49. Preface to Kant's Justification of Ethics.Owen Ware - 2021 - In Kant's Justification of Ethics. Oxford, UK:
    The Preface to my book, Kant's Justification of Ethics.
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  50. Schelling's Moral Argument for a Metaphysics of Contingency.Alistair Welchman - 2014 - In Emilio Corriero & Andrea Dezi (eds.), Nature and Realism in Schelling’s Philosophy of Nature. Turin, Metropolitan City of Turin, Italy: pp. 27-54.
    Schelling’s middle period works have always been a source of fascination: they mark a break with the idealism (in both senses of the word) of his early works and the Fichtean and then Hegelian tradition; while they are not weighed down by the reactionary burden of his late lectures on theology and mythology. But they have been equally a source of perplexity. The central work of this period, the Essay on Human Freedom (1809) takes as its topic the moral problem (...)
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