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Summary Ethics is one of the largest fields in contemporary African philosophy. It is a truism to say that it tends to be much more communitarian in focus when compared to Western ethics. The term 'ubuntu' literally means 'humanness'. However, it also sometimes refers to a specific school of ethical thought, of which there are two that dominate. The first is 'personhood' theories which say that morality is primarily a matter of developing one's personhood in a normative sense. This can only be done in the context of community by exercising other-regarding virtues. The second focus on harmony or relationality, claiming that right action is a matter of relating well with others. A large amount of literature has also been devoted to applying these ideas to various topics in applied ethics. 
Key works [BROKEN REFERENCE: WIRPAAw]#GYETAMw #METTAA
Introductions [BROKEN REFERENCE: AUTHw]#GYEAE
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  1. Wellbeing in African Thought. Insights for a Global Ethics of Development.Bolaji Bateye, Mahmoud Masaeli, Louise Müller & Angela Roothaan (eds.) - forthcoming - Lanham, USA: Rowman and Littlefield.
  2. African Biocomnuinitarianism and Australian Dreamtime.J. Baird Callicott - forthcoming - Environmental Ethics: Divergence and Convergence.
  3. African Perspectives on Just War.Luís Cordeiro-Rodrigues - forthcoming - Philosophy Compass:e12808.
  4. Morality, Art, and African Philosophy: A Response to Wiredu.Parker English & Nancy Steele Hamme - forthcoming - African Philosophy: Selected Readings Englewood Cliffs. Nj: Prentice Hall.
  5. Managing Ethical Challenges Around Misattributed Parentage Within the Clinical Context: Insights From an African Moral Theory.Cornelius Ewuoso - forthcoming - Developing World Bioethics.
  6. African Ethics.Björn Freter - forthcoming - In Björn Freter & Elvis Imafidon (eds.), Handbook of African Philosophy: Key Subject Areas. Dordrecht, New York: Springer.
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  7. Prison Reform and Prisoner's Rights in the Light of the New South African Constitution, 1993.G. L. Gordon - forthcoming - Nexus.
  8. Racism: A Challenge to South African Universities.Mma Gray & Aj Bernstein - forthcoming - Theoria.
  9. Differences in African Indigenous Rights Messaging in International Advocacy Coalitions.Maia Hallward & Jonathan Taylor Downs - forthcoming - Human Rights Review:1-22.
    International Indigenous rights coalitions increasingly involve Indigenous and non-Indigenous civil society organizations with diverse backgrounds and interests. As these organizations more frequently interact and partner with one another, what issues are being emphasized in their advocacy efforts? This study utilizes content analysis of 60 Indigenous rights organizations’ websites, as well as interviews of several leaders and staff, to explore whether African Indigenous organizations emphasize different aspects of Indigenous rights in their messaging and advocacy than their other Indigenous and non-Indigenous coalition (...)
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  10. Breyten Breytenbach and the South African Prison Book.J. U. Jacobs - forthcoming - Theoria.
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  11. African Worldviews, Biodiversity Conservation and Sustainable Development.Workineh Kelbessa - forthcoming - Environmental Values.
    This paper explores the role of African worldviews in biodiversity conservation and sustainable development. African worldviews recognise the interdependence and interconnectedness of human beings, animals, plants and the natural world. Although it is not always the case that what one does depends on what one thinks and believes, indigenous African people’s ideas and beliefs about the human–nature relationship have influenced what they have done in and to nature. In African worldviews, the present generation has moral obligations to the ancestors and (...)
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  12. Ce Que L’Afrique Peut Apporter au Monde.Thaddeus Metz - forthcoming - In Tayeb Chenntouf (ed.), Histoire générale de l’Afrique, Volume 9 : l’Afrique Globale. UNESCO.
    French translation of 'What Africa Can Contribute to the World', a commissioned chapter for UNESCO'S General History of Africa project.
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  13. The Proper Role of Economic Goods in Effecting National Reconciliation: Comparing Colombia and South Africa.Thaddeus Metz - forthcoming - In David Bilchitz & Raisa Cachalia (eds.), Transitional and Distributive Justice in Transformative Constitutionalism: Comparing Colombia and South Africa.
    Scholars have compared the transitional justice processes of Colombia and South Africa in some respects, but there has yet to be a systematic moral-philosophical evaluation of them and specifically regarding the way they have sought to allocate economic goods. In this essay, I appraise the ways that South Africa and of Colombia have responded to their respective historical conflicts in respect of the distribution of property, especially land and money, and opportunities such as access to education and job training. I (...)
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  14. African Ethics.Thaddeus Metz - forthcoming - In Tom Angier (ed.), Ethics: The Key Thinkers, 2nd Edition. Bloomsbury.
    Unlike the Chinese, Indian, and Western ethical traditions, the African one had not been text-based until as recently as the 1960s. Since a very large majority of indigenous sub-Saharan societies had oral cultures, there are no classic texts in the field of African ethics and hence also no Big Names; there's nothing comparable to, say, Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics or Confucius’ Analects. However, some names and texts have been more influential than others in shaping ethical reflection, particularly over the past 30 (...)
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  15. The Virtues of African Ethics (Repr.).Thaddeus Metz - forthcoming - In Luís Rodrigues (ed.), Encyclopaedia of African Ethics. Bloomsbury.
    Mildly modified reprint of a chapter originally appearing in The Handbook of Virtue Ethics (2012).
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  16. Community in African Moral-Political Philosophy.Thaddeus Metz - forthcoming - In Niall Bond (ed.), Community in Global Thought (tentative title).
    I critically discuss respects in which conceptions of community have featured in African moral-political philosophy over the past 40 years or so. Some of the discussion is in the vein of intellectual history, recounting key theoretical moves for those unfamiliar with the field. However, my discussion is also opinionated, noting prima facie weaknesses with certain positions and presenting others as more promising, particularly relative to prominent Western competitors. There are a variety of forms that African communitarianism has taken and could (...)
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  17. Replacing Development: An Afro-Communal Approach to Global Justice (Repr.).Thaddeus Metz - forthcoming - In Bolaji Bateye, Mahmoud Masaeli, Louise Muller & Angela Roothaan (eds.), Beauty in African Thought: Critique of the Western Idea of Development. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. ch. 6.
    Shortened version of an article that first appeared in Philosophical Papers (2017).
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  18. What Africa Can Bring to the World.Thaddeus Metz - forthcoming - In Tayeb Chenntouf (ed.), General History of Africa, Volume 9: Global Africa. UNESCO. pp. ch. 22.
    This chapter expounds relational values characteristic of indigenous Africa and considers how they might usefully be adopted when contemporary societies interact with each other. Specifically, it notes respects in which genuinely human or communal relationship has been missing in the two contexts of globalization and international relations, and suggests what a greater appreciation of this good by the rest of the world would mean for them.
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  19. Economic Goods and the Communitarian Way of Life.Thaddeus Metz & Nathalia Bautista - forthcoming - In David Bilchitz & Raisa Cachalia (eds.), Transitional and Distributive Justice in Transformative Constitutionalism: Comparing Colombia and South Africa.
    The contributions elsewhere in this volume from us, Nathalia Bautista and Thaddeus Metz, address the proper way to respond to gross human rights violations, given a Global South context. Specifically, considering the histories of Colombia and South Africa and some of the values indigenous to those locales, respectively, we advance non-individualist and non-retributive approaches to the social conflicts that had taken place there. Broadly speaking, we both advocate relational and constructive forms of transitional justice that make victim compensation central. According (...)
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  20. La Philosophie au-delà de nos frontières: le cas de l'éthique africaine (Philosophy beyond the Boundaries: The Case of African Ethics).Thaddeus Metz & Pius Mosima (eds.) - forthcoming - Harmattan.
    A collection of several articles on African moral and political philosophy by Thaddeus Metz, translated into French by Emmanuel Fopa, and edited and introduced by Pius Mosima of the University of Bamenda, Cameroon.
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  21. Of Article In Defence of Partisan Justice: What Can African Business Ethics.Piet J. Naudé - forthcoming - African Journal of Business Ethics.
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  22. Should Feedback of Individual Results Be Integrated Into the Consent Process in African Genomics? Participants’ Views From an HIV-TB Genomics Research Project in Botswana.Dimpho Ralefala, Mary Kasule, Ambroise Wonkam, Mogomotsi Matshaba & Jantina de Vries - forthcoming - AJOB Empirical Bioethics:1-9.
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  23. Encyclopaedia of African Ethics.Luís Rodrigues (ed.) - forthcoming - Bloomsbury.
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  24. Nkowa Echiche Ndi Afrika Nke Okammuta Thaddeus Metz (African Morality in the Thought of Thaddeus Metz).Lawrence Ogbo Ugwuanyi (ed.) - forthcoming - Timeless Publishers.
    A collection of several previously published articles by Thaddeus Metz translated into Igbo, with an introduction by Prof L. O. Ugwuanyi of the University of Abuja.
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  25. Custom and Morality: A Comparative Analysis of Some African and Western Conceptions of Morals.Kwasi Wiredu - forthcoming - African Philosophy: Selected Readings, Ed. Mosley, Ag Prentice Hall: Englewood Cliffs.
  26. Virtue in African Ethics as Living Harmoniously.Thaddeus Metz - 2022 - In Chenyang Li & Dascha Düring (eds.), The Virtue of Harmony. Oxford University Press. pp. 207-229.
    A large swathe of the indigenous African ethical tradition is frequently encapsulated in the maxim, “A person is a person through other persons.” This phrasing is an overly literal translation of some sayings that are prominent in the southern and central regions of Africa, but that resonate with most indigenous sub-Saharan cultures. This chapter articulates and motivates a philosophical interpretation of the maxim for an international readership interested in virtue. According to the initial formulation, one should strive to become a (...)
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  27. A Relational Moral Theory: African Ethics in and Beyond the Continent.Thaddeus Metz - 2022 - Oxford University Press.
    _A Relational Moral Theory_ draws on neglected resources from the Global South and especially the African philosophical tradition to provide a new answer to a perennial philosophical question: what do all morally right actions have in common as distinct from wrong ones? Metz points out that the principles of utility and of respect for autonomy, the two rivals that have dominated western moral theory for the last two centuries, share an individualist premise. Once that common assumption is replaced by a (...)
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  28. African and East Asian Perspectives on Ageing.Thaddeus Metz - 2022 - In Christopher Wareham (ed.), Cambridge Handbook of the Ethics of Ageing. Cambridge University Press.
    After expounding the conceptions of harmony that are central to Confucianism and the sub-Saharan ethic of ubuntu, I apply them to three major topics pertaining to age, namely, virtue, the value of life, and care. Roughly speaking, indigenous East Asian and African values of harmony both entail that only the elderly can be truly virtuous, that the elderly have a strong claim to life-saving resources, and that they are entitled to care from their children, views that I show are not (...)
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  29. Restrictive Reciprocal Obligations: Perceptions of Parental Role in Career Choices of Sub-Saharan African Migrant Youths.Peter Akosah-Twumasi, Theophilus I. Emeto, Daniel Lindsay, Komla Tsey & Bunmi S. Malau-Aduli - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    This study employed interpretivist, grounded theory method and utilized semi-structured interviews to explore how 31 African migrant high school and university students from eight sub-Saharan African representative countries and currently residing in Townsville, Australia, perceived the roles of their parents in their career development. The study findings revealed that the support and encouragement received from parents underpinned the youths’ perceptions of their parents as influential in their career trajectories. Though participants acknowledged their indebtedness to parents and the system that nurtured (...)
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  30. Gurus and Griots: Revisiting the Research Informed Consent Process in Rural African Contexts.Richard Appiah - 2021 - BMC Medical Ethics 22 (1):1-11.
    BackgroundResearchers conducting community-based participatory action research in highly collectivistic and socioeconomically disadvantaged community settings in sub-Saharan Africa are confronted with the distinctive challenge of balancing universal ethical standards with local standards, where traditional customs or beliefs may conflict with regulatory requirements and ethical guidelines underlying the informed consent process. The unique ethnic, socioeconomic, and cultural diversities in these settings have important implications for the IC process, such as individual decisional autonomy, beneficence, confidentiality, and signing the IC document.Main textDrawing on insights (...)
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  31. Distant Poverty, Human Vulnerability, and the African Ethics of Character.Ronald Olufemi Badru - 2021 - Philosophy Today 65 (1):1-19.
    This African moral framework discusses distant poverty as human vulnerability. Contextually, if vulnerability means human frailty, relative to some opposing facts of life, and that poverty makes the human person frail, relative to some largely unrealized/unrealizable desirables without assistance, then distant poverty as human vulnerability invariably connects, significantly, with poor dependency: poor people are vulnerable as dependent on the assisting other. Some fundamental questions arise: 1) What is the ontology of distant poverty as human vulnerability? 2) In what ways does (...)
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  32. Toward an Africanized Bioethics Curriculum.Kevin G. Behrens & C. S. Wareham - 2021 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 30 (1):103-113.
    Although many bioethicists have given attention to the special health issues of Africa and to the ethics of research on the continent, only a handful have considered these issues through the lens of African moral thought. The question has been for the most part neglected as to what a distinctively African moral perspective would be for the analysis and teaching of bioethics issues. To address the oversight, the authors of this paper describe embarking on a project aimed at incorporating African (...)
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  33. South African Traditional Values and Beliefs Regarding Informed Consent and Limitations of the Principle of Respect for Autonomy in African Communities: A Cross-Cultural Qualitative Study.Sylvester C. Chima & Francis Akpa-Inyang - 2021 - BMC Medical Ethics 22 (1):1-17.
    BackgroundThe Western-European concept of libertarian rights-based autonomy, which advocates respect for individual rights, may conflict with African cultural values and norms. African communitarian ethics focuses on the interests of the collective whole or community, rather than rugged individualism. Hence collective decision-making processes take precedence over individual autonomy or consent. This apparent conflict may impact informed consent practice during biomedical research in African communities and may hinder ethical principlism in African bioethics. This study explored African biomedical researchers' perspectives regarding informed consent (...)
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  34. Crossing Boundaries and Facing Others: South African Perspectives on the Transgressive Rhetoric of Preaching.Johan H. Cilliers - 2021 - HTS Theological Studies 77 (1).
  35. Afro-Communitarianism and the Role of Traditional African Healers in the COVID-19 Pandemic.Luís Cordeiro-Rodrigues & Thaddeus Metz - 2021 - Public Health Ethics 14 (1):59-71.
    The COVID-19 pandemic has brought significant challenges to healthcare systems worldwide, and in Africa, given the lack of resources, they are likely to be even more acute. The usefulness of Traditional African Healers in helping to mitigate the effects of pandemic has been neglected. We argue from an ethical perspective that these healers can and should have an important role in informing and guiding local communities in Africa on how to prevent the spread of COVID-19. Particularly, we argue not only (...)
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  36. Hated Without a Reason – Contending with Issues of Human Sexuality in a South African Ecclesial Context: A Case Study.Graham A. Duncan - 2021 - HTS Theological Studies 77 (4):1-8.
    The mainline churches in South Africa are in turmoil internally as a result of divisions arising out of issues related to human sexuality. These issues have serious implications for these churches, church families within them, and the relationship of these churches with one another and with the state. There is little open space for debate as discussions are hampered by a variety of theological perspectives on the authority of scripture, some of which are fixed and absolutised. This is a matter (...)
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  37. Transhumanism and African Humanism: How to Pursue the Transhumanist Vision Without Jeopardizing Humanity.Cornelius Ewuoso & Ademola Kazeem Fayemi - 2021 - Bioethics 35 (7):634-645.
    Bioethics, Volume 35, Issue 7, Page 634-645, September 2021.
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  38. Between Autonomy and Solidarity: An African Woman's Autoethnography.Caroline Kithinji, Hellen Maleche, Ann Masiga & Julie Masiga - 2021 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 14 (2):61-69.
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  39. Ubuntu and Western Monotheism: An Axiological Investigation.Kirk Lougheed - 2021 - Routledge.
    This book offers a unique comparative study of ubuntu, a dominant ethical theory in African philosophy, and western monotheism. It is the first book to bring ubuntu to bear on the axiology of theism debate in contemporary analytic philosophy of religion. A large motivating force behind this book is to explore the extent to which there is intersubjective ethical agreement and disagreement between ubuntu and Western worldviews like monotheism and naturalism. First, the author assesses the various arguments for anti-theism and (...)
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  40. Ubuntu: The Good Life (Rev. Edn).Thaddeus Metz - 2021 - In Filomena Maggino (ed.), Encyclopedia of Quality of Life and Well-Being Research, 2nd edn. Springer.
    Moderately updated version of this encyclopaedia entry.
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  41. What Does an African Ethic of Social Cohesion Entail for Social Distancing?Thaddeus Metz - 2021 - Developing World Bioethics 21 (1):7-16.
    The most prominent strand of moral thought in the African philosophical tradition is relational and cohesive, roughly demanding that we enter into community with each other. Familiar is the view that being a real person means sharing a way of life with others, perhaps even in their fate. What does such a communal ethic prescribe for the coronavirus pandemic? Might it forbid one from social distancing, at least away from intimates? Or would it entail that social distancing is wrong to (...)
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  42. The Need for Others in Public Policy: An African Approach.Thaddeus Metz - 2021 - In Motsamai Molefe & Chris Allsobrook (eds.), Towards an African Political Philosophy of Needs. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 21-37.
    When reflecting on human need as a moral-political category, it is natural to include some intersubjective conditions. Surely, children need to be socialized, adults need to be recognized, and the poor need to be given certain resources. I point out that there are two different respects in which such intersubjective factors could be considered needs. On the one hand, they might be needed roughly for their own sake, that is, for exemplifying relational values such as caring for others and sharing (...)
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  43. A Relational Theory of Mental Illness: Lacking Identity and Solidarity.Thaddeus Metz - 2021 - Synthesis Philosophica 71 (1):65-81.
    In this article I aim to make progress towards the philosophical goal of ascertaining what, if anything, all mental illnesses have in common, attempting to unify a large sub-set of them that have a relational or interpersonal dimension. One major claim is that, if we want a promising theory of mental illness, we must go beyond the dominant western accounts of mental illness/health, which focus on traits intrinsic to a person such as pain/pleasure, lethargy/liveliness, fragmentation/integration, and falsehood/authenticity. A second major (...)
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  44. Exactly Why Are Slurs Wrong?Thaddeus Metz - 2021 - Daimon: Revista Internacional de Filosofía 84:13-29.
    This article, part of a special issue on 'Expressing Hatred', seeks to provide a comprehensive and fundamental account of why racial epithets and similar slurs are immoral, whenever they are. It considers three major theories, roughly according to which they are immoral because they are harmful (welfarism), because they undermine autonomy (Kantianism), or because they are unfriendly (an under-considered, relational approach informed by ideas from the Global South). This article presents new objections to the former two theories, and concludes in (...)
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  45. How to Report on War in the Light of an African Ethic.Thaddeus Metz - 2021 - In Jonathan O. Chimakonam, Edwin Etieyibo & Ike Odimegwu (eds.), Essays on Contemporary Issues in African Philosophy. Springer. pp. 145-162.
    While there is a budding literature on media ethics in the light of characteristic sub-Saharan moral values, there is virtually nothing on wartime reporting more specifically. Furthermore, the literature insofar as it has a bearing on wartime reporting suggests that embedded journalism and patriotic journalism are ethically justified during war. In this essay, I sketch a prima facie attractive African moral theory, grounded on a certain interpretation of the value of communal relationship, and bring out what it entails for the (...)
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  46. Recent Work in African Philosophy: Its Relevance Beyond the Continent.Thaddeus Metz - 2021 - Mind 130 (518):639-660.
    In this article I critically discuss some recent English language books in African philosophy. Specifically, I expound and evaluate key claims from books published by sub-Saharan thinkers since 2017 that address epistemology, metaphysics, and value theory and that do so in ways of interest to an audience of at least Anglo-American-Australasian analytic philosophers. My aim is not to establish a definitive conclusion about these claims, but rather to facilitate cross-cultural engagement by highlighting their relevance particularly to many western philosophers and (...)
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  47. African Reasons Why Artificial Intelligence Should Not Maximize Utility.Thaddeus Metz - 2021 - In Beatrice Okyere-Manu (ed.), African Values, Ethics, and Technology: Questions, Issues, and Approaches. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 55-72.
    Insofar as artificial intelligence is to be used to guide automated systems in their interactions with humans, the dominant view is probably that it would be appropriate to programme them to maximize (expected) utility. According to utilitarianism, which is a characteristically western conception of moral reason, machines should be programmed to do whatever they could in a given circumstance to produce in the long run the highest net balance of what is good for human beings minus what is bad for (...)
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  48. Deconstructing African Development From Neo-Liberalism, Ubuntu Ethics and African Socialism to Dignified Humanness.Kizito Michael George - 2021 - International Journal of Science, Technology and Society 9 (2):43-54.
    This paper argues that there is a need to reconstruct a new paradigm for poverty policy planning in Africa because Neo-liberalism, Ubuntu ethics and African Socialism as proposed paradigms for Africa’s development are untenable. This is so because the above trio are sexist, androcentric and oblivious to structural injustices that feminize poverty in Africa. The paper further argues that even in the Western world, the neo-liberal GDP metric has been challenged and the search for alternative development indicators and paradigms is (...)
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  49. Partiality and Impartiality in African Philosophy.M. Molefe - 2021 - Lexington Books.
    This book philosophically explores and works to resolve the tension between equality and favoritism in light of intellectual resources in the African tradition of philosophy.
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  50. African Ethics and Online Communities: An Argument for a Virtual Communitarianism.Stephen Nkansah Morgan & Beatrice Okyere-Manu - 2021 - Filosofia Theoretica: Journal of African Philosophy, Culture and Religions 10 (3):103-118.
    A virtual community is generally described as a group of people with shared interests, ideas, and goals in a particular digital group or virtual platform. Virtual communities have become ubiquitous in recent times, and almost everyone belongs to one or multiple virtual communities. The onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, with its associated national lockdowns, has made virtual communities more essential and a necessary part of our daily lives, whether for work and business, educational purposes or keeping in touch with friends (...)
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