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  1. Der Mensch als Lebewesen. Zum zoologischen Denken des Aristoteles.Sergiusz Kazmierski - manuscript
    Vortrag, gehalten am 11. November 2020 im Rahmen einer Ringvorlesung am Regensburger Zentrum für Klassikstudien zum Thema "Entfernte Verwandte - Mensch und Tier". Die aristotelische Bestimmung des Menschen ist ein Rätsel. Daher soll sie im Folgenden auch als ein Rätsel behandelt werden. Ziel ist es, hier nicht das bei Aristoteles finden zu wollen, was wir heute ohnehin schon über den Menschen als ein Lebewesen wissen oder zu wissen glauben, sondern es gilt im Folgenden von Aristoteles ahnen zu lernen, was wir (...)
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  2. Aristotle on Epigenesis.Devin Henry - 2018
    It has become somewhat of a platitude to call Aristotle the first epigenesist insofar as he thought form and structure emerged gradually from an unorganized, amorphous embryo. But modern biology now recognizes two senses of “epigenesis”. The first is this more familiar idea about the gradual emergence of form and structure, which is traditionally opposed to the idea of preformationism. But modern biologists also use “epigenesis” to emphasize the context-dependency of the process itself. Used in this sense development is not (...)
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  3. The Failure of Evolution in Antiquity.Devin Henry - forthcoming - In Georgia Irby (ed.), Blackwell Companion to Ancient Science, Medicine and Technology. Wiley-Blackwell.
    The intellectual history of evolutionary theory really does not begin in earnest until the late seventeenth/early eighteenth century. Prior to that, the idea that species might have evolved over time was not a serious possibility for most naturalists and philosophers. There is certainly no substantive debate in antiquity about evolution in the modern sense. There were really only two competing explanations for how living things came to have the parts they do: design or blind chance. Ancient Greek Atomism, for example, (...)
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  4. Daryn Lehoux, Creatures Born of Mud and Slime: The Wonder and Complexity of Spontaneous Generation. [REVIEW]James Strick - forthcoming - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science.
  5. Aristotle's on the Soul: A Critical Guide.Caleb Cohoe (ed.) - 2022 - Cambridge University Press.
    Aristotle's On the Soul aims to uncover the principle of life, what Aristotle calls psuchē. For Aristotle, soul is the form which gives life to a body and causes all its living activities, from breathing to thinking. Aristotle develops a general account of all types of living through examining soul's causal powers. The thirteen new essays in this Critical Guide demonstrate the profound influence of Aristotle's inquiry on biology, psychology and philosophy of mind from antiquity to the present. They deepen (...)
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  6. The Cambridge Companion to Aristotle's Biology.Sophia M. Connell (ed.) - 2021 - Cambridge University Press.
    Aristotle's voluminous writings on animals have often been marginalised in the history of philosophy. Providing the first full-length comprehensive account of Aristotle's biology, its background, content and influence, this Companion situates his study of living nature within his broader philosophy and theology and differentiates it from other medical and philosophical theories. An overview of empiricism in Aristotle's Historia Animalium is followed by an account of the general methodology recommended in the Parts of Animals. An account of the importance of Aristotle's (...)
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  7. Elements of Biology in Aristotle’s Political Science.Elena Cagnoli Fiecconi - 2021 - In Sophia Connell (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Aristotle's Biology. Cambridge, UK: pp. 211-227.
    Aristotle is a political scientist and a student of biology. Political science, in his view, is concerned with the human good and thus it includes the study of ethics. He approaches many subjects from the perspective of both political science and biology: the virtues, the function of humans, and the political nature of humans. In light of the overlap between the two disciplines, I look at whether or not Aristotle’s views in biology influence or explain some of his theses in (...)
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  8. Biology and Theology in Aristotle's Theoretical and Practical Sciences.Monte Johnson - 2021 - In Sophia Connell (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Aristotle's Biology. Cambridge, UK: pp. 12-29.
    Biology and theology are interdependent theoretical sciences for Aristotle. In prominent discussions of the divine things (the stars and their unmoved movers) Aristotle appeals to the science of living things, and in prominent discussions of the nature of plants and animals Aristotle appeals to the nature of the divine. There is in fact a single continuous series of living things that includes gods, humans, animals, and plants, all of them in a way divine. Aristotle has this continuum of divine beings, (...)
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  9. Aristotle on the Unity of the Nutritive and Reproductive Functions.Cameron F. Coates & James G. Lennox - 2020 - Phronesis 65 (4):414-466.
    In De Anima 2.4, Aristotle claims that nutritive soul encompasses two distinct biological functions: nutrition and reproduction. We challenge a pervasive interpretation which posits ‘nutrients’ as the correlative object of the nutritive capacity. Instead, the shared object of nutrition and reproduction is that which is nourished and reproduced: the ensouled body, qua ensouled. Both functions aim at preserving this object, and thus at preserving the form, life, and being of the individual organism. In each case, we show how Aristotle’s detailed (...)
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  10. The Female Contribution to Generation and Nutritive Soul in Aristotle’s Embryology.Sophia M. Connell - 2020 - In Giouli Korobili & Roberto Lo Presti (eds.), Nutrition and Nutritive Soul in Aristotle and Aristotelianism. De Gruyter. pp. 63-84.
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  11. O caráter substancial dos organismos vivos em Aristóteles.Rodrigo Romão de Carvalho - 2020 - Trans/Form/Ação 43 (2):281-294.
    Resumo Neste artigo, procura-se analisar os fatores envolvidos na determinação da natureza substancial do organismo vivo, em Aristóteles. Tais fatores seriam, por um lado, a forte unidade e coesão interna composicional e, por outro, o elevado caráter de independência quanto às propriedades essenciais ou formais, relativamente às propriedades dos componentes materiais, por meio dos quais o organismo vivo vem a ser formado, ou com referência aos outros tipos de particularidades de seres. Com esta análise, pretende-se mostrar, ao mesmo tempo, que (...)
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  12. Why De Anima Needs III.12-13.Robert Howton - 2020 - In Gweltaz Guyomarc'H., Claire Louguet & Charlotte Murgier (eds.), Aristote et l'âme humaine. Lectures de 'De anima' III offertes à Michel Crubellier. Leuven: pp. 329-350.
    The soul is an explanatory principle of Aristotle’s natural science, accounting both for the fact that living things are alive as well as for the diverse natural attributes that belong to them by virtue of being alive. I argue that the explanatory role of the soul in Aristotle’s natural science must be understood in light of his view, stated in a controversial passage from Parts of Animals (645b14–20), that the soul of a living thing is a “complex activity” of its (...)
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  13. Philosophy and Dietetics in the Hippocratic On Regimen: A Delicate Balance of Health. By Hynek Bartos. [REVIEW]Monte Ransome Johnson - 2020 - Ancient Philosophy 40 (1):221-227.
    Hynek Bartos does the field of ancient philosophy a great service by detailing the influence of early Greek thinkers (such as Heraclitus, Empedocles, Anaxagoras, Democritus, and Diogenes of Apollonia) on the Hippocratic work On Regimen, and by demonstrating that work’s innovative engagement with contemporary scientific and philosophical concepts as well as its direct influence on Plato and Aristotle. His study usefully counteracts the lamentable tendency among ancient philosophers to ignore or downplay the influence of medical literature on philosophy in general, (...)
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  14. Zur spezifischen Geruchswahrnehmung des Menschen bei Aristoteles.Sergiusz Kazmierski - 2020 - Eudia. Yearbook for Philosophy, Poetry and Art 14:1-42.
    Der Aufsatz möchte, ausgehend von einer zureichenden Darstellung des thematischen Bereichs von Ernährung und Kühlung bei Aristoteles (Abschnitt 1.1) sowie seiner Physiologie der Geruchswahrnehmung im allgemeinen (Abschnitt 1.2), zum einen zeigen, wie Aristoteles das Gegebensein der Wahrnehmung von Düften beim Menschen zoologisch und physiologisch begründet und dabei medizinische Implikationen formuliert (Abschnitt 2); zum anderen wird zu sehen sein, inwiefern die Wahrnehmung von Düften ethische und ästhetische Züge aufweist, wofür das entsprechende zoologische und physiologische Wissen den ausdrücklichen oder unausdrücklichen Horizont zu (...)
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  15. Review of Devin Henry, "Aristotle on Matter, Form, and Moving Causes: The Hylomorphic Theory of Substantial Generation". [REVIEW]Emily Kress - 2020 - Bryn Mawr Classical Review 8.
  16. Aristotle on Spontaneous Generation, Spontaneity, and Natural Processes.Emily Kress - 2020 - Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 58.
    Aristotle contrasts standard animal generation with ‘spontaneous generation’, which happens when some material putrefies and gives rise to a new organism. This paper addresses two interrelated puzzles about spontaneous generation. First, is it of the same ‘fundamental kind’ of causal process as standard generation? Second, is it ‘spontaneous’, as understood in Physics 2.4–6: rare, accidentally caused, and among things that are for the sake of something? I argue that both puzzles turn on the same questions about the process types involved. (...)
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  17. Aristotle and the Origins of Evil.Jozef Müller - 2020 - Phronesis: A Journal for Ancient Philosophy 65 (2):179-223.
    The paper addresses the following question: why do human beings, on Aristotle’s view, have an innate tendency to badness, that is, to developing desires that go beyond, and often against, their natural needs? Given Aristotle’s teleological assumptions (including the thesis that nature does nothing in vain), such tendency should not be present. I argue that the culprit is to be found in the workings of rationality. In particular, it is the presence of theoretical reason that necessitates the limitless nature of (...)
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  18. A Theory of Evolution as a Process of Unfolding.Agustin Ostachuk - 2020 - Cosmos and History: The Journal of Natural and Social Philosophy 16 (1):347-379.
    In this work I propose a theory of evolution as a process of unfolding. This theory is based on four logically concatenated principles. The principle of evolutionary order establishes that the more complex cannot be generated from the simpler. The principle of origin establishes that there must be a maximum complexity that originates the others by logical deduction. Finally, the principle of unfolding and the principle of actualization guarantee the development of the evolutionary process from the simplest to the most (...)
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  19. Out of Thin Air? Diogenes on Causal Explanation.Bryan C. Reece - 2020 - In Hynek Bartoš & Colin King (eds.), Heat, Pneuma, and Soul in Ancient Philosophy and Medicine. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 106-120.
    Diogenes subscribes to a principle that, roughly, causal interaction and change require a certain sort of uniformity among the relata. Attending to this principle can help us understand Diogenes's relationship to the superficially similar Anaximenes without insisting, as some do, that Diogenes must be consciously responding to Parmenides. Diogenes is distinctive and philosophically interesting because his principle combines two senses of ‘archê’ (principle, starting-point), namely, the idea of source or origin and that of underlying (material) principle, and gives the rudiments (...)
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  20. Aristotle and the Search of a Rational Framework for Biology.Armando Aranda-Anzaldo - 2019 - Organisms 3 (2):54-64.
    Chance and necessity are mainstays of explanation in current biology, dominated by the neo-Darwinian outlook, a blend of the theory of evolution by natural selection with the basic tenets of population genetics. In such a framework the form of living organisms is somehow a side effect of highly contingent, historical accidents. Thus, at a difference of other sciences, biology apparently lacks theoretical principles that in a law-like fashion may explain the emergence and persistence of the characteristic forms of living organisms (...)
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  21. Notes From Narnia (on the Human Body).Samuel H. Baker - 2019 - Think 18 (52):81-86.
    What is a human body? Some reasons are given for thinking that, in the primary case, it is a body that is both of and suitable to a rational animal.
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  22. A necessidade no processo constitutivo das composições naturais em Aristóteles.Rodrigo Romão De Carvalho - 2019 - Griot 19 (1):115-126.
    Com este artigo, pretendo examinar a maneira pela qual ocorreria a necessidade natural, em seus diversos aspectos, nos distintos processos gerativos composicionais em Aristóteles. Em um caso, a necessidade natural se daria de um modo "sem mais", ou de um modo absoluto, por meio da qual se geram os agregados. Em outro, a necessidade natural se realizaria a partir de um princípio anterior regulativo ou determinante, que Aristóteles denomina de necessidade ex hupoteseos, com relação aos processos envolvidos na constituição dos (...)
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  23. Aspectos de Processos Necessários e Princípios Gerativos na análise do Vivente em Aristóteles.Rodrigo Romão de Carvalho - 2019 - Problemata 10 (1):5-10.
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  24. Trama analógica do De motu animalium de Aristóteles: Funções básicas e modus operandi das analogias estruturantes.Eraci Gonçalves de Oliveira - 2019 - Anais de Filosofia Clássica 13 (25):87-114.
  25. Seed (Sperma) and Kuêma in Aristotle’s Generation of Animals.Ignacio De Ribera-Martin - 2019 - Journal of the History of Biology 52 (1):87-124.
    There are two different notions of seed at work in the Generation of Animals: seed as the spermatic residue, which concerns only the male and the female generative contributions, and seed as the kuêma and first mixture of the two generative contributions. The latter is a notion of seed common to plants and animals. The passage in GA I.18, 724b12–22 where Aristotle distinguishes between these two notions of seed has been mistakenly discredited as inauthentic or simply as irrelevant for understanding (...)
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  26. Movement as Efficient Cause in Aristotle’s Generation of Animals.Ignacio De Ribera-Martin - 2019 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 9 (2):296-326.
    In this article, I present in a systematic way Aristotle’s understanding of movement (kinêsis) as efficient cause in the Generation of Animals. This aspect of movement is not disclosed in the approach to movement as an incomplete activity in contrast to energeia, which has been extensively discussed in the literature. I explain in which sense movement is the efficient cause of generation and how this movement is related to the other factors, in particular the source of movement, the seminal fluid, (...)
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  27. Aristotle's Anthropology.Nora Kreft & Geert Keil (eds.) - 2019 - Cambridge University Press.
    This is the first collection of essays devoted specifically to the nature and significance of Aristotle's anthropological philosophy, covering the full range of his ethical, metaphysical and biological works. The book is organised into four parts, two of which deal with the metaphysics and biology of human nature and two of which discuss the anthropological foundations and implications of Aristotle's ethico-political works. The essay topics range from human nature and morality to friendship and politics, including original discussion and fresh perspectives (...)
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  28. Aristotle on the Matter of Form: A Feminist Metaphysics of Generation.Adriel M. Trott - 2019 - Edinburgh, Scotland: Edinburgh University Press.
  29. Beyond Acting and Being Acted Upon.Emanuela Bianchi - 2018 - Philosophy Today 62 (3):1025-1036.
  30. Aristotle’s Explanations of Monstrous Births and Deformities in Generation of Animals 4.4.Sophia Connell - 2018 - In A. Falcon & D. Lefebvre (eds.), Aristotle's Generation of Animals: A Critical Guide. Cambridge, U.K: Cambridge University Press. pp. 207-223.
    Given that they are chance events, there can be no scientific demonstration or knowledge of monsters. There are still, however, many recognizable elements of scientific explanation in Aristotle's Generation of Animals Book IV chapter 4. What happens in cases of monsters and deformities occurs in the process of generation, and there is much that we can know scientifically about this process—working from the animal’s essential attributes outward to factors that influence these processes. In particular, we find Aristotle looking for and (...)
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  31. From Natural Character to Moral Virtue in Aristotle, by Mariska Leunissen. [REVIEW]Sophia M. Connell - 2018 - Mind 127 (507):938-946.
    From Natural Character to Moral Virtue in Aristotle, by LeunissenMariska. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017. Pp. vii + 216.
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  32. As 'Διαστάσεις' em Aristóteles: entre as potências da alma e a tridimensionalidade do corpo.Matheus Oliveira Damião - 2018 - Dissertation, UFRJ, Brazil
  33. Teleologia e necessidade Natural em Aristóteles.Rodrigo Romão de Carvalho - 2018 - Guairacá Revista de Filosofia 34 (2):134-150.
  34. Agregados, mistos e organismos vivos em Aristóteles: um delineamento de Scala Naturae.Rodrigo Romão de Carvalho - 2018 - Filosofia E História da Biologia 13 (2):263-278.
  35. Was Aristotle the ‘Father’ of the Epigenesis Doctrine?Ina Goy - 2018 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 40 (2):28.
    Was Aristotle the ‘father’ and founder of the epigenesis doctrine? Historically, I will argue, this question must be answered with ‘no’. Aristotle did not initiate and had no access to a debate that described itself in terms of ‘epigenesis’ and ‘preformation’, and thus cannot be considered the ‘father’ or founder of the epigenesis-preformation controversy in a literal sense. But many ancient accounts of reproduction and embryological development contain analogies to what early modern scientist called ‘epigenesis’ and ‘preformation’, and, in this (...)
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  36. The Evolution Concept: The Concept Evolution.Agustin Ostachuk - 2018 - Cosmos and History: The Journal of Natural and Social Philosophy 14 (3):354-378.
    This is an epistemologically-driven history of the concept of evolution. Starting from its inception, this work will follow the development of this pregnant concept. However, in contradistinction to previous attempts, the objective will not be the identification of the different meanings it adopted through history, but conversely, it will let the concept to be unfolded, to be explicated and to express its own inner potentialities. The underlying thesis of the present work is, therefore, that the path that leads to the (...)
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  37. Definition and the Epistemology of Natural Kinds in Aristotle.Nathanael Stein - 2018 - Metaphysics 1 (1):33–51.
    We have reason to think that a fundamental goal of natural science, on Aristotle’s view, is to discover the essence-specifying definitions of natural kinds—with biological species as perhaps the most obvious case. However, we have in the end precious little evidence regarding what an Aristotelian definition of the form of a natural kind would look like, and so Aristotle’s view remains especially obscure precisely where it seems to be most applicable. I argue that if we can get a better understanding (...)
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  38. Methodology in Aristotle’s Theory of Spontaneous Generation.Karen Zwier - 2018 - Journal of the History of Biology 51 (2):355-386.
    Aristotle’s theory of spontaneous generation offers many puzzles to those who wish to understand his theory both within the context of his biology and within the context of his more general philosophy of nature. In this paper, I approach the difficult and vague elements of Aristotle’s account of spontaneous generation not as weaknesses, but as opportunities for an interesting glimpse into the thought of an early scientist struggling to reconcile evidence and theory. The paper has two goals: to give as (...)
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  39. El valor en las orientaciones direccionales de los animales en De Incessu Animalium de Aristóteles.Matheus Oliveira Damião - 2017 - Bibliotheca Augustiniana 8 (1):93-109.
    This paper aims to undertake an examination of the exposition made in the aristotelian treatise De Incessu Animalium about the directional orientations (above and below, right and left, front and behind) mostly from its extra, inter and intratextual context. These directional orientations seem to be directly related to the principles of movement, perception and growing. The treatise starts from the points of origin (archai) of these functions in the animals and, from these functions, distinguish them. Therefore, functionality is established as (...)
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  40. O onde antes do lugar: as διαστάσεις no De incessu animalium de Aristóteles.Matheus Oliveira Damião - 2017 - Codex 5 (2):155-180.
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  41. A Constituição Orgânica em Aristóteles: a substância natural no seu mais elevado grau.Rodrigo Romão de Carvalho - 2017 - Dissertation, USP, Brazil
  42. Aristotle on “Nature Does Nothing in Vain”.Paula Gottlieb & Elliott Sober - 2017 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 7 (2):246-271.
    Aristotle’s principle that “nature does nothing in vain” (NDNIV) is central to his teleological approach to understanding organisms. First, we argue that James G. Lennox’s influential account of NDNIV is unsuccessful. Second, we propose an alternative account that includes a natural state model. According to a natural state model of development, an organism will develop toward its natural state unless interfering forces prevent that from happening. Third, we argue that this account also fits Aristotle’s discussion in the Generation of Animals (...)
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  43. Aristotelian Mechanistic Explanation.Monte Johnson - 2017 - In J. Rocca (ed.), Teleology in the Ancient World: philosophical and medical approaches. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 125-150.
    In some influential histories of ancient philosophy, teleological explanation and mechanistic explanation are assumed to be directly opposed and mutually exclusive alternatives. I contend that this assumption is deeply flawed, and distorts our understanding both of teleological and mechanistic explanation, and of the history of mechanistic philosophy. To prove this point, I shall provide an overview of the first systematic treatise on mechanics, the short and neglected work Mechanical Problems, written either by Aristotle or by a very early member of (...)
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  44. From Animal Bodies To Human Souls: Aristotelian Animals in Della Porta’s Physiognomics.Cecilia Muratori - 2017 - Early Science and Medicine 22 (1):1-23.
    This article analyses the role that animals play in Della Porta’s method of physiognomics. It claims that Della Porta created his own, original, method by appropriating, and yet selectively adapting Aristotelian and pseudo-Aristotelian sources. This has not been adequately reconstructed before in previous studies on Della Porta. I trace, in two steps, the conceptual trajectory of Della Porta’s physiognomics, from human psychology to animal psychology, and ultimately from psychology to ethics. In the first step, I show how Della Porta substantially (...)
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  45. Aristoteles'te Dilin Politik Rolü [The Political Role of Language in Aristotle].Güremen Refik - 2017 - Felsefe Tartismalari 53:16-38.
    Human beings, according to Aristotle, are not the only political animals. Bees, wasps, ants and cranes are the other political species mentioned by Aristotle in the History of Animals. Politics, I, 2 confirms this point and makes the additional statement that human beings, if not the only political animals, are nevertheless more political than the other political animals. There has been a traditional scholarly agreement that the capacity for rational speech is the reason why human beings are more political. This (...)
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  46. What Organisms Once Were and Might Yet Be.Christopher Shields - 2017 - Philosophy, Theory, and Practice in Biology 9 (7).
    Organisms receded from view in much of twentieth-century biology, only to undergo a sort of renaissance at the start of the twenty-first. The story of why this should be so is complicated and fascinating, but belongs primarily to the history of biology. On the other hand, to the extent that it is so, a question naturally arises: what, after all, are organisms? This question has a long and complicated history of its own, both within and without of biology; an investigation (...)
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  47. Philosophy of Biology and Metaphysics: Reconsidering the Aristotelian Approach.Federica Bocchi - 2016 - Dissertation, Università Degli Studi di Parma
  48. Filosofia da Biologia de Aristóteles.Jorge Ferigolo - 2016 - Curitiba, Brazil: Editora Prismas.
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  49. Bemerkungen Zum Zoologischen Grundzug von Ökonomie Und Politik Bei Aristoteles.Sergiusz Kazmierski - 2016 - In Ivo De Gennaro, Sergiusz Kazmierski, Ralf Lüfter & Robert Simon (eds.), Wirtliche Ökonomie. Philosophische und dichterische Quellen [Hospitable Economics. Philosophical and Poetic Sources], Volume II, Elementa Œconomica 1.2. Nordhausen, Deutschland: pp. 185-209.
    Wie an Politik I 2 in Verbindung mit anderen Passagen aus dem Corpus Aristotelicum, v.a. aus seinen zoologischen Schriften, gezeigt werden kann, ist die besondere Fähigkeit des Menschen, sich mitzuteilen, nicht ohne seine spezifische Zoologie denkbar. Ebensowenig ist daher die besondere menschliche Art, Haus- und Staatswesen zu bilden, ohne seine zoologischen Besonderheiten vorstellbar. Die menschliche Fähigkeit, sich mitteilen zu können, weist so in seine spezifische Art des Mitseins und eröffnet dadurch das, was er mitzuteilen vermag, z.B. Recht und Unrecht. Im (...)
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  50. Wünschenswerte Vielheit. Diversität als Kategorie, Befund und Norm.Thomas Kirchhoff & Kristian Köchy (eds.) - 2016 - Freiburg: Alber.
    Diversität ist ein zentraler Topos einer Vielzahl aktueller gesellschaftlicher Diskurse. Was genau ist aber gemeint, wenn von „Diversität“ oder auch „Vielheit“ und „Vielfalt“ die Rede ist? Handelt es sich um eine beschreibende Kategorie oder aber um eine, die normativ konnotiert ist? Der vorliegende Band analysiert – im Hinblick auf die Debatten um Biodiversität –, welche Bedeutungen und Funktionen „Diversität“, „Vielheit“ und „Vielfalt“ als Kategorie, Befund und Norm zukommen. Dazu rücken die Buchbeiträge die komplexen begriffs- und ideengeschichtlichen Hintergründe dieser Konzepte in (...)
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