Arguments for Theism

Edited by Daniel von Wachter (International Academy of Philosophy In The Principality of Liechtenstein)
About this topic
Summary Theism is generally taken to be the view that there is a person who is bodiless, omnipotent, omniscient, eternal, perfectly good, perfectly free, and who is the creator and sustainer of the universe. There are of course  different ways to spell out these attributes, for example some spell out ‘eternal‘ as ‘being outside of time‘, others as ‘everlasting‘. However, those who present arguments for or against the ‘existence of God‘ use the term ‘God’ similarly enough to be discussing the same question. Philosophers rather say that there is no God than using ‘God’ in a very different sense, for example in the sense of something other than a person. Most or all arguments for or against theism, today as well as in the past, are not assumed to make belief in God somehow ‘apodictically‘ certain. However, some arguments are deductive, others inductive.
Key works The most thorough defense of the existence of God is Swinburne 2004, who gives probabilistic, inductive instead of deductive arguments and who rejects the ontological as well as the moral argument from the existence of values or duties. Plantinga 1974 defends the ontological argument, Adams 1979 the moral argument. MacKie 1982 is still a much quoted defense of atheism. Rowe 2010 presents an atheistic position.
Introductions Most anthologies with the title ‘philosophy of religion’ contain articles that give the various arguments, for example Craig 2001 or Davies 2000, and also Meister & Copan 2007, Taliaferro & Meister 2009, and Copan & Moser 2003. A simplified defense of theism with various arguments is Swinburne 1996, Le Poidevin 1996 is an introductory defense atheism.
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  1. Fundamentality and the prior probability of theism.Luke Wilson - 2020 - Religious Studies 56 (2):169-180.
    Paul Draper has recently developed an account of intrinsic probability according to which a theory's intrinsic probability is determined by its modesty and coherence. He employs this account in an argument that Source Physicalism (SP) and Source Idealism (SI) are equally intrinsically probable. Since SP and SI are not exhaustive, and Theism is one very specific version of SI, it follows that the intrinsic probability of Theism is very low. I argue here that considerations of fundamentality show that more work (...)
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  2. Two challenges for 'no-norms' theism.James Reilly - 2022 - Religious Studies 1 (1):1-8.
    A number of theistic philosophers have recently denied that God is subject to moral and rational norms. At the same time, many theists employ epistemological and inductive arguments for the existence of God. I will argue that ‘no-norms’ theists cannot make use of such arguments: if God is not subject to norms – particularly rational norms – then we can say nothing substantive about what kind of worlds God would be likely to create, and as such, we cannot predict the (...)
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  3. No Work For Fundamental Facts.Thomas Oberle - forthcoming - Philosophical Quarterly.
    Metaphysical foundationalists argue that without fundamental facts, we cannot explain why there exist any dependent facts at all. Thus, metaphysical infinitism, the view that chains of ground can descend indefinitely without ever terminating in a level of fundamental facts, allegedly exhibits a kind of explanatory failure. I examine this argument and conclude that foundationalists have failed to show that infinitism exhibits explanatory failure. I argue that explaining the existence of dependent facts in terms of further dependent facts ad infinitum is (...)
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  4. Being a ‘not-quite-Buddhist theist’.James Dominic Rooney - 2022 - Religious Studies 58 (4):787-800.
    Buddhism is a tradition that set itself decidedly against theism, with the development of complex arguments against the existence of God. I propose that the metaphysical conclusions reached by some schools in the Mahayana tradition present a vision of reality that, with some apparently small modification, would ground an argument for the existence of God. This argument involves explanation in terms of natures rather than causal agency. Yet I conclude not only that the Buddhist becomes a theist in embracing such (...)
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  5. Powers, possibility, and the essential cosmological argument.Ben Cook - 2022 - Religious Studies 58 (4):745-758.
    One classical version of cosmological argument, defended famously by Thomas Aquinas and Duns Scotus, deduces the existence of a First Cause from the existence of a particular sort of causal series: one that is ‘essentially ordered’. This argument has received renewed defence in recent work by Feser, Cohoe, and Kerr. I agree with these philosophers that the argument is sound. I believe, however, that the standard defence given of the ECA in these philosophers can be complemented by a formulation that (...)
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  6. Default Agnosticism.Francis Jonbäck - 2021 - Religions 12 (1):1-13.
    Agnosticism has always had its fair amount of criticism. Religious believers often described the first agnostics as infidels and it is not uncommon to see them described as somewhat dull fence-sitters. Moreover, the undecided agnostic stance on belief in gods is often compared with being unsure about such obviously false statements as the existence of orbiting teapots, invisible dragons or even Santa Claus. In this paper, I maintain that agnosticism can properly be endorsed as a default stance. More precisely, I (...)
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  7. Hopeism.Francis Jonbäck - forthcoming - Studia Theologica.
    Philosophers of religion have traditionally focused their attention on belief in God and assessed such belief in terms of it having some epistemic status like“rationality” or “probability”, or indeed by determining whether or not it constitutes knowledge. In this paper, I focus my attention on the non-doxastic attitude of hope and formulate reasons for whether or not we should hope for God. In light of these reasons, I formulate hopeism as a research programme according to which we should develop concepts (...)
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  8. Sceptical Agnosticism.Francis Jonbäck - 2022 - International Journal for the Study of Skepticism.
    Agnostics as well as theists should answer evidential arguments from evil, at least when confronted with them. In this paper, I answer such an argument by appealing to sceptical agnosticism. A sceptical agnostic is not only undecided about the existence of a perfectly good and omnipotent God, but also believes that we cannot make any judgement about whether or not seemingly gratuitous evil probably is gratuitous. I argue that such agnosticism has several advantages compared with sceptical theism.
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  9. The Sceptical Response to the Existential Problem of Systemic Suffering.Francis Jonbäck - 2021 - Open Theology 2 (1):102-10.
    Recently, Yujin Nagasawa has argued that “systemic suffering” – suffering inherent in the evolutionary process – poses a problem for existentially optimistic theists and atheists who think that the world is overall good and therefore are happy and thankful to be alive in it. In short, he shows that it is difficult to consistently believe that the world is overall good when also recognising the existence of systemic suffering. In this article, I evaluate a sceptical response to the problem. The (...)
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  10. The Soul: How We Know It’s Real and Why It Matters. [REVIEW]Scott D. G. Ventureyra - 2014 - Science Et Esprit 66 (3):490-494.
  11. God? Very Probably: Five Rational Ways to Think about the Question of God. [REVIEW]Scott D. G. Ventureyra - 2019 - Science Et Esprit 71 (1):129-132.
  12. A Critical Examination on the Religious Argument for God's Existence.Juyong Kim - 2020 - 신학과 학문 (Theology and Other Disciplines) 1 (22):107-123.
    In this article, I critically examine the religious argument for the existence of God, which Palmquist formulated from Kant’s Religion within the Bounds of Bare Reason. After showing the structure of the argument, I point the problematic point of the argument and focus on the concept of Gesinnung. The privateness of Gesinnung is problematized in the analysis of it, and I briefly suggest that an alternative account of the Gesinnung is possible. Yet I emphasize the advantage that this argument has (...)
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  13. Teilhard's Dangerous Theological Errors.Scott D. G. Ventureyra - 2017 - Fidelitas 10 (1):27-48.
    This article explores various issues with Pierre Teilhard de Chardin's theology including his view of God, his articulation of a "new religion," and his thoughts about transhumanism. This article published is a commemoration of Monsignor Vincent Foy's contributions to Catholic thought. -/- After having examined many of Teilhard's writings and commentaries that have been articulated by both supporters and detractors, I am persuaded that one should not take an all-or-nothing approach to Teilhard (or any other thinker for that matter). The (...)
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  14. The Institutional Dictionary of Astronism. Cometan - 2021 - Preston, UK: Astral Publishing.
    The Institutional Dictionary of Astronism is the cumulation of receptions between Cometan and the astronomical world during the Founding era (2013-2021). The publication of this very first full-length Institutional Dictionary of Astronism represents eight years of the development of Astronism from its inception to how it stands today in 2021. The publication of this dictionary also encapsulates Astronism exactly as it exists now and how Cometan conceives it by the end of the Founding era. This dictionary and its contents capture (...)
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  15. Introduction to Philosophy: Philosophy of Religion.Beau Branson, Hans Van Eyghen, Marcus Hunt, Tim Knepper, Robert Sloan Lee & Steven Steyl (eds.) - 2020 - Rebus Community Press.
    Where did the universe come from? Is life a result of chance, or design? If God is loving and all-powerful, why does evil still exist? Is religious belief just a byproduct of undirected evolutionary processes? Or did God make sure humans would evolve in such a way as to believe? Are philosophers closed-minded about religion? And why is so much of philosophy of religion about God-but not about gods? Introduction to Philosophy: Philosophy of Religion introduces students to some of the (...)
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  16. Natural Theology and Religious Belief.Max Baker-Hytch - forthcoming - In Jonathan Fuqua, Tyler Dalton McNabb & John Greco (eds.), The Cambridge Handbook of Religious Epistemology. Cambridge, UK:
    It is no exaggeration to say that there has been an explosion of activity in the field of philosophical enquiry that is known as natural theology. Having been smothered in the early part of the twentieth century due to the dominance of the anti-metaphysical doctrine of logical positivism, natural theology began to make a comeback in the late 1950s as logical positivism collapsed and analytic philosophers took a newfound interest in metaphysical topics such as possibility and necessity, causation, time, the (...)
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  17. The Absurdity of Infinity and The Beginning of The Universe.Atikur Rahman - manuscript
    One of the common claims of the eternalists is that the "actual" infinite is possible and the universe is eternal. They are trying to refute the Kalam argument. What I wanted to show in this paper is that the "actual" infinite is impossible for logical reasons, and I have shown further that infinity has an effect and application over time, and that there is no way to deny the beginning of the universe for existence. The paper points out the problems (...)
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  18. The Apologist's Dilemma.Nathan L. King - 2021 - In Matthew A. Benton & Jonathan L. Kvanvig (eds.), Religious Disagreement and Pluralism. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 142-179.
  19. MISTERO E ANALOGIA NELLA TEOLOGIA RAZIONALE E IN ETICA. IN DIALOGO CON ALCUNE TESI DI MARIO MICHELETTI.Damiano Migliorini - 2021 - Nuovo Giornale di Filosofia Della Religione 1:107-129.
    In the essay I analyse Micheletti’s three theses concerning: (a) the notion of mystery in relation to the “evidentialistic claim”; (b) analogical metaphysics in relation to “univocist immanentism” and to the importance of developing an analogical theism; (c) the fallibilistic conception of reason in relation to natural law, universalistic ethics and the so-called “essentialism” applied to individual human nature. I will try to show how deep is the intertwining and mutual implication of mystery and analogy – in metaphysics and theology, (...)
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  20. Psychophysical Harmony: A New Argument for Theism.Brian Cutter & Dustin Crummett - forthcoming - Oxford Studies in Philosophy of Religion.
    This paper develops a new argument from consciousness to theism: the argument from psychophysical harmony. Roughly, psychophysical harmony consists in the fact that phenomenal states are correlated with physical states and with one another in strikingly fortunate ways. For example, phenomenal states are correlated with behavior and functioning that is justified or rationalized by those very phenomenal states, and phenomenal states are correlated with verbal reports and judgments that are made true by those very phenomenal states. We argue that psychophysical (...)
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  21. What the Problem of Evil Properly Entails.I. Neminemus - 2022 - Social Sciences Research Network.
    It is sometimes thought that the Problem of Evil entails the inexistence of God. However, this is not the case: it only entails the inexistence of an omnipotent-benevolent god, of which the God of Classical Theism is an example. As for ‘limited’ deities such as that of process theology, or malevolent deities such as that of dystheism, the problem of evil is not a problem at all.
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  22. The Cinematic Gaze as ‘A Long Loving Look at the Real’: Andrei Tarkovsky and Walter Burghardt’s Theology of Contemplation.James Lorenz - 2022 - Heythrop Journal 63 (3):425-437.
    The Heythrop Journal, Volume 63, Issue 3, Page 425-437, May 2022.
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  23. Awe at Natural Beauty as Defeasible Evidence for the Existence of God.José Eduardo Porcher & Daniel de Luca-Noronha - 2021 - Manuscrito 44 (4):489-517.
    In this paper, we present an abductive argument for the existence of God from the experience of awe at natural beauty. If God’s creative work is a viable explanation for why we experience awe at natural beauty, and there is no satisfactory naturalistic explanation for the origins of such experiences, then we have defeasible evidence that God exists. To evaluate the argument's tenability, we assess the merits of the two main naturalistic frameworks that can be marshaled to answer the question (...)
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  24. Spirit calls Nature: A Comprehensive Guide to Science and Spirituality, Consciousness and Evolution in a Synthesis of Knowledge.Marco Masi - 2021 - Indy Edition.
    This is a technical treatise for the scientific-minded readers trying to expand their intellectual horizon beyond the straitjacket of materialism. It is dedicated to those scientists and philosophers who feel there is something more, but struggle with connecting the dots into a more coherent picture supported by a way of seeing that allows us to overcome the present paradigm and yet maintains a scientific and conceptual rigor, without falling into oversimplifications. Most of the topics discussed are unknown even to neuroscientists, (...)
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  25. The Extremely Persuasive Argument from Human Behavior.Eric Demaree - 2019 - Kingman, Arizona: Fellowship Books.
    Three qualities of “The Argument from Human Behavior” make it superior to other arguments for God. First, this argument discovers a universal indirect perception of God that everyone has many times every day: the fact that we all take seriously our sense of “wrong” (our sense of everyone’s moral obligations). Second, this argument reveals that the Biblical God claims He is the legislator of the moral laws in our mind. Third, it understands that discovering God will always demand a step (...)
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  26. La logica della spiegazione come argomento per l'esistenza di Dio.Daniele Bertini - 2021 - Nuovo Giornale di Filosofia Della Religione 1 (1):77-106.
    Discuto la tesi di Micheletti secondo la quale ogni spiegazione fattuale presuppone premesse di ordine superiore rispetto alla spiegazione (M.Micheletti, “Radical Divine Alterity and the God-World Relationship”). Nella prima sezione del testo introdurrò la tesi, muovendo dalla analisi di alcuni esempi di spiegazione, ed elencherò le ragioni che (apparentemente) richiedono la postulazione di higher-degree propositions per rendere conto di factual propositions. Nella seconda sezione regimenterò logicamente la tesi di Micheletti. Nella terza sezione discuterò la validità della logica della spiegazione così (...)
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  27. The Theology of Hiddenness: J. L. Schellenberg, Divine Hiddenness, and the Role of Theology.Marek Dobrzeniecki & Derek King - 2021 - Roczniki Filozoficzne: Annales de Philosophie 69 (3):105-122.
    The paper explores Pascal’s idea according to which the teachings of the Church assume the hiddenness of God, and, hence, there is nothing surprising in the fact of the occurrence of nonresistant nonbelief. In order to show it the paper invokes the doctrines of the Incarnation, the Church as the Body of Christ, and the Original Sin. The first one indicates that there could be greater than nonbelief obstacle in forming interpersonal bonds with God, namely the ontological chasm between him (...)
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  28. The Hidden God, Second-Person Knowledge, and the Incarnation.Marek Dobrzeniecki - 2021 - Religions 12 (8).
    The paper considers premises of the hiddenness argument with an emphasis on its usage of the concept of a personal God. The paper’s assumption is that a recent literature on second-person experiences could be useful for theists in their efforts to defend their position against Schellenberg’s argument. Stump’s analyses of a second-person knowledge indicate that what is required in order to establish an interpersonal relationship is a personal presence of the persons in question, and therefore they falsify the thesis that (...)
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  29. Not So Superlative: The Fourth Way as Comparatively Problematic.Benjamin McCraw - 2016 - In Robert Arp (ed.), Revisiting Aquinas' Proofs for the Existence of God. Leiden, Netherlands: pp. 173-201.
    In this paper, I examine several criticisms that can be raised against Aquinas’s Fourth Way. Each criticism draws a line of reasoning from a historical source to a contemporary analogue. The aim is to trace these objections from Aquinas’s own philosophical perspective to a contemporary standpoint: showing how arguments and positions today bear on his 13th C. argument and vice versa. Section One begins by reconstructing the argument itself. Then I address a series of objections questioning some fundamental element of (...)
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  30. On The Logical Formalization of Ansem's Ontological Argument.Ricardo Silvestre - 2015 - Revista Brasileira de Filosofia da Religião 2 (1):142–161.
    he general theme of this paper is the issue of formalization in philosophy; in a more specific way, it deals with the issue of formalization of arguments in analytic philosophy of religion. One argument in particular – Anselm’s Proslogion II ontological argument – and one specific attempt to formalize it – Robert Adams’ formalization found in his paper “The Logical Structure of Anselm’s Arguments”, published in The Philosophical Review in 1971 – are taken as study cases. The purpose of the (...)
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  31. Contemporary Arguments in Natural Theology: God and Rational Belief.Colin Ruloff & Peter Horban (eds.) - 2021 - Bloomsbury Publishing.
    In recent years there has been a bold revival in the field of natural theology, where “natural theology” can be understood as the attempt to demonstrate that God exists by way of reason, evidence, and argument without the appeal to divine revelation. Today's practitioners of natural theology have not only revived and recast all of the traditional arguments in the field, but, by drawing upon the findings of contemporary cosmology, chemistry, and biology, have also developed a range of fascinating new (...)
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  32. The Argument from Desire.William Lauinger - forthcoming - In Colin Ruloff & Peter Horban (eds.), Contemporary Arguments in Natural Theology: God and Rational Belief.
    Most of us live primarily in the everyday mode, where we have ordinary thoughts and feelings that accompany our engagement in ordinary activities such as working, eating, paying bills, driving, sleeping, exercising, and shopping. Even when we are with friends and family members, most of our thoughts, feelings, and actions are of the everyday variety. However, there are certain moments, rare and ephemeral though they may be, where the everyday mode of life is unexpectedly pierced and where some kind of (...)
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  33. Toward an inclusive conception of eternity.William W. Young - 2020 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 89 (2):171-187.
    Philosophical and theological conceptions of eternity frequently define it through a contrast with time’s transience. These conceptions reflect the widespread influence of Augustine’s idea of eternity, where eternity stands atemporally in opposition to time. Such conceptions are problematic for both divine and human relations to the world. However, the work of Plotinus and Boethius shows that eternity can be conceived more inclusively—as transcending time, but nonetheless including temporal change and dynamism within its presence. This facilitates Boethius’ views of divine knowledge (...)
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  34. Against a Deontic Argument for God's Existence.Patrick Grim - 1982 - Analysis 42 (3):171-174.
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  35. Without Excuse: Scripture, Reason, and Presuppositional Apologetics.David Haines (ed.) - 2020 - Leesburg: The Davenant Press.
    The twentieth century was unkind to classical Reformed theology. While theological conservatives often blame liberals for undermining traditional Protestant doctrines, the staunchest conservatives and neo-Orthodox also revised several key doctrines. Although Cornelius Van Til developed presuppositional apologetics as an attempt to remain faithful to timeless Christian truth as the Reformed tradition expresses it, he sacrificed the catholic and Reformed understanding of the use of natural revelation in theology and apologetics in the process. -/- "The invisible things of him from the (...)
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  36. living info: notes on the Exegesis.Paul Bali - manuscript
  37. Kant, God and Metaphysics: The Secret Thorn by Edward Kanterian. [REVIEW]Jonathan Egid - 2020 - Philosophy 95:229-233.
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  38. Determining the Need for Explanation.Martin Jakobsen - 2020 - Faith and Philosophy 37 (2):230-241.
    Several theistic arguments are formulated as arguments for the best explanation. This article discusses how one can determine that some phenomenon actually needs an explanation. One way to demonstrate that an explanation is needed is by providing one. The proposed explanation ought to either make the occurrence of the phenomenon in question more probable than it occurring by chance, or it has to sufficiently increase our understanding of the phenomenon. A second way to demonstrate that an explanation is needed is (...)
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  39. Pornography and Christology.Matthew John Paul Tan - 2020 - The Australasian Catholic Record 97 (3):312.
    This article results from the experimental convergence of five elements. Three of these are seemingly unrelated names: the Anglican philosopher John Milbank, the German critical theorist Walter Benjamin, and the incarnate Word, Jesus Christ. The remaining two are themes that seem to have little relation to each other: the explosion of online pornography, which is making addicts of younger and younger users, and Christology or the study of the nature and work of the Second Person of the Trinity.
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  40. Editorial preface.R. L. Hall - 2020 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 88 (1):1-3.
  41. Seeing and not Seeing the Face of God: Overcoming the Law of Contradiction in Biblical Theology.Steven Kepnes - 2020 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 12 (2):133-147.
    This paper attempts to illuminate and interpret the contradictory portrait of God as both seen and unseen in the Torah. Thus Moses is commanded not to look on the face of God yet also praised for having spoken to God “face to face". We seek ways to reconcile the contradictory portraits of God through the use of the term “doubled-mindedness” in the theology of Jerome Gellman, in the logic of “thirdness” in C.S. Peirce’s semiotics, and in the use of both (...)
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  42. Revelation Through Concealment: Kabbalistic Responses to God’s Hiddenness.Samuel Lebens - 2020 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 12 (2):89-108.
    John Schellenberg presents an argument for atheism according to which theism would be easy to believe, if true. Since theism isn’t easy to believe, it must be false. In this paper, I argue that Kabbalistic Judaism has the resources to bypass this argument completely. The paper also explores a stream of Kabbalistic advice that the tradition offers to people of faith for those times at which God appears to us to be hidden.
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  43. Can a Worship-worthy Agent Command Others to Worship It?Frederick Choo - 2022 - Religious Studies 58 (1):79-95.
    This article examines two arguments that a worship-worthy agent cannot command worship. The first argument is based on the idea that any agent who commands worship is egotistical, and hence not worship-worthy. The second argument is based on Campbell Brown and Yujin Nagasawa's (2005) idea that people cannot comply with the command to worship because if people are offering genuine worship, they cannot be motivated by a command to do so. One might then argue that a worship-worthy agent would have (...)
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  44. Shame and Absence: Feminist and Theological Reflections.Lenart Škof - 2020 - Sophia 59 (1):1-3.
    This paper deals with the concept of three eras, as brought to us firstly in the Babylonian Talmud, and later reshaped and reformulated by Christian theologians Joachim of Fiore, Amalric of Bène, and finally by Luce Irigaray. In the first part, we start with the idea of the three eras. This is followed by a critical approach to Sloterdijk’s You must change your life in which religion is substituted by the anthropotechnics. We argue that even in these secular times, the (...)
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  45. The Third Age: Reflections on Our Hidden Material Core.Lenart Škof - 2020 - Sophia 59 (1):83-94.
    This paper deals with the concept of three eras, as brought to us firstly in the Babylonian Talmud, and later reshaped and reformulated by Christian theologians Joachim of Fiore, Amalric of Bène, and finally by Luce Irigaray. In the first part, we start with the idea of the three eras. This is followed by a critical approach to Sloterdijk’s You must change your life in which religion is substituted by the anthropotechnics. We argue that even in these secular times, the (...)
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  46. Zölibat als Risikofaktor für sexuellen Missbrauch?Godehard Brüntrup - 2019 - In Matthias Remenyi & Thomas Schärtl (eds.), Nicht ausweichen: Theologie angesichts der Missbrauchskrise. Regensburg, Deutschland: pp. 109 - 124.
  47. Panpsychismus und Handeln Gottes.Godehard Brüntrup - 2017 - In Georg/ Jaskolla Gasser (ed.), Handbuch für analytische Theologie. Münster, Deutschland: pp. 917-947.
  48. Introduction to the symposium.Michael S. Jones - 2020 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 87 (3):201-202.
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  49. Tertullian on Divine Sovereignty and Free Will in advance.David Clark - forthcoming - Philosophy and Theology.
    Christian thinkers in the patristic era were not reluctant to integrate classical philosophy with biblical theology as they addressed the seeming incompatibility of free will and determinism (fate). This paper compares and contrasts Tertullian and the Stoics as they explain three issues relating to freedom and fate: 1) The operation of the Logos, 2) Theological Anthropology, and 3) Teleology. While in agreement with the Stoics on several key points, Tertullian crucially departs from them as he argues it is not by (...)
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  50. Izydora Dqmbska (1904-1983). Materialy z sympozium, „Non est necesse vivere, necesse est philosophar" Kraków, 18-19 grudnia 1998 r. [Izydora Dąmbska (1904-1983). Materialien aus dem Symposion „Non est necesse vivere, necesse est philosophari" Kraków, 18-19 Dezember 1998]. [REVIEW]Józef Bremer - 1970 - Forum Philosophicum: International Journal for Philosophy 7 (1):266-268.
    „Es gibt Leute, deren Biographien den alten Grundsatz des Virgil bestätigen: labor omnia vincit improbus - beharrliche Arbeit überwindet alles." Dieser Satz, der aus dem Einband des vorliegenden Buches stammt, kann zugleich als Motto über das Leben und Werk der Philosophin Izydora Dąmbska geschrieben werden. Sie war Schülerin und letzte Assistentin von Kazimierz Twardowski, dem Begründer der Lemberger-Warschauer-Schule, einer der bedeutendsten philosophischen Schulen des zwanzigsten Jahrhunderts. Twardowski war in Wien Schüler von Franz Brentano gewesen, dessen Denken auf die genannte Schule (...)
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