Religious Experience

Edited by Guy Axtell (Radford University)
Assistant editor: Katelyn Dobbins (Radford University)
About this topic
Summary

     Religious experience is a very broad topic, understood in different ways by different persons and faith traditions. Each academic field that bears on religion and spirituality approaches it with distinct methods. Recognition of the diversity in reported religious experiences, values, and beliefs also informs work on religious freedom, tolerance, and the public role of religion in a pluralistic society.  

     The broadly epistemic issues include: the need to interpret one’s religious experiences; the cognitive value of religious experience; the proper role of evidence in the formation of religious belief; the epistemology of miracle claims; differences between “experience” as personal and primary, and "testimonial" belief in faith traditions centered on a special revelation; the nature and limits of religious language; feminist critique of androcentric and anthropocentric conceptions of godhead; positive theology in contrast with apophatic or mystically-oriented faith traditions; and process verses substantive conceptions of ultimate reality.

Key works Pamela Sue Anderson (1997), Richard Braithwaite (1955), John Caputo (2001), Evan Fales (2004), Jerome Gellman (2005), Paul Helm (1999), John Hick (1989), David Hume (1998), Alvin Plantinga (1981), Arvind Sharma (1991), William J. Wainwright (1984), Ludwig Wittgenstein (1966), Nicholas Wolterstorff (1984), Keith E. Yandell (1993), Linda Zagsebski (2004)
Related categories
Siblings:History/traditions: Religious Experience

1802 found
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1 — 50 / 1802
  1. Problems of Religious Luck, chapter 1: Kinds of Religious Luck: A Working Taxonomy.Guy Axtell - manuscript
    Although there has been little written to date that speaks directly to problems of religious luck, described in other terms these problems have a long history. Contemporary contributors to the literature have referred to “soteriological luck” (Anderson 2011) “salvific luck” (Davidson 1999) and “religious luck” (Zagzebski 1994). Using “religious” as the unifying term, Part I of this monograph begins with the need a more comprehensive taxonomy. Serious philosophic interest in moral and epistemic luck took hold only after comprehensive taxonomies for (...)
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  2. Is religion what we want? Motivation and the cultural transmission of religious representations.Shaun Nichols - manuscript
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  3. Factors Underlying the Development of the issue of Religious Experience.Aynollāh Khademi - unknown - Kheradnameh Sadra Quarterly 45.
    In the field of religious studies, like any other field, the development of each phenomenon is due to one or some causes. Scientific inquiries into the issue of religious experience, a relatively new phenomenon, are not exceptions in this regard, and various factors have played a role in their development. They include harsh attacks against natural theology, Protestants' views and their conflicts with Catholics, their critique of the Scripture, the influence of Lord Herbert and those who were of the same (...)
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  4. The sense of existence.Billon Alexandre - forthcoming - Ergo: An Open Access Journal of Philosophy.
    If I see, hear, or touch a sparrow, the sparrow seems real to me. Unlike Bigfoot or Santa Claus, it seems to exist; I will therefore judge that it does indeed exist. The “sense of existence” refers to the kind of awareness that typically grounds such ordinary judgments of existence or “reality.” The sense of existence has been invoked by Humeans, Kantians, Ideologists, and the phenomenological tradition to make substantial philosophical claims. However, it is extremely controversial; its very existence has (...)
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  5. Wittgenstein and Contemporary Belief-Credence Dualism.Guy Axtell - forthcoming - In Wittgenstein and the Epistemology of Religion. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    This paper examines religious epistemics in relationship to recent defenses of belief-credence dualism among analytic Christian philosophers, connecting what is most plausible and appealing in this proposal to Wittgenstein’s thought on the nature of religious praxis and affectively-engaged language-use. How close or far is Wittgenstein’s thought about faith to the analytic Christian philosophers’ thesis that “beliefs and credences are two epistemic tools used for different purposes”? While I find B-C dualism appealing for multiple reasons, the paper goes on to raise (...)
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  6. Religious Conversion.Saju Chackalackal - forthcoming - Journal of Dharma.
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  7. NON-PHILOSOPHY OF THE ONE Turning away from Philosophy of Being.Ulrich de Balbian - forthcoming - Oxford: Academic Publishers.
    A study of the methods, approaches, prayers, etc to realize the 'unity experience' with THE ONE REAL SELF (Vedanta, Hinduism, ) God (Judaism), Gottheit (Christianity), Buddha mind (Buddhism), The Beloved (Sufism, Islam) of a number of mystics from several religious traditions. I wrote about this in a number of books and articles, for example about methods, techniques, practices and methodology here: as well as exploring and illustrating the subject-matter of philosophizing here: Explorations, questions and searches not put down on paper (...)
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  8. Philosophy of being and non-philosophy of The One.Ulrich de Balbian - forthcoming - Oxford: Academic Publishers.
    An exploration of the philosophical and mystical ideas of Plotinus. So as to show that underneath all traditional Western philosophy of being their lies a non-philosophy of 'the one'. The One with whom mystics seek unification or to be united with (also know as realization of the one real self, unity with the Sufi Beloved, buddha-mind, the absolute truth, the foundation or ground of all etc).
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  9. Global Dialogues in the Philosophy of Religion: from Religious Experience to the Afterlife.Yujin Nagasawa & Mohammad Saleh Zarepour (eds.) - forthcoming - Oxford University Press.
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  10. God for All Time: From Theism to Ultimism.J. L. Schellenberg - forthcoming - In Andrei Buckareff Yujin Nagasawa (ed.), Alternative Conceptions of God. Oxford University Press.
  11. N, N-DIMETHYLTRYPTAMINE AND BIOLOGICAL REDUCTIVE ACCOUNTS FOR RELIGIOUS AND SPIRITUAL EXPERIENCES.Shaun Smith - forthcoming - Liberty University Digital Commons.
    There is unquestionably a plethora of details and mysteries regarding the mind and the body. However, with the advent of psychopharmacology (the study of how psychedelics inform or alter brain states) there are more issues at hand. Do psychedelics allow us to access deeper areas of our consciousness? Are we having a spiritual experience under the influence of psychedelics? Dr. Rick Strassman does not want to continue asking these rather conspiratorial-like questions. Instead, Dr. Strassman believes that there is one special, (...)
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  12. Religious experience.Mark Webb - forthcoming - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  13. James B.-** ro* K in context.Paul D. Maclean Women, A. More Balanced Brain & Rodney Holmes - forthcoming - Zygon.
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  14. God, the Good, and the Spiritual Turn in Epistemology.Roberto Di Ceglie - 2023 - New York, NY, USA: Cambridge University Press.
    In this book, Roberto Di Ceglie offers an historical, theological, and epistemological investigation exploring how commitments to God and/or the good generate the optimum condition to achieve knowledge. Di Ceglie criticizes the common belief that to attain knowledge, one must always be ready to replace one's convictions with beliefs that appear to be proven. He defends a more comprehensive view, historically exemplified by outstanding Christian thinkers, whereby believers are expected to commit themselves to God and to related beliefs no matter (...)
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  15. A Methodological Study of the Views of Katz and Phillips about Religious Experience.Ali Alamolhoda, Jalal Peykani, Abbas Oskouiyan & Bahman Akbari - 2022 - Philosophical Investigations 16 (39):791-805.
    Discussing the scope of religious experience has been one of the most important topics since the eighteenth century, and from that period until now, thinkers in various fields of study such as philosophy of religion, modern theology, theology and psychology of religion and... Has drawn various opinions in these periods about its nature and nature, the scope of its studies, its function in human life and the essence of religion or its truth or falsity. Among other things, the phenomenologists and (...)
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  16. In this article, the authors address the problem of the correlation of laughing culture and religious experience. The complex dialectics of the relationship between religion and cultural laughter originates in the ritual activity of early forms of religions. The authors, tracing the main stages of the development of the laughing culture, dwell in detail on the current stage of socio-cultural development associated with the design of the digital space. The main methodological approach in the analysis of religious experience in cyberspace is the hermeneutical-phenomenological method of M. Eliade, implying that every person has religious feelings. The empirical basis of the study was the results of a sociological study of the dynamics of the value consciousness of young people, conducted from 2006 to 2019, as well as the information content of websites, groups in social networks, messenger channels and video hosting. В As a result of the study, the authors conclude that a special laughing. [REVIEW]Marina Fedorova & Mira Borisovna Rotanova - 2022 - Философия И Культура 3:23-37.
    Religion and Laughter in a Digital Society.
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  17. Intentionality and transcendence as core components of the spiritual-religious experience.Teresa Gargiulo - 2022 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 14 (3):71-94.
    In psycho-clinical research the notion of spirituality acquires a semantic plurality. This equivocal and ambiguous connotation that characterizes this term represents an obstacle to the epistemic and methodological validity of research designs, recognized as the threat to construct validity. In order to overcome this difficulty, we introduce, from Dietrich von Hildebrand's phenomenology, the notions of intentionality and transcendence insofar as these are capable of accounting for the specific element of the spiritual-religious phenomenon and discriminating it from the other phenomena or (...)
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  18. Values and religious experience: for an intercultural dialogue according to Viktor E. Frankl’s perspective.Carlo Macale - 2022 - ENCYCLOPAIDEIA 26 (62):95-110.
    The contemporary society is characterised by a strong presence of different religious expressions, both traditional and new, community-based and individual. Therefore, we speak of a post-secular age in which there is a continuous exchange between beliefs and non-beliefs in everyday life. In this sense, the religious question takes on an increasingly intercultural connotation in the continuous biographical exchanges among people who give different existential meanings according to their own conscience. It is precisely the dimension of meaning, determined by the choice (...)
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  19. Tempo da Decisão e Chamado à Decisão em Yeshua Hamashiach.Luiz Carlos Mariano da Rosa - 2022 - Chisinau, Moldávia: Novas Edições Acadêmicas/OmniScriptum Publishing Group.
    Detendo-se na pregação ético-escatológica de Jesus, que anuncia o reino de Deus e o tempo da decisão e o chamado à decisão, o Prof. Luiz Carlos Mariano Da Rosa assinala que, escapando à condição de um dever que pressupõe a formação do caráter e o princípio de determinação da comunhão humana, é a exigência do amor que se impõe à pregação escatológica de Jesus e a sua pregação ética e ao conhecimento da vontade de Deus, que implica o dever-ser e (...)
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  20. Religiosidad platónica: relaciones de proximidad y lejanía entre hombre y divinidad (Platonic Religiosity: Distance and Proximity Between Man and Divinity).Pietro Montanari - 2022 - Guadalajara: Universidad de Guadalajara, UDG, ISBN: 978-607-571-671-8.
    Platonic religiosity is the first of two volumes devoted to the analysis of religiosity or religious feeling (pathos) in Plato. -/- (Back cover) Platonic Religiosity is a hermeneutical attempt to read Platonic works from the perspective of their religiosity. The aspects examined in the book are limited for the moment to the most basic, perhaps even the simplest, dimensions of religious feeling, those involving the representation of a relationship between man and divinity, Earth and Heaven, "low" and "high". Low and (...)
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  21. Religious Experience and the Knowledge of God: The Evidential Force of Divine Encounters.Harold A. Netland - 2022 - Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Academic, a Division of Baker Publishing Group.
    For many Christians, personal experiences of God provide an important ground or justification for accepting the truth of the gospel. But we are sometimes mistaken about our experiences, and followers of other religions also provide impressive testimonies to support their religious beliefs. This book explores from a philosophical and theological perspective the viability of divine encounters as support for belief in God, arguing that some religious experiences can be accepted as genuine experiences of God and can provide evidence for Christian (...)
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  22. How is Religious Experience Possible? On the (Quasi-Transcendental) Mode of Argument in Kant’s Religion.Stephen R. Palmquist - 2022 - Kantian Review 27 (1):81-89.
    Kant’s general mode of argument in Religion within the Bounds of Bare Reason, especially his defence of human nature’s propensity to evil, is a matter of considerable controversy: while some interpret his argument as strictly a priori, others interpret it as anthropological. In dialogue with Allen Wood’s recent work, I defend my earlier claim that Religion employs a quasi-transcendental mode of argument, focused on the possibility of a specific type of experience, not experience in general. In Religion, Kant portrays religious (...)
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  23. Benign and Pathological Religious Experience.José Eduardo Porcher - 2022 - Psicopatologia Fenomenológica Contemporânea 11 (1):44-61.
    In this paper, I draw on phenomenological analyses of religious voice-hearing and related experiences to elucidate the role of phenomenology in discerning benign from pathological religious experience. First, I present phenomenological discontinuities between cases of benign and pathological voice-hearing by drawing on a study of first-person accounts of voice-hearers within the Pentecostal movement which evinces that voice-hearing is not inherently pathological. Second, I introduce the epidemiological continuity of psychotic-like phenomena by drawing on a study of the contextual and responsive differences (...)
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  24. ‘This Is Our Testimony to the Whole World’: Quaker Peace Work and Religious Experience.Matt Rosen - 2022 - Religions 13 (7):623.
    Quakers express their faith by refraining from war, often actively opposing it. In modern Quakerism, this is known as the ‘Peace Testimony’. This commonly has a negative and positive construal: it is seen as a testimony against war, and as a testimony to the possibility and goodness of peaceful lives. This paper offers an account of how these aspects of the Peace Testimony are unified in and grounded on a corporate experience of being led by God into a way of (...)
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  25. Religiöse Erfahrung: Inhalt, epistemische Signifikanz und Expertise.Eva Schmidt - 2022 - In Martin Breul & Klaus Viertbauer (eds.), Der Glaube und seine Gründe: Beiträge zur Religiösen Epistemologie. Tübingen, Deutschland: pp. 11-30.
    This article investigates whether religious experience can be conceived in such a way that the perceiver's religious expertise (via cognitive penetration or perceptual learning) contributes to the justificatory power of the experience. It also considers what kind of content religious experience would have to have to be able to justify standard types of religious beliefs. It argues that, against first impressions, religious expertise cannot supplement perceptual justification. At the same time, to the extent that religious experience has singular contents or (...)
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  26. Zen Buddhism and the Phenomenology of Mysticism.Dylan S. Bailey - 2021 - Journal for Continental Philosophy of Religion 3 (2):123-143.
    In this paper, I use a comparative analysis of mysticism in Zen and the Abrahamic faiths to formulate a phenomenological account of mysticism “as such.” I argue that, while Zen Buddhism is distinct from other forms of mystical experience in important ways, it can still be fit into a general phenomenological category of mystical experience. First, I explicate the phenomenological accounts of mysticism provided by Anthony Steinbock and Angela Bello. Second, I offer an account of Zen mysticism which both coheres (...)
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  27. Religious Disagreement and Pluralism.Matthew A. Benton & Jonathan L. Kvanvig (eds.) - 2021 - Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Epistemological questions about the significance of disagreement have advanced in concert with broader developments in social epistemology concerning testimony, the nature of expertise and epistemic authority, the role of institutions, group belief, and epistemic injustice (among others). During this period, related issues in the epistemology of religion have reemerged as worthy of new consideration, and available to be situated with new conceptual tools. This volume explores many of the issues at the intersection of the epistemology of disagreement and religious epistemology: (...)
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  28. Ultimism: A Philosophy That Wants to Be a Religion.Piotr Biłgorajski - 2021 - Roczniki Filozoficzne 69 (3):291-304.
    Ultimism is the view that there is a metaphysically and axiologically ultimate reality in relation to which it is possible to achieve the ultimate good. John Schellenberg believes that ultimism is the backbone of every religion, while the differences between religions arise from different views of what the nature of the ultimate is. Schellenberg tries to show that if there is progress in religion, then it is most reasonable to assume that we are only at the beginning of the inquiry (...)
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  29. Transformative Experience and the Problem of Religious Disagreement.Joshua Blanchard & Laurie Paul - 2021 - In Matthew A. Benton & Jonathan L. Kvanvig (eds.), Religious Disagreement and Pluralism. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. pp. 127-141.
    Peer disagreement presents religious believers, agnostics, and skeptics alike with an epistemological problem: how can confidence in any religious claims (including their negations) be epistemically justified? There seem to be rational, well-informed adherents among a variety of mutually incompatible religious and non-religious perspectives, and so the problem of disagreement arises acutely in the religious domain. In this paper, we show that the transformative nature of religious experience and identity poses more than just this traditional, epistemic problem of conflicting religious beliefs. (...)
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  30. Biopolitics & Probability: Agamben & Kierkegaard.Virgil W. Brower - 2021 - In Marcos Antonio Norris & Colby Dickinson (eds.), Agamben and the Existentialists. Edinburgh, UK: Edinburgh University Press. pp. 46-64.
    This project retraces activations of Kierkegaard in the development of polit­ical theology. It suggests alternative modes of states of exception than those attributed to him by Schmitt, Taubes and Agamben. Several Kierkegaardian themes open themselves to 'something like pure potential' in Agamben, namely: living death, animality, criminality, auto-constitution, modification, liturgy, love and certain articulations of improbabilities. Attention is drawn to a modal ontology and auto-constitution at work in Kierkegaard's writings, as well as a complicated and indissociable operation between killing and (...)
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  31. Harold J. Netland, Religious Experience and the Knowledge of God: The Evidential Force of Divine Encounters.Travis Dickinson - 2021 - Philosophia Christi 23 (2):403-406.
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  32. Is There Something Special about Religious Disagreement?Richard Feldman - 2021 - In Matthew A. Benton & Jonathan L. Kvanvig (eds.), Religious Disagreement and Pluralism. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 108-126.
  33. An Agnostic Defends God: How Science and Philosophy Support Agnosticism.Bryan Frances - 2021 - Palgrave-Macmillan.
    This book contains a unique perspective: that of a scientifically and philosophically educated agnostic who thinks there is impressive—if maddeningly hidden—evidence for the existence of God. Science and philosophy may have revealed the poverty of the familiar sources of evidence, but they generate their own partial defense of theism. Bryan Frances, a philosopher with a graduate degree in physics, judges the standard evidence for God’s existence to be awful. And yet, like many others with similar scientific and philosophical backgrounds, he (...)
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  34. Religious Experience of Space.Andrea Franchetto - 2021 - Constructivist Foundations 16 (3):320-322.
    I want to initiate a dialogue on spatial theory between the history of religions and the cognitive sciences. The study of religious experiences offers approaches to perceptual presence to develop ….
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  35. Mysticism without concepts.Sebastian Gäb - 2021 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 89:1-14.
    It has often been claimed, e.g. by William James or Aldous Huxley, that mystical experiences across times and cultures exhibit a striking similarity. Even though the words and images we use to describe them are different, underneath the surface we find a common experiential core. Others have rejected this claim and argued that all experiences are intrinsically shaped by the mystics’ pre-existing religious concepts. Against these constructivist objections, I defend the idea of a common core by arguing that even if (...)
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  36. Religious Experience.Amber L. Griffioen - 2021 - Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    This Element looks at religious experience and the role it has played in philosophy of religion. It critically explores the history of the intertwined discourses on mysticism and religious experience, before turning to a few specific discussions within contemporary philosophy of religion. One debate concerns the question of perennialism vs. constructivism and whether there is a 'common core' to all religious or mystical experience independent of interpretation or socio-historical background. Another central discussion concerns the epistemology of purportedly theophanic experience and (...)
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  37. The Fellowship of the Ninth Hour: Christian Reflections on the Nature and Value of Faith.Daniel Howard-Snyder & Daniel J. McKaughan - 2021 - In James Arcadi & James T. Turner Jr (eds.), The T&T Clark Companion to Analytic Theology. New York, NY, USA: T&T Clark/Bloomsbury. pp. 69-82.
    It is common for young Christians to go off to college assured in their beliefs but, in the course of their first year or two, they meet what appears to them to be powerful defenses of scientific naturalism and crushing critiques of the basic Christian story (BCS), and many are thrown into doubt. They think to themselves something like this: "To be honest, I am troubled about the BCS. While the problem of evil, the apparent cultural basis for the diversity (...)
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  38. Interactive religious imagination.Malm Lindberg Ingrid - 2021 - The Junkyard.
  39. Testimony, Faith and Humility.Finlay Malcolm - 2021 - Religious Studies 57 (3):466-483.
    It is sometimes claimed that faith is a virtue. To what extent faith is a virtue depends on what faith is. One construal of faith, which has been popular in both recent and historical work on faith, is that faith is a matter of taking oneself to have been spoken to by God and of trusting this purported divine testimony. In this paper, I argue that when faith is understood in this way, for faith to be virtuous then it must (...)
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  40. Whiteness and religious experience.Jack Mulder - 2021 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 89 (1):67-89.
    In this paper I argue that racism’s subtle and insidious reach should lead us to prefer an account of religious experience that is capable of reckoning with that reach, an account that, I shall argue, appears in the work of St. John of the Cross. The paper begins with an analysis of race and racism and the way in which the latter can have existential and even spiritual effects. The argument is then applied particularly to white people and the deleterious (...)
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  41. Religious Experience and Temptations of Nihilism in Spiritual Life of Personality: Philosophical Analysis.Mykola Nikulchev - 2021 - Beytulhikme An International Journal of Philosophy 11 (11:2):683-697.
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  42. Abstraction Made Flesh – Immediacy of the Body and Religious Experience. Derrida, Hegel and Georges de La Tour.Marta Olesik - 2021 - Eidos. A Journal for Philosophy of Culture 5 (3):50-63.
    The text juxtaposes two different understandings of religion, the first: Hegelian, where it functions as an imaginary representation of the concept, and the second: Derridean, which confronts and radicalizes the idea of the death of God. At the center of their juxtaposition is the process of abstraction and the religious figure of the “desert” which both authors use to illustrate it. Central to Derrida’s thinking of religion, understood as a figure of relentless negativity in search of difference, a “desert” can (...)
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  43. Awe at Natural Beauty as Defeasible Evidence for the Existence of God.José Eduardo Porcher & Daniel de Luca-Noronha - 2021 - Manuscrito 44 (4):489-517.
    In this paper, we present an abductive argument for the existence of God from the experience of awe at natural beauty. If God’s creative work is a viable explanation for why we experience awe at natural beauty, and there is no satisfactory naturalistic explanation for the origins of such experiences, then we have defeasible evidence that God exists. To evaluate the argument's tenability, we assess the merits of the two main naturalistic frameworks that can be marshaled to answer the question (...)
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  44. Spiritual Sensations: Cinematic Religious Experience and Evolving Conceptions of the Sacred. [REVIEW]Francisco Santos Silva - 2021 - Alternative Spirituality and Religion Review 12 (1):167-168.
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  45. The Hiddenness Argument.J. L. Schellenberg - 2021 - Roczniki Filozoficzne 69 (3):63-66.
    * This is a fragment of J. L. Schellenberg’s paper “Divine Hiddenness and Human Philosophy” originally published in Adam Green and Eleonore Stump, Hidden Divinity and Religious Belief, 23–25, 28. Reprinted by permission of the author.
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  46. Ecclesial Belonging in a World of Pure Experience: William James, W.E.B. Du Bois, and Religious Rationality in Crisis.Walter Scott Stepanenko - 2021 - Open Theology 7 (1):111-128.
    The global COVID-19 pandemic has spotlighted several instances of churches violating state issued and scientifically recommended guidelines designed to keep populations healthy and to prevent the further spread of the disease. While these instances are minority responses to these orders, they nonetheless raise questions about the rationality of ecclesial belonging in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. In this article, I draw on the work of William James and W. E. B. Du Bois to articulate a conception of ecclesial belonging as (...)
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  47. The Epistemic Parity of Religious-Apologetic and Religion-Debunking Responses to the Cognitive Science of Religion.Walter Scott Stepanenko - 2021 - Religions 12 (7):466.
    Recent work in the cognitive science of religion has challenged some of the explanatory assumptions of previous research in the field. Nonetheless, some of the practitioners of the new cognitive science of religion theorize in the same skeptical spirit as their predecessors and either imply or explicitly claim that their projects undermine the warrant of religious beliefs. In this article, I argue that these theories do no additional argumentative work when compared to previous attempts to debunk religious belief and that (...)
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  48. Religious Disagreement Is Not Unique.Margaret Greta Turnbull - 2021 - In Matthew A. Benton & Jonathan L. Kvanvig (eds.), Religious Disagreement and Pluralism. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 90-106.
    In discussions of religious disagreement, some epistemologists have suggested that religious disagreement is distinctive. More specifically, they have argued that religious disagreement has certain features which make it possible for theists to resist conciliatory arguments that they must adjust their religious beliefs in response to finding that peers disagree with them. I consider what I take to be the two most prominent features which are claimed to make religious disagreement distinct: religious evidence and evaluative standards in religious contexts. I argue (...)
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  49. Religious Experience: The Perspective of African Traditional Religion.Johnson Uchenna Ozioko - 2021 - International Journal of Philosophy 9 (4):186.
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  50. Comedy. Taking the ladder down : Hegel on comedy and religious experience.Peter Wake - 2021 - In Mark Alznauer (ed.), Hegel on tragedy and comedy: new essays. State University of New York Press.
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