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Siblings:History/traditions: Atheism

439 found
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1 — 50 / 439
  1. The Problem of Evil.Leslie Allan - manuscript
    The existence of evil, pain and suffering is considered by many philosophers to be the most vexed question concerning the existence of an omnipotent, omniscient and morally perfect deity. Why would a loving God permit wanton acts of cruelty and misery on the scale witnessed throughout human history? In this essay, Leslie Allan evaluates four common theistic responses to this problem, highlighting the benefits and challenges faced by each approach. He concludes with a critical examination of a theistic defence designed (...)
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  2. The Soul-Making Theodicy: A Response to Dore.Leslie Allan - manuscript
    The soul-making theodicy seeks to explain how belief in the existence of God is compatible with the evil, pain and suffering we experience in our world. It purports to meet the problem of evil posed by non-theists by articulating a divine plan in which the occurrence of evil is necessary for enabling the greater good of character building of free moral agents. Many philosophers of religion have levelled strong objections against this theodicy. In this essay, Leslie Allan considers the effectiveness (...)
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  3. Nonexistence of gods: an inductive proof.Christian Buth - manuscript
    I prove the nonexistence of gods. The proof is based on three axioms: Ockham’s razor (OR), religiosity is endogenous in humans, and, there are no miracles. The OR is formulated operationally, to remove improper postulates, such that it yields not only a plausible argument but truth. The validity of the second and the third axiom is established empirically by inductive reasoning relying on a thorough analysis of the psychiatric literature and skeptical publications. With these axioms I prove that gods are (...)
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  4. On Atonement.S. Chattopadhyay - manuscript
    This paper deals with the theme of Atonement. It is a rudimentary paper which has been prepared in a hurry in these trying times; especially for the use of students all over the world during the ongoing pandemic of COVID 19. It deals with the title of Atonement. The article should be cited properly if referred to by anyone. It is made open access since the author believes any knowledge worth sharing should be freely available to all.
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  5. Descartes' Refutation of Atheism: A Defense.Steven M. Duncan - manuscript
    Descartes argues that, apart from the existence of a veracious God, we can have no reason to believe that we possess reliable cognitive faculties, with the result that, if atheism is true, not even our seemingly most certain beliefs can count as knowledge for us. Since the atheist denies the existence of God, he or she will be precisely in this position. I argue that Descartes' argument is sound, and that atheism is therefore self-refuting.
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  6. The End of the Teapot Argument for Atheism (and All Its Tawdry Imitators).Mark Sharlow - manuscript
    Atheists sometimes use Bertrand Russell's teapot argument, and its variants with other objects in place of the teapot, to argue for the rationality of atheism. In this paper I show that this use of the teapot argument and its variants is unacceptably circular. The circularity arises because there is indirect evidence against the objects invoked in the arguments.
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  7. VARIETIES OF ATHEISM What is analytical atheism?Aaron Sloman - manuscript
    William James wrote about varieties of religious experience (See http://etext.virginia.edu/toc/modeng/public/JamVari.html) but I don't know of anyone who has documented the varieties of atheism. Unlike James I don't here attempt to collect data about what atheists say and do, and how they came by their atheism. This is, instead, an analytical paper describing how various sorts of atheistic position can arise in opposition to various sorts of theistic position. Clarity about this could help to make debates about atheism and theism more (...)
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  8. Playing fast and loose with complexity: A critique of Dawkins' atheistic argument from improbability.Mark Sharlow - 2009
    This paper is a critique of Richard Dawkins’ “argument from improbability” against the existence of God. This argument, which forms the core of Dawkins’ book The God Delusion, provides an interesting example of the use of scientific ideas in arguments about religion. Here I raise three objections: (1) The argument is inapplicable to philosophical conceptions of God that reduce most of God’s complexity to that of the physical universe. (2) The argument depends on a way of estimating probabilities that fails (...)
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  9. What we can and cannot say: an apophatic response to atheism.Joshua Matthan Brown - forthcoming - In Joshua Matthan Brown & James Siemens (eds.), Eastern Christian Approaches to Philosophy. Palgrave Macmillan.
    Joshua Matthan Brown contrasts the concept of God assumed by most analytic philosophers, what he refers to as theistic personalism, with that of the apophatic conception of God endorsed by Eastern Christian thinkers. He maintains that the most powerful and economical response to contemporary arguments for atheism is to reject theistic personalism and adopt apophatic theism. Apophatic theists believe there is a lot we cannot say about God, taking the divine nature to be completely ineffable. Brown develops a coherent account (...)
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  10. Atheismus. Begriffsbestimmung, Verbreitung, Geschichte, Argumente.Godehard Brüntrup - forthcoming - In Heinrich Oberreuter (ed.), Staatslexikon der Görres-Gesellschaft. Herder.
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  11. Great Minds Do Not Think Alike: Philosophers’ Views Predicted By Reflection, Education, Personality, And Other Demographic Differences.Nick Byrd - forthcoming - Review of Philosophy and Psychology:1-38.
    Prior research found correlations between reflection test performance and philosophical tendencies among laypeople. In two large studies (total N = 1299)—one pre-registered—many of these correlations were replicated in a sample that included both laypeople and philosophers. For example, reflection test performance predicted preferring atheism over theism and instrumental harm over harm avoidance on the trolley problem. However, most reflection-philosophy correlations were undetected when controlling for other factors such as numeracy, preferences for open-minded thinking, personality, philosophical training, age, and gender. Nonetheless, (...)
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  12. Believing in Dawkins: The New Spiritual Atheism. By Eric Steinhart. [REVIEW]Helen De Cruz - forthcoming - Journal of the American Academy of Religion.
    (in lieu of abstract, first paragraphs here) For philosophers, reading Richard Dawkins is often a frustrating experience. Many of Dawkins’ writings treat important philosophical topics, such as the existence of God, the meaning of life, the relationship of randomness to order. Dawkins has original ideas, but he lacks the philosophical training and vocabulary to articulate these ideas properly and to develop them coherently. In Believing in Dawkins, Eric Steinhart sets himself an ambitious task: to use the writings of Dawkins to (...)
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  13. Should Atheists Wish That There Were No Gratuitous Evil?Guy Kahane - forthcoming - Faith and Philosophy.
    Many atheists argue that because gratuitous evil exists, God (probably) doesn’t. But doesn’t this commit atheists to wishing that God did exist, and to the protheist view that the world would have been better had God existed? This doesn’t follow. I argue that if all that evil still remains but is just no longer gratuitous, then, from an atheist perspective, that wouldn’t have been better. And while a counterfactual from which that evil is literally absent would have been impersonally better, (...)
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  14. My Life Gives the Moral Landscape its Relief.Marc Champagne - 2023 - In Sam Harris: Critical Responses. Carus Books. pp. 17–38.
    Sam Harris (2010) argues that, given our neurology, we can experience well-being, and that seeking to maximize this state lets us distinguish the good from the bad. He takes our ability to compare degrees of well-being as his starting point, but I think that the analysis can be pushed further, since there is a (non-religious) reason why well-being is desirable, namely the finite life of an individual organism. It is because death is a constant possibility that things can be assessed (...)
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  15. God, the Good, and the Spiritual Turn in Epistemology.Roberto Di Ceglie - 2023 - New York, NY, USA: Cambridge University Press.
    In this book, Roberto Di Ceglie offers an historical, theological, and epistemological investigation exploring how commitments to God and/or the good generate the optimum condition to achieve knowledge. Di Ceglie criticizes the common belief that to attain knowledge, one must always be ready to replace one's convictions with beliefs that appear to be proven. He defends a more comprehensive view, historically exemplified by outstanding Christian thinkers, whereby believers are expected to commit themselves to God and to related beliefs no matter (...)
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  16. The Pure Sky and the Eternal Return: Zarathustra’s Affirmative Atheism.Gideon Baker - 2022 - Nietzsche Studien 51 (1):195-217.
    Zarathustra initially describes churches as the stale caves of world-denying priests. However, following his encounter with the eternal return of the same, Zarathustra overcomes this resentful atheism. The pure sky that Zarathustra desires above all else, a sky emptied of the gods, is not visible again through the holes in ruined church roofs, but really thanks to these holes. The pure sky is an image of the world liberated from the teleological time of theistic providence, indeed even from the divine (...)
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  17. Living without God: A Multicultural Spectrum of Atheism, Springer Nature, Singapore.Sanjit Chakraborty & Anway Mukhopadhyay - 2022 - Singapore: Springer Nature.
    This book deals with the intricate issue of approaching atheism—methodologically as well as conceptually—from the perspective of cultural pluralism. What does ‘atheism’ mean in different cultural contexts? Can this term be applied appropriately to different religious discourses which conceptualize God/gods/Goddess/goddesses (and also godlessness) in hugely divergent ways? Is my ‘God’ the same as yours? If not, then how can your atheism be the same as mine? In other words, this volume raises the question: Is it not high time that we (...)
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  18. Methodological Atheism Considered.Steven DeLay - 2022 - Journal for Continental Philosophy of Religion 4 (2):133-165.
    Thirty years after the publication of Dominique Janicaud’s criticism of what he termed the “theological turn” of phenomenology in France, what is the state of the debate? This paper addresses that question, by examining the phenomenology of revelation in Marion, Lacoste, and others, in turn replying to various arguments that have been advanced against the theological turn and on behalf of methodological atheism. Not only is revelation a viable topic of phenomenological analysis, the attempts to formulate a methodologically atheist phenomenology (...)
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  19. John R. Shook. "Systematic Atheology: Atheism’s Reasoning with Theology.".Christopher Dorn - 2022 - Philosophy in Review 42 (2):41-43.
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  20. Optimism without theism? Nagasawa on atheism, evolution, and evil.Guy Kahane - 2022 - Religious Studies 58 (4):701-714.
    Nagasawa has argued that the suffering associated with evolution presents a greater challenge to atheism than to theism because that evil is incompatible with ‘existential optimism’ about the world – with seeing the world as an overall good place, and being thankful that we exist. I argue that even if atheism was incompatible with existential optimism in this way, this presents no threat to atheism. Moreover, it is unclear how the suffering associated with evolution could on its own undermine existential (...)
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  21. Young Marx on Fetishism, Sexuality, and Religion Revisiting the Bonn Notebooks.Kaan Kangal - 2022 - Monthly Review 5 (74):46-57.
    There is hardly any theme in Karl Marx’s theoretical corpus that has garnered as much traction as his theory of fetishism. Ever since Marx introduced the term into his critique of political economy in Capital, fetishism became a field of theoretical force, creating its own gravitational center toward which the interest of later generations of historians, social theorists, and political activists has been pulled. While much ink has been spilled on the specific content and theoretical scope of fetishism in Capital (...)
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  22. Psychedelics, Atheism, and Naturalism Myth and Reality.Chris Letheby - 2022 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 29 (7-8):69-92.
    An emerging body of research suggests that psychedelic experiences can change users’ religious or metaphysical beliefs. Here I explore issues concerning psychedelic-induced belief change via a critique of some recent arguments by Wayne Glausser. Two scientific studies seem to show that psychedelic experiences can convert atheists to belief in God, but Glausser holds that academic and popular discussions of these studies are misleading. I offer a different analysis of the relevant findings, attempting to preserve the insights of Glausser’s critique while (...)
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  23. Religiosidad platónica: relaciones de proximidad y lejanía entre hombre y divinidad (Platonic Religiosity: Distance and Proximity Between Man and Divinity).Pietro Montanari - 2022 - Guadalajara: Universidad de Guadalajara, UDG, ISBN: 978-607-571-671-8.
    Platonic religiosity is the first of two volumes devoted to the analysis of religiosity or religious feeling (pathos) in Plato. -/- (Back cover) Platonic Religiosity is a hermeneutical attempt to read Platonic works from the perspective of their religiosity. The aspects examined in the book are limited for the moment to the most basic, perhaps even the simplest, dimensions of religious feeling, those involving the representation of a relationship between man and divinity, Earth and Heaven, "low" and "high". Low and (...)
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  24. What the Problem of Evil Properly Entails.I. Neminemus - 2022 - Social Sciences Research Network.
    It is sometimes thought that the Problem of Evil entails the inexistence of God. However, this is not the case: it only entails the inexistence of an omnipotent-benevolent god, of which the God of Classical Theism is an example. As for ‘limited’ deities such as that of process theology, or malevolent deities such as that of dystheism, the problem of evil is not a problem at all.
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  25. Defending the Free Will Defense: A Reply to Sterba.Luis Oliveira - 2022 - Religions 13 (11):1126-1138.
    James Sterba has recently argued that the free will defense fails to explain the compossibility of a perfect God and the amount and degree of moral evil that we see. I think he is mistaken about this. I thus find myself in the awkward and unexpected position, as a non-theist myself, of defending the free will defense. In this paper, I will try to show that once we take care to focus on what the free will defense is trying to (...)
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  26. Anti-Naturalistic Arguments From Reason.Graham Oppy - 2022 - Roczniki Filozoficzne 70 (1):15-35.
    This paper discusses a wide range of anti-naturalistic argument from reason due to Balfour, Haldane, Joad, Lewis, Taylor, Moreland, Plantinga, Reppert, and Hasker. I argue that none of these arguments poses a serious challenge to naturalists who are identity theorists. Further, I argue that some of these arguments do not even pose prima facie plausible challenges to naturalism. In the concluding part of my discussion, I draw attention to some distinctive differences between Hasker’s anti-naturalistic arguments and the other anti-naturalistic arguments (...)
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  27. On an Epistemic Cornerstone of Skeptical Theism: in Defense of CORNEA.Timothy Perrine - 2022 - Sophia 61 (3):533-555.
    Skeptical theism is a family of responses to arguments from evil. One important member of that family is Stephen Wykstra’s CORNEA-based criticism of William Rowe’s arguments from evil. A cornerstone of Wykstra’s approach is his CORNEA principle. However, a number of authors have criticized CORNEA on various grounds, including that it has odd results, it cannot do the work it was meant to, and it problematically conflicts with the so-called common sense epistemology. In this paper, I explicate and defend a (...)
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  28. Review of "Positive atheism" by Charles Devellennes. [REVIEW]Lloyd Strickland - 2022 - Eighteenth-Century Studies 55:413-415.
  29. Godsends: From Default Atheism to the Surprise of Revelation by William Desmond.Jeffrey Dirk Wilson - 2022 - Review of Metaphysics 75 (4):812-814.
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  30. ATHEISM AS AN EXTREME REJECTION OF RATIONAL EVIDENCE FOR THE EXISTENCE OF GOD.Carlo Alvaro - 2021 - Heythrop Journal 62 (2):1-16.
    Explicit atheism is a philosophical position according to which belief in God is irrational, and thus it should be rejected. In this paper, I revisit, extend, and defend against the most telling counter arguments the Kalām Cosmological Argument in order to show that explicit atheism must be deemed as a positively irrational position.
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  31. The Cambridge History of Atheism.Stephen Bullivant (ed.) - 2021 - Cambridge University Press.
    The two-volume Cambridge History of Atheism offers an authoritative and up to date account of a subject of contemporary interest. Comprised of sixty essays by an international team of scholars, this History is comprehensive in scope. The essays are written from a variety of disciplinary perspectives, including religious studies, philosophy, sociology, and classics. Offering a global overview of the subject, from antiquity to the present, the volumes examine the phenomenon of unbelief in the context of Christian, Islamic, Buddhist, Hindu, and (...)
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  32. On the Death of God in Lacan – A Nuanced Atheism.Tom Dalzell - 2021 - Heythrop Journal 63 (1):27-34.
    This article examines the death of God theme in the work of Jacques Lacan and indicates some convergences with Christian theology. It distinguishes the ‘atheism’ of Lacan from the atheism of Freud. And it demonstrates that if Lacan does not believe in the God equated with Being, the God of the philosophers, the later Lacan’s argument for what he calls the ‘eksistence’ of God beyond language, the God of the mystics, makes for a highly nuanced atheism.
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  33. Godsends: from default atheism to the surprise of revelation.William Desmond - 2021 - Notre Dame, Indiana: University of Notre Dame Press.
    Godsends is William Desmond's newest addition to his masterwork on the borderlines between philosophy and theology. For many years, William Desmond has been patiently constructing a philosophical project-replete with its own terminology, idiom, grammar, dialectic, and its metaxological transformation-in an attempt to reopen certain boundaries: between metaphysics and phenomenology, between philosophy of religion and philosophical theology, between the apocalyptic and the speculative, and between religious passion and systematic reasoning. In Godsends, Desmond's newest addition to his ambitious masterwork, he presents an (...)
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  34. No-Fault Unbelief.Roberto Di Ceglie - 2021 - Sophia 60 (1):91-101.
    ‘No-fault unbelief’ can be named the view that there are those who do not believe in God through no moral or intellectual fault of their own. This view opposes a more traditional one, which can be named ‘flawed unbelief’ view, according to which religious unbelief signals a cognitive or moral flaw in the non-believer. Since this charge of mental or moral flaw causes a certain uneasiness, I oppose the former view, i.e. ‘no-fault unbelief’, with a strategy that has nothing to (...)
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  35. Progress on the Problem of Evil.Seyyed Mohsen Eslami & Dan Egonsson - 2021 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 29 (2):221-235.
    A standard reaction to the problem of evil is to look for a greater good that can explain why God (with the traditional attributes) might have created this world instead of a seemingly better one which has no (or less) evil. This paper proposes an approach we call the Moral Progress Approach: Given the value of progress, a non-perfect world containing evil may be preferable to a perfect world without evil. This makes room for the possibility that this world, with (...)
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  36. We are not in the Dark: Refuting Popular Arguments Against Skeptical Theism.Perry Hendricks - 2021 - American Philosophical Quarterly 58 (2):125-134.
    Critics of skeptical theism often claim that if it (skeptical theism) is true, then we are in the dark about whether (or for all we know) there is a morally justifying for God to radically deceive us. From here, it is argued that radical skepticism follows: if we are truly in the dark about whether there is a morally justifying reason for God to radically deceive us, then we cannot know anything. In this article, I show that skeptical theism does (...)
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  37. The experience of atheism: phenomenology, metaphysics and religion.Robyn Horner & Claude Romano (eds.) - 2021 - New York: Bloomsbury Academic.
    Religious and atheistic belief are presented anew in a volume of essays from leading phenomenologists in both France and the UK. Atheism, often presented as the negation of religious belief, is here engaged with from a phenomenologically informed notion of experience. The focus on experience, sparks new debates in readings of belief, faith and atheism as they relate to and complicate each other. What unites the contributors is their relationship to phenomenology as it has developed in France in the wake (...)
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  38. Atheism during the Time of the Ahlul-Bayt (peace be upon them), and their approach of responding to it.Zawwar Hussein - 2021 - Al-Daleel 4 (13):156-182.
    Atheism is the deviation from integrity and the denial of the existence of God Almighty, monotheism and Islam. Even though that man has been created with the pure nature of Islam, he might incline to atheism because of some reasons and motives. However, the phenomenon of atheism was available at the time of the Ahlul-Bayt, but its general characteristics, at that time, were sensualism and naturalism, and that knowledge was limited to senses, imagination, and rationality tainted by illusion and imagination, (...)
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  39. The Path to Atheism via God. [REVIEW]Rory Jeffs - 2021 - The European Legacy 27 (3-4):366-373.
    In Europe in the annus horriibilis of 1933, Edmund Husserl wrote in an unpublished manuscript: “If such a science indeed leads to God, its road would be to an atheistic God.” Initia...
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  40. Atheism is Nothing but an Expression of Buddha-Nature.Gereon Kopf - 2021 - Sophia 60 (3):607-622.
    The theism-atheism debate is foreign to many Mahāyāna Buddhist thinkers such as the Japanese Zen Master Dōgen. Nevertheless, his philosophy of ‘expression’ is able to shine a new light on the various incarnations of this debate throughout history. This paper will explore a/theism from Dōgen’s philosophical standpoint.Dōgen introduces the notion of ‘expression’ to describe the concomitant vertical and horizontal relationships of the religious project, namely the relationship between the individual and the divine as well as the relationship among a multiplicity (...)
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  41. On Affirming the Unintelligible God: Examining Denys Turner’s Account of Atheism.Kaz Kukiela - 2021 - Studia Gilsoniana 10 (3):749–761.
    This paper investigates Denys Turner’s article, “On Denying the Right God: Aquinas on Atheism and Idolatry.” According to the author, Denys Turner’s account contributes to theist and atheist debates by treating the issue of whether God can be intelligibly comprehended with great emphasis.
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  42. The one, the true, the good… or not: Badiou, Agamben, and atheistic transcendentality.King-Ho Leung - 2021 - Continental Philosophy Review 54 (1):75-97.
    This article offers a reading of the “transcendental” character of Alain Badiou’s and Giorgio Agamben’s ontologies. While neither Badiou nor Agamben are “transcendental” philosophers in the Kantian sense, this article argues that their respective projects of ontology both recover aspects of the “classical” conception of the transcendentals. Not unlike how pre-modern philosophers conceived of oneness, truth and goodness as transcendental properties of all things, both Badiou’s and Agamben’s ontologies present various structures which can be universally predicated of all being. However, (...)
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  43. Aspirational theism and gratuitous suffering.Jimmy Alfonso Licon - 2021 - Religious Studies 57 (2):287-300.
    Philosophers have long wondered whether God exists; and yet, they have ignored the question of whether we should hope that He exists – call this stance aspirational theism. In this article, I argue that we have a weighty pro tanto reason to adopt this stance: theism offers a metaphysical guarantee against gratuitous suffering. On the other hand, few atheist alternatives offer such a guarantee – and even then, there are reasons to worry that they are inferior to the theistic alternative. (...)
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  44. The Puritan atheism of C.L.R. James.Vincent Lloyd - 2021 - In An Yountae & Eleanor Craig (eds.), Beyond man: race, coloniality, and philosophy of religion. Duke University Press.
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  45. From a Certain Point of View… Jain Theism and Atheism.Jeffery D. Long - 2021 - Sophia 60 (3):623-638.
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  46. ‘Do You Believe in God, Doctor?’ The Atheism of Fiction and the Fiction of Atheism.Rukmini Bhaya Nair - 2021 - Sophia 60 (3):749-768.
    This paper is an enquiry into some commonalities between fiction and atheism. It suggests that ‘disbelief’ may be a state of mind shared by both and asks how a meaningful semantics might be derived from the mental stance of disbelief. Albert Camus’ The Plague, published in 1947 post the trauma of two successive world wars, is a key ‘existentialist’ text that focuses on this dilemma. Not only is this work of fiction especially relevant to our current times of natural, political, (...)
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  47. The Failed Atheism of Jean‐Paul Sartre.Marcos Antonio Norris - 2021 - Heythrop Journal 63 (1):96-110.
    The Heythrop Journal, Volume 63, Issue 1, Page 96-110, January 2022.
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  48. Defining ‘Religion’ and ‘Atheism’.Graham Oppy - 2021 - Sophia 60 (3):517-529.
    There are various background issues that need to be discussed whenever the topic of conversation turns to religion and atheism. In particular, there are questions about how these terms are to be used in the course of the conversation. While it is sometimes the case that all parties to a conversation about religion and atheism have agreed what they mean by ‘religion’ and ‘atheism’, it is often enough the case that such conversations go poorly because the parties mean different things (...)
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  49. Is There a God?: A Debate.Kenneth L. Pearce & Graham Oppy - 2021 - Little Debates About Big Questions.
    Each author first presents his own side, and then they interact through two rounds of objections and replies. Pedagogical features include standard form arguments, section summaries, bolded key terms and principles, a glossary, and annotated reading lists.
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  50. Does atheism entail a contradiction?Joshua Rasmussen - 2021 - Manuscrito 44 (4):31-48.
    I consider whether a contradiction may be deducible from the proposition that God does not exist. First, I expose a candidate counterexample to a key premise in Swinburne’s argument against the deducibility of a contradiction from God’s non-existence. Second, I present two new strategies one might use to deduce a contradiction. Both strategies make use of Tarski's T-schema together with developments in other theistic arguments. One argument is a conceptualist argument from necessary truth for a necessary mind, and the other (...)
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