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History/traditions: Atheism

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515 found
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1 — 50 / 515
  1. The Problem of Evil.Leslie Allan - manuscript
    The existence of evil, pain and suffering is considered by many philosophers to be the most vexed question concerning the existence of an omnipotent, omniscient and morally perfect deity. Why would a loving God permit wanton acts of cruelty and misery on the scale witnessed throughout human history? In this essay, Leslie Allan evaluates four common theistic responses to this problem, highlighting the benefits and challenges faced by each approach. He concludes with a critical examination of a theistic defence designed (...)
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  2. The Soul-Making Theodicy: A Response to Dore.Leslie Allan - manuscript
    The soul-making theodicy seeks to explain how belief in the existence of God is compatible with the evil, pain and suffering we experience in our world. It purports to meet the problem of evil posed by non-theists by articulating a divine plan in which the occurrence of evil is necessary for enabling the greater good of character building of free moral agents. Many philosophers of religion have levelled strong objections against this theodicy. In this essay, Leslie Allan considers the effectiveness (...)
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  3. On Atonement.S. Chattopadhyay - manuscript
    This paper deals with the theme of Atonement. It is a rudimentary paper which has been prepared in a hurry in these trying times; especially for the use of students all over the world during the ongoing pandemic of COVID 19. It deals with the title of Atonement. The article should be cited properly if referred to by anyone. It is made open access since the author believes any knowledge worth sharing should be freely available to all.
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  4. Descartes' Refutation of Atheism: A Defense.Steven M. Duncan - manuscript
    Descartes argues that, apart from the existence of a veracious God, we can have no reason to believe that we possess reliable cognitive faculties, with the result that, if atheism is true, not even our seemingly most certain beliefs can count as knowledge for us. Since the atheist denies the existence of God, he or she will be precisely in this position. I argue that Descartes' argument is sound, and that atheism is therefore self-refuting.
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  5. The End of the Teapot Argument for Atheism (and All Its Tawdry Imitators).Mark Sharlow - manuscript
    Atheists sometimes use Bertrand Russell's teapot argument, and its variants with other objects in place of the teapot, to argue for the rationality of atheism. In this paper I show that this use of the teapot argument and its variants is unacceptably circular. The circularity arises because there is indirect evidence against the objects invoked in the arguments.
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  6. VARIETIES OF ATHEISM What is analytical atheism?Aaron Sloman - manuscript
    William James wrote about varieties of religious experience (See http://etext.virginia.edu/toc/modeng/public/JamVari.html) but I don't know of anyone who has documented the varieties of atheism. Unlike James I don't here attempt to collect data about what atheists say and do, and how they came by their atheism. This is, instead, an analytical paper describing how various sorts of atheistic position can arise in opposition to various sorts of theistic position. Clarity about this could help to make debates about atheism and theism more (...)
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  7. Playing fast and loose with complexity: A critique of Dawkins' atheistic argument from improbability.Mark Sharlow - 2009
    This paper is a critique of Richard Dawkins’ “argument from improbability” against the existence of God. This argument, which forms the core of Dawkins’ book The God Delusion, provides an interesting example of the use of scientific ideas in arguments about religion. Here I raise three objections: (1) The argument is inapplicable to philosophical conceptions of God that reduce most of God’s complexity to that of the physical universe. (2) The argument depends on a way of estimating probabilities that fails (...)
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  8. Paradox of practical atheism in Raimund Lullus spiritual quests.Oleg Yur'evich Akimov - forthcoming - Philosophy and Culture (Russian Journal).
    The intuitions of Raimundus Lullus religious metaphysics are in this article explicated according to the opportunities of the convergence between the medieval and the new time philosophy. Such approach to the creativity of the thinker is possible, because his conception is one sides associated with the mystical symbolic theologism, that is typical for the medieval tradition, over sides develops Lullus the new understanding of the infinity of the world, inherent in the newtime philosophy. This opposition conditions some of the features (...)
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  9. Atheismus. Begriffsbestimmung, Verbreitung, Geschichte, Argumente.Godehard Brüntrup - forthcoming - In Heinrich Oberreuter (ed.), Staatslexikon der Görres-Gesellschaft. Herder.
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  10. Believing in Dawkins: The New Spiritual Atheism. By Eric Steinhart. [REVIEW]Helen De Cruz - forthcoming - Journal of the American Academy of Religion.
    (in lieu of abstract, first paragraphs here) For philosophers, reading Richard Dawkins is often a frustrating experience. Many of Dawkins’ writings treat important philosophical topics, such as the existence of God, the meaning of life, the relationship of randomness to order. Dawkins has original ideas, but he lacks the philosophical training and vocabulary to articulate these ideas properly and to develop them coherently. In Believing in Dawkins, Eric Steinhart sets himself an ambitious task: to use the writings of Dawkins to (...)
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  11. Deontological Sceptical Theism Proved.Perry Hendricks - forthcoming - Religious Studies.
    In this article, I argue that sceptical theists have too narrow a focus: they consider only God’s axiological reasons, ignoring any non-axiological reasons he may have. But this is a mistake: predicting how God will act requires knowing about his reasons in general, and this requires knowing about both God’s axiological and non-axiological reasons. In light of this, I construct and defend a kind of sceptical theism—Deontological Sceptical Theism—that encompasses all of God’s reasons, and briefly illustrate how it renders irrelevant (...)
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  12. The Non-Believing Jew: A Historical Survey of Judaism’s Engagement with Atheism.Daniel R. Langton - forthcoming - International Journal for the Study of Skepticism:1-19.
    How important is atheism for Jewish history and Jews for the history of atheism? Modern Jewish histories have tended to focus on Jewish secularization rather than atheism, and historical surveys of atheism in the West have tended to neglect the Jewish experience which is subsumed in the Judeo-Christian tradition. It is possible to make the case that the secularization narrative privileges social change over Jewish intellectual engagement with non-belief, and that just as Jewish and Christian conceptions of theism differ, so (...)
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  13. A Naturalistic Theodicy for Sterba’s Problem of Natural Evil.Dwayne Moore - forthcoming - Sophia:1-20.
    In a series of writings, James Sterba introduces several novel arguments from evil against the existence of God (Sterba, 2019; Sterba Sophia 59, 501–512, 2020; Sterba International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 87, 203–208, 2020b; Sterba International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 87, 223–228, 2020c; Sterba Religions 12, 536, 2021). According to one of these arguments, the problem of natural evil, God must necessarily prevent the horrendous evil consequences of natural evil such as diseases and hurricanes; however, these horrendous evil (...)
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  14. The “Spirit” of New Atheism and Religious Activism in the Post-9/11 God Debate.Adrian Rosenfeldt - forthcoming - Human Studies:1-20.
    In this article I examine the contemporary discourses and debates that surround the sociology of spirituality, with especial attention to the term “spirituality”. To counter the widespread belief that this term lacks clarity and utility, I suggest reconsidering Max Weber’s use of the term “spirit,” as it refers to a recognisable ethic that results in specific behaviour, while still retaining its religious and spiritual connotations. Through focusing on two influential English figures in the post 9/11 God debate in the West, (...)
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  15. Ambiguity and "Atheism" in Hume's Dialogues.Paul Russell - forthcoming - In Hume’s ‘Dialogues concerning Natural Religion’: A Critical Guide. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
    This essay considers the question of “atheism” as it arises in Hume’s _Dialogues_. It argues that the concept of “atheism” involves several signficiant ambiguities that are indicative of philosophical and interpretive disagreements of a more substantial nature. It defends the view that Philo’s general sceptical orientation accurately represents Hume’s own “irreligious” and “atheistic” commitments, both in the _Dialogues_ and in his other (“earlier”) writings. While Hume was plainly a “speculative atheist”, his “practical atheism” was targeted more narrowly against “superstition” - (...)
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  16. Introduction to "Hume’s ‘Dialogues concerning Natural Religion’: A Critical Guide".Paul Russell - forthcoming - In Hume’s ‘Dialogues concerning Natural Religion’: A Critical Guide. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
    This introduction provides a brief overview of the issues and arguments arising in Hume's "Dialogues concerning Natural Religion". It also discusses some of the historical and contextual background relating to this work, as well as the relvance of Hume's earlier philosophical works for our understanding of the "Dialogues". The final section of this Introduction includes a brief set of summaries of the contributions contained in this collection.
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  17. The problem of atheism in Nietzsche and Feuerbach: from the death of God to humanism.Wesley Barbosa - 2024 - Griot 24 (1):84-95.
    the present article intends to outline feuerbach's humanism in his the essence of christianity in dialogue with the nietzschean notion of the death of god. for it is with the death of god and the fall of all idols that it is possible to glimpse god, not as the absolute transcendent, but as a human creation, all too human. a projection of the self into a safe and magnanimous outside, anchorage of all human desires, from magical and miraculous powers to (...)
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  18. Atheists and atheism before the enlightenment: the English & Scottish experience Atheists and atheism before the enlightenment: the English & Scottish experience, by Michael Hunter, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2023, 280pp., £30.00 (hardback), ISBN 978-1009268776. [REVIEW]Jeffrey Collins - 2024 - History of European Ideas 50 (3):563-565.
    Michael’s Hunter’s latest book serves as something of a capstone. In addition to his well-known work on the Royal Society, Robert Boyle, magic and the occult, Professor Hunter has been an important...
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  19. ATHEISM AT THE AGORA - (J.C.) Ford Atheism at the Agora. A History of Unbelief in Ancient Greek Polytheism. Pp. viii + 210. London and New York: Routledge, 2024. Cased, £130, US$170. ISBN: 978-1-032-49299-5. [REVIEW]John Henry - 2024 - The Classical Review 74 (1):262-264.
  20. The Varieties of Atheism: Connecting Religion and its Critics. Edited by DavidNewheiser. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 2022. Pp. vi, 216. $99.00 ( HB )/$32.50 ( PB ). [REVIEW]Victor Houliston - 2024 - Heythrop Journal 65 (2):210-211.
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  21. Hume beyond Theism and Atheism.Ariel Peckel - 2024 - Hume Studies 49 (1):9-33.
    This paper defends a rigorous reading of Hume’s critiques of arguments for the existence of God and of the belief in God against interpretations that endorse Humean theism, deism, and fideism. The latter include Donald Livingston’s theist reading, J. C. A. Gaskin’s “attenuated deism” reading, and Edward Kanterian’s “humble fideism” reading. I also examine whether Hume’s rejections of a positive theology commit him to agnosticism or atheism. My innovative challenge to such conclusions maintains that, while elements of both agnosticism and (...)
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  22. The question of secularization : Spinoza, deism and atheism.Jacques J. Rozenberg - 2024 - Sociology International Journal 8 (1):16-21.
    The aim of this article is to bring to light some of the factors that allowed the emergence of secularization, and to understand to what extent and in what ways these factors contributed to the formation of the main lines of Spinozism. I will first examine the issues of secularization, emphasizing the importance of the transformations in the status of the Hebrew language during the Renaissance. I will then analyze the role that the Tractatus theologico-politicus may have had in European (...)
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  23. Private evidence for atheism.Aaron Bartolome - 2023 - Religious Studies 59 (1):97–114.
    This article presents an argument for atheism that contains a premise stated from the first-person perspective and that is intended to rationally persuade people who satisfy certain conditions. The argument also contains a premise about what God would do, if God existed, that is acceptable to theists and is affirmed in some major monotheistic religious traditions. This article explains how the argument differs from some other familiar arguments for atheism and then discusses some critical responses to it.
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  24. Il libertinismo in alcune riviste italiane di filosofia (Rivista di filosofia, Giornale critico della filosofia italiana, Rivista critica di storia della filosofia e Rivista di storia della filosofia).Lorenzo Bianchi - 2023 - Noctua 10 (2–3):541-592.
    The article analyses libertine themes and authors of 17th century in articles, critical notes and reviews of three major Italian journals of the 20th century – Rivista di filosofia, Giornale critico della filosofia italiana and Rivista critica di storia della filosofia (since 1984 titled Rivista di storia della filosofia). The category of ‘libertinism’ refers to various disciplinary fields: philosophy, politics, literature, modern history or religious history. This ambiguity influences the analyses of libertinism in the Italian historic-philosophical debate. The last two (...)
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  25. Great Minds do not Think Alike: Philosophers’ Views Predicted by Reflection, Education, Personality, and Other Demographic Differences.Nick Byrd - 2023 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 14 (Cultural Variation in Cognition):647-684.
    Prior research found correlations between reflection test performance and philosophical tendencies among laypeople. In two large studies (total N = 1299)—one pre-registered—many of these correlations were replicated in a sample that included both laypeople and philosophers. For example, reflection test performance predicted preferring atheism over theism and instrumental harm over harm avoidance on the trolley problem. However, most reflection-philosophy correlations were undetected when controlling for other factors such as numeracy, preferences for open-minded thinking, personality, philosophical training, age, and gender. Nonetheless, (...)
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  26. My Life Gives the Moral Landscape its Relief.Marc Champagne - 2023 - In Sam Harris: Critical Responses. Carus Books. pp. 17–38.
    Sam Harris (2010) argues that, given our neurology, we can experience well-being, and that seeking to maximize this state lets us distinguish the good from the bad. He takes our ability to compare degrees of well-being as his starting point, but I think that the analysis can be pushed further, since there is a (non-religious) reason why well-being is desirable, namely the finite life of an individual organism. It is because death is a constant possibility that things can be assessed (...)
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  27. Defending the Hypothesis of Indifference.Tori Cotton - 2023 - Socio-Historical Examination of Religion and Ministry 5 (1):161-167.
    The problem of evil is the philosophical question regarding how to reconcile the existence of an omnipotent, omnibenevolent, and omniscient God with the pain and suffering in the world. The Hypothesis of Indifference is Paul Draper’s proposal considering that question. His claim is that the pain and pleasure we experience in our lifetimes has nothing to do with God or some other supernatural force acting as an agent of good or evil. In this paper, I argue that Draper’s Hypothesis of (...)
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  28. God, the Good, and the Spiritual Turn in Epistemology.Roberto Di Ceglie - 2023 - New York, NY, USA: Cambridge University Press.
    In this book, Roberto Di Ceglie offers an historical, theological, and epistemological investigation exploring how commitments to God and/or the good generate the optimum condition to achieve knowledge. Di Ceglie criticizes the common belief that to attain knowledge, one must always be ready to replace one's convictions with beliefs that appear to be proven. He defends a more comprehensive view, historically exemplified by outstanding Christian thinkers, whereby believers are expected to commit themselves to God and to related beliefs no matter (...)
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  29. The Experience of Atheism: Phenomenology, Metaphysics and Religion, by Claude Romano and Robyn Horner, eds.Schalk Gerber - 2023 - Journal for Continental Philosophy of Religion 5 (2):235-238.
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  30. Religious atheism: twelve philosophical apostles.Erik Meganck - 2023 - Albany: State University of New York Press.
    Calls into question the traditional polarity of theism and atheism.
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  31. Humean Arguments from Evil against Theism.Timothy Perrine - 2023 - Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Humean arguments from evil maintain that the good and evil we know about constitutes powerful evidence against Theism. Unlike other arguments from evil, Humean arguments are abductive arguments, maintaining that some rival to Theism better explains the good and evil we know about than Theism. This article surveys Humean arguments from evil. After explaining Philo’s original argument in Hume’s Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion, it exposits a modern, prototypical Humean argument inspired by the work of Paul Draper. This article explores the (...)
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  32. Skeptical Theism.Timothy Perrine - 2023 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  33. Life without God: An Outsider’s Look at Atheism, written by Rik Peels.Michael Ruse - 2023 - Philosophia Reformata 88 (2):147-152.
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  34. Heidegger’s Methodological Atheism: Biography and Philosophy.А.М Гагинский - 2023 - History of Philosophy 28 (1):67-81.
    The article is devoted to an investigation of the preconditions of Heidegger’s methodological atheism, according to which “philosophy is fundamentally atheistic”. Based on biographical evidence which sheds light on the mental experience of the young philosopher (“darkness of depressive sensitivity”, according to H. Ott) the author maintains that Heidegger was very prejudiced against the Catholic tradition. The author suggests that the origins of Heidegger’s methodology should be sought in the first and most important of the “turns” which took place around (...)
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  35. The social dimension of the new atheism.Е. И Коростиченко & Я. И Климов - 2023 - Philosophy Journal 16 (2):96-114.
    The article examines the socio-political aspect of the new atheism. Within the framework of this phenomenon, initially associated with the four bestselling authors R. Dawkins, S. Harris, K. Hitchens, D. Dennett, who launched the “fight against religion” in the mid-2000s, a community and a weakly organized movement eventually formed. A number of connected questions are considered: characteristics of the phenomenon of new atheism (origins, sources, specifics); perception of atheism and new atheism by society in the USA and Great Britain; political (...)
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  36. The Problem of Divine Hiddenness in The Context of Schellenberg and Different Approaches.A. Arif Adalar - 2022 - Religion and Philosophical Research 5 (1):37-52.
    The problem of divine hiddenness discussed among both theist and non- theist circles. From an atheistic perspective the existence of people who are sincerely looking for God but cannot reach Him is a supportive point for atheism. On the other side, same problem supports agnosticism since there are equal evidence from both side for the existence of God from an agnostic perspective. The theists who are belonging to different religion have tried to find some solutions to this problem. For instance; (...)
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  37. The Pure Sky and the Eternal Return: Zarathustra’s Affirmative Atheism.Gideon Baker - 2022 - Nietzsche Studien 51 (1):195-217.
    Zarathustra initially describes churches as the stale caves of world-denying priests. However, following his encounter with the eternal return of the same, Zarathustra overcomes this resentful atheism. The pure sky that Zarathustra desires above all else, a sky emptied of the gods, is not visible again through the holes in ruined church roofs, but really thanks to these holes. The pure sky is an image of the world liberated from the teleological time of theistic providence, indeed even from the divine (...)
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  38. What we can and cannot say: an apophatic response to atheism.Joshua Matthan Brown - 2022 - In James Siemens & Joshua Matthan Brown (eds.), Eastern Christian Approaches to Philosophy. Palgrave Macmillan.
    Joshua Matthan Brown contrasts the concept of God assumed by most analytic philosophers, what he refers to as theistic personalism, with that of the apophatic conception of God endorsed by Eastern Christian thinkers. He maintains that the most powerful and economical response to contemporary arguments for atheism is to reject theistic personalism and adopt apophatic theism. Apophatic theists believe there is a lot we cannot say about God, taking the divine nature to be completely ineffable. Brown develops a coherent account (...)
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  39. Living without God: A Multicultural Spectrum of Atheism, Springer Nature, Singapore.Sanjit Chakraborty & Anway Mukhopadhyay - 2022 - Singapore: Springer Nature.
    This book deals with the intricate issue of approaching atheism—methodologically as well as conceptually—from the perspective of cultural pluralism. What does ‘atheism’ mean in different cultural contexts? Can this term be applied appropriately to different religious discourses which conceptualize God/gods/Goddess/goddesses (and also godlessness) in hugely divergent ways? Is my ‘God’ the same as yours? If not, then how can your atheism be the same as mine? In other words, this volume raises the question: Is it not high time that we (...)
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  40. On the Death of God in Lacan – A Nuanced Atheism.Tom Dalzell - 2022 - Heythrop Journal 63 (1):27-34.
    This article examines the death of God theme in the work of Jacques Lacan and indicates some convergences with Christian theology. It distinguishes the ‘atheism’ of Lacan from the atheism of Freud. And it demonstrates that if Lacan does not believe in the God equated with Being, the God of the philosophers, the later Lacan’s argument for what he calls the ‘eksistence’ of God beyond language, the God of the mystics, makes for a highly nuanced atheism.
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  41. Methodological Atheism Considered.Steven DeLay - 2022 - Journal for Continental Philosophy of Religion 4 (2):133-165.
    Thirty years after the publication of Dominique Janicaud’s criticism of what he termed the “theological turn” of phenomenology in France, what is the state of the debate? This paper addresses that question, by examining the phenomenology of revelation in Marion, Lacoste, and others, in turn replying to various arguments that have been advanced against the theological turn and on behalf of methodological atheism. Not only is revelation a viable topic of phenomenological analysis, the attempts to formulate a methodologically atheist phenomenology (...)
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  42. John R. Shook. "Systematic Atheology: Atheism’s Reasoning with Theology.".Christopher Dorn - 2022 - Philosophy in Review 42 (2):41-43.
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  43. The Man who Invented God: Atheism in the Sisyphus Fragment.Giovanni Giorgini - 2022 - In Giovanni Giorgini & Elena Irrera (eds.), God, Religion and Society in Ancient Thought: From Early Greek Philosophy to Augustine. Academia – ein Verlag in der Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft. pp. 97-124.
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  44. Optimism without theism? Nagasawa on atheism, evolution, and evil.Guy Kahane - 2022 - Religious Studies 58 (4):701-714.
    Nagasawa has argued that the suffering associated with evolution presents a greater challenge to atheism than to theism because that evil is incompatible with ‘existential optimism’ about the world – with seeing the world as an overall good place, and being thankful that we exist. I argue that even if atheism was incompatible with existential optimism in this way, this presents no threat to atheism. Moreover, it is unclear how the suffering associated with evolution could on its own undermine existential (...)
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  45. Young Marx on Fetishism, Sexuality, and Religion Revisiting the Bonn Notebooks.Kaan Kangal - 2022 - Monthly Review 5 (74):46-57.
    There is hardly any theme in Karl Marx’s theoretical corpus that has garnered as much traction as his theory of fetishism. Ever since Marx introduced the term into his critique of political economy in Capital, fetishism became a field of theoretical force, creating its own gravitational center toward which the interest of later generations of historians, social theorists, and political activists has been pulled. While much ink has been spilled on the specific content and theoretical scope of fetishism in Capital (...)
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  46. Sufi Deleuze: secretions of Islamic atheism.Michael Muhammad Knight - 2022 - New York: Fordham University Press.
    "There is always an atheism to be extracted from a religion," Deleuze and Guattari write in their final collaboration, What Is Philosophy? Their claim that Christianity "secretes" atheism "more than any other religion," however, reflects the limits of their archive. Theological projects seeking to engage Deleuze remain embedded within Christian theologies and intellectual histories; whether they embrace, resist, or negotiate with Deleuze's atheism, the atheism in question remains one extracted from Christian theology, a Christian atheism. In Sufi Deleuze, Michael Muhammad (...)
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  47. Psychedelics, Atheism, and Naturalism Myth and Reality.Chris Letheby - 2022 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 29 (7-8):69-92.
    An emerging body of research suggests that psychedelic experiences can change users’ religious or metaphysical beliefs. Here I explore issues concerning psychedelic-induced belief change via a critique of some recent arguments by Wayne Glausser. Two scientific studies seem to show that psychedelic experiences can convert atheists to belief in God, but Glausser holds that academic and popular discussions of these studies are misleading. I offer a different analysis of the relevant findings, attempting to preserve the insights of Glausser’s critique while (...)
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  48. Religiosidad platónica: relaciones de proximidad y lejanía entre hombre y divinidad (Platonic Religiosity: Distance and Proximity Between Man and Divinity).Pietro Montanari - 2022 - Guadalajara: Universidad de Guadalajara, UDG, ISBN: 978-607-571-671-8.
    Platonic religiosity is the first of two volumes devoted to the analysis of religiosity or religious feeling (pathos) in Plato. -/- (Back cover) Platonic Religiosity is a hermeneutical attempt to read Platonic works from the perspective of their religiosity. The aspects examined in the book are limited for the moment to the most basic, perhaps even the simplest, dimensions of religious feeling, those involving the representation of a relationship between man and divinity, Earth and Heaven, "low" and "high". Low and (...)
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  49. What the Problem of Evil Properly Entails.I. Neminemus - 2022 - Social Sciences Research Network.
    It is sometimes thought that the Problem of Evil entails the inexistence of God. However, this is not the case: it only entails the inexistence of an omnipotent-benevolent god, of which the God of Classical Theism is an example. As for ‘limited’ deities such as that of process theology, or malevolent deities such as that of dystheism, the problem of evil is not a problem at all.
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  50. The Failed Atheism of Jean‐Paul Sartre.Marcos Antonio Norris - 2022 - Heythrop Journal 63 (1):96-110.
    The Heythrop Journal, Volume 63, Issue 1, Page 96-110, January 2022.
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