About this topic
Summary Hume's ethics emphasizes our common humanity and our capacity to develop moral sensibilities in response to varying circumstances. He argues that moral distinctions arise from our sympathizing with the effects of character traits on those who have them and the people they interact with. The resulting judgments can have intersubjective validity both because they are rooted in common human nature, and because we can correct our sentimental responses by taking up a "general point of view" in place of a more partial perspective. Hume's aesthetics and politics also reflect the idea that corrected and cultivated passions provide a basis for sound normative judgments. He argues that discerning critics can provide a standard of taste, and that such taste is a significant aspect of human life and character. Although various political parties have claimed him as a supporter, Hume contends that philosophers should be unpartisan. He argues against both Lockean and Hobbesian contract theories and limits the right to resist sovereigns to extreme cases.
Key works

Hume's Treatise of Human Nature contains his initial exposition of his theory of the passions and morals. He later published an edited account of the former in A Dissertation on the Passions. An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals is Hume's mature statement of his moral theory and the work that he believed to be his best. Although the above works include some material relevant to his aesthetics and political philosophy, the Essays, Moral, Political and Literary contain lengthier discussions of these aspects of Hume's thought. Also relevant, particularly to Hume's political views, is his History of England. The Clarendon Press has published critical editions of the Treatise (Norton & Norton 2007), the Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals (Beauchamp 1998), and the Dissertation on the Passions (together with The Natural History of Religion) (Hume 2007). Liberty Fund offers editions of both the Essays (Miller 1987) and History of England (Todd 1983).

Introductions Norton & Taylor 1993 and Radcliffe 2008 include many helpful articles that could serve as introductions to Hume's ethics, aesthetics, and social and political philosophy. Lists of the many book-length treatments of Hume's ethics and politics are available online at the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Zalta 2014, open-access) and The Routledge Encylopedia of Philosophy (Craig 1996, subscription required). Townsend 2001 is notable as a comprehensive study of Hume's aesthetics. Árdal 1966 is a classic treatment of Hume's theory of the passions.
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  1. The Oxford Handbook of David Hume.Paul Russell (ed.) - 2016 - Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    The Scottish philosopher David Hume (1711-1776) is widely regarded as the greatest and most significant English-speaking philosopher and often seen as having had the most influence on the way philosophy is practiced today in the West. His reputation is based not only on the quality of his philosophical thought but also on the breadth and scope of his writings, which ranged over metaphysics, epistemology, morals, politics, religion, and aesthetics. The Handbook's 38 newly commissioned chapters are divided into six parts: Central (...)
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  2. Being and Freedom: On Late Modern Ethics in Europe, by John Skorupski.David O. Brink - 2024 - Mind 133 (530):603-610.
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  3. Mandeville’s Moralists: Hume, Smith, and the Framing of Moral Virtue.Jack C. Byham - 2024 - Journal of Scottish Philosophy 22 (1):1-23.
    Bernard Mandeville’s theory of morality – ‘private vices, public benefits’ – provides a frame for comparing Adam Smith and David Hume on utility. Mandeville held that vice, not virtue, is useful for society. For him, the private and public good do not align. What is bad for individuals is often beneficial for society and vice versa. To counter Mandeville’s rhetoric and show the attractiveness of virtue, Hume places the principle of utility at the center of his An Enquiry concerning the (...)
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  4. The structure of Hume’s historical thought before the History of England.Pedro Faria - 2024 - Intellectual History Review 34 (2):365-387.
    David Hume’s historical thought was shaped before he even began writing the History of Great Britain in 1752. This article shows how Hume developed his historical thought in an attempt to combine two historical structures: the natural-jurisprudential conjectural history of the Treatise of Human Nature and the early eighteenth-century historical narratives of modern Europe that featured in his Essays. The Treatise’s conjectural history used the developmental categories “rude” and “civilised” to explain the origins of justice, government and the moral sentiment. (...)
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  5. Hume’s Theory of Moral Judgment in Light of His Explanatory Project.Avital Hazony Levi - 2024 - Hume Studies 49 (1):77-100.
    In this paper, I argue that Hume’s account of moral judgment is best understood if it is read in light of Hume’s explanatory project. I first lay out the textual support to show that Hume’s account of justice in the Treatise includes both approval of a motive that gives rise to the virtue of justice, and approval of a system of conduct, irrespective of a motive. I then argue that we can allow for such plurality in Hume’s theory of moral (...)
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  6. Hume on Self-Government and Strength of Mind.Albert Cotugno - 2024 - Hume Studies 49 (1):53-75.
    Throughout his writings, Hume extols the benefits of an attribute he calls “Strength of Mind,” which he defines as the “prevalence of the calm passions over the violent” (T 2.3.3.10). But there is some question as to how he thought a person could attain this important trait. Contemporary scholars have committed Hume to the view that only indirect and social methods, such as state punishment or sympathetic pressure, could effectively cultivate it. Yet a closer examination of Hume’s corpus reveals a (...)
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  7. Hume’s Hedonism.Roger Crisp - 2024 - Hume Studies 49 (1):35-51.
    This paper seeks critically to elucidate Hume’s views on pleasure and the good, in particular his evaluative hedonism, and to show that evaluative hedonism is in certain respects at least as significant a component of his philosophical ethics as sentimentalism. The first section explains his notion of pleasure, and how it is, in an important sense, prior to desire. The following two sections show how this conception of pleasure and its relation to desire leads Hume to accept evaluative hedonism, as (...)
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  8. Hume's A Treatise of Human Nature: A Critical Guide.Elizabeth S. Radcliffe (ed.) - forthcoming - Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  9. Alcali and acid, oil and vinegar : Hume on contrary passions.Elizabeth S. Radcliffe - 2017 - In Alix Cohen & Robert Stern (eds.), Thinking About the Emotions: A Philosophical History. Oxford University Press.
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  10. Hume on religion in the Enquiry concerning the principles of morals.Lorne Falkenstein - 2021 - In Esther Engels Kroeker & Willem Lemmens (eds.), Hume's an Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals : A Critical Guide. Cambridge University Press.
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  11. Hume and Kant on utility, freedom, and justice.Paul Guyer - 2022 - In Giovanni Pietro Basile & Ansgar Lyssy (eds.), System and freedom in Kant and Fichte. New York, NY: Routledge.
  12. Ethics: a quick immersion.Michael Slote - 2023 - New York: Tibidabo Publishing.
    This introduction treats the field of ethics in a new way. The main topic is normative ethics and in particular the ethics of moral right and wrong, and the emphasis is on the recently highlighted division or conflict between ethical rationalism and moral sentimentalism. Rationalism treats moral judgment and motivation as a matter of rational judgment, and its main practitioners have been Immanuel Kant and, more recently, the intuitionists H. A. Prichard and W. D. Ross. Philosophical weaknesses in intuitionism have (...)
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  13. David Hume, Moraliste et sociologue.Georges Lechartier - 1900 - Paris,: F. Alcan.
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  14. The Concept of Solidarity – A Humean Perspective.Antoon Vandevelde - 2024 - Critical Horizons 25 (1):50-62.
    In this article, I define solidarity as the willingness to share with people we do not know personally but whom we consider to be equal to ourselves on the basis of some common feature allowing for identification. In the spirit of David Hume, I explain how identification can be developed through a learning process that leads us to ever more encompassing forms of sympathy. Then I show how solidarity, thus defined, is implemented in the institutions of the welfare state. Finally, (...)
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  15. From Actuality to Goodness: Aristotle’s Rejection of Hume’s Law.Christopher Shields - 2024 - In David Keyt & Christopher Shields (eds.), Principles and Praxis in Ancient Greek Philosophy: Essays in Ancient Greek Philosophy in Honor of Fred D. Miller, Jr. Springer Verlag. pp. 175-194.
    Aristotle’s Metaphysics Λ.7 features an argumentative progression from the unwavering actuality of the unmoved mover through its necessity to its goodness, which goodness in turn grounds the manner in which it serves as the ultimate principle of motion, namely, by being an object of love and desire (1072b4-12). One link in this progression is especially brief and startling, namely the second of two inferences in this short sentence: “It is a being of necessity, therefore, and in so far as [it (...)
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  16. Rawls, Hume, and Original Contract.심재원 ) - 2020 - Modern Philosophy 16:143-166.
    롤즈는 『정치철학사 강의』의 ‘흄에 대한 강의’에서 흄의 「원초적 계약에 관하여」가 ‘로크’의 사회계약론을 비판하고 있다며 이를 재비판하고 있다. 롤즈가 강조하는 흄이 간과하는 측면은 “그[로크]의 사회 계약 기준이 언제 현존하고 합법적인 정체가 개별적으로 개인들을 구속하는가, 그렇다면 누가 체제의 완전한 시민이자 신민인가의 문제를 상정한다”는 것이다. 롤즈는 로크의 입장을 우선 다음과 같이 정식화한다: 정치적 체제는 그것이 만약 역사적 변화의 옳게-행해진 과정, 완전한 자유와 평등 상태와 함께 시작한 과정 동안 가입 계약될 수 있었을(could have been contracted into) 것과 같은 것일 경우에, 그리고 이 경우에 한해 (...)
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  17. A Reconciliation between Liberty and Necessity : The connection of morality, responsibility, and liberty in Hume`s philosophy.최성민 ) - 2019 - Modern Philosophy 13:49-73.
  18. “To Keep Industry Alive”: Hume on Freer International Trade as Moral Improvement.Erik W. Matson - 2024 - In Benjamin Bourcier & Mikko Jakonen (eds.), British Modern International Thought in the Making: Politics and Economy from Hobbes to Bentham. Springer Verlag. pp. 95-118.
    In this chapter, Erik W. Matson describes how Hume’s international theory derives from his understanding of commerce and international trade as sources of moral improvement. Drawing on Hume's ideas of technical progress and innovation, Hume’s writings are shown to convey a nascent theory of comparative advantage.Trade benefitstrich and poor countries alike, facilitating a process of mutual emulation and development. International trade, moreover, contributes in Hume's view to cultural enhancement through its effects on socialization and the consequent extensions of individual sympathy.
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  19. Ethics of Extinction: Humean Sentimentalism and the Value of the Human Species.Maurizio Balistreri - 2024 - Topoi 43 (1):55-63.
    The idea that the phenomenon of morality and, consequently, our ability to distinguish between vice and virtue can be explained by sympathy has been challenged as a highly controversial hypothesis, since sympathy appears to be easily influenced by proximity and selective, and would therefore seem incompatible with the possibility of taking an impartial, objective point of view. We intend to show that even a sentimentalist moral perspective such as the ‘Humean’ one, which places empathy (or ‘sympathy’, as Hume calls it) (...)
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  20. The Fiction of "Moral Sentiment": The primacy of language in Hume's moral philosophy.Aimatsu Shinya - 2023 - Review of Analytic Philosophy 3 (1):63.
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  21. A Conciliatory Interpretation of the Meaning of Value Judgements in David Hume’s Philosophy.Carlota Salgadinho - 2023 - Principia: An International Journal of Epistemology 27 (3):453-474.
    In this paper, I present an interpretation about the meaning of value judgements (moral and aesthetic) in the philosophy of David Hume. I state that although they are essentially descriptive of a fact (a sentiment that any spectator placed in the disinterested point of view can feel), these judgements also express a particular sentiment, at least in some cases. To achieve this aim, after introducing the questions and interpretative possibilities approached (section 1), I explain the interpretations called expressivist (mainly, its (...)
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  22. Hume and Kant on imaginative resistance.Emine Hande Tuna - forthcoming - European Journal of Philosophy.
    The topic of imaginative resistance attracted considerable philosophical attention in recent years. Yet, with a few exceptions, no historical investigation of the phenomenon has been carried out. This paper amends this gap in the literature by constructing a Humean and a Kantian explanation. The main contributions of this historical analysis to this debate are to make room for emotions in explanations of resistance reactions and to upset the polarization between rival accounts by suggesting that our possible responses to morally flawed (...)
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  23. Hume, Motivation and Morality.John Bricke - 1988 - Hume Studies 14 (1):1-24.
    In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content:HUME, MOTIVATION AND MORALITY Hume remarks, in the Abstract, that his account of the passions in Book II of the Treatise has 'laid the foundation' (A 7 Ì1 for his theory of morals. Pall Ardal has shown how Hume's theory of certain indirect passions (pride, humility, love, hatred) underpins his theory of the evaluation of character. I propose to explore the links between Hume's account of motivation and his (...)
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  24. Hume, contractualiste? Famille, droit, pouvoir dans la philosophie de Hume.Frédéric Brahami - 2009 - Philosophique 12:79-92.
    L’article explore les méandres de la théorie humienne du contrat. Hume en effet refuse de penser la société à partir du schème du contrat social. Naturaliste, il est beaucoup plus proche de Machiavel ou de Montesquieu que de Rousseau à cet égard. Pourtant on trouve chez lui tout un réseau de notions constitutives de sa pensée politique : la convention, l’obligation, la promesse. Il s’agit de restituer la cohérence de sa théorie complexe du lien social.
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  25. David Hume`s and George Barkley`s Critique of Social Contract Idea.Gennady Alyaev - 2001 - Sententiae 3 (1):108-126.
    The article`s goal is to enlighten modern philosophy projects polivariance on example of social contract concept and its critique in England in the first half of XVIIIth. c. Due to marxist philosophical methodology in Ukrainian literature this theme was not properly enlightened. The author considers, firstly, George Barkley as an author of rational-theological argument. This argument provides support from nature`s laws and God`s will. Secondly, David Hume that offered arguments: 1) ontological, 2) anthropological, and 3) politic-juridical. Hence, the author enlightens (...)
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  26. Traces of Hume in Sociology.Angela M. Coventry - 2024 - In Tamás Demeter (ed.), The Sociological Heritage of the Scottish Enlightenment. Edinburgh University Press.
    The aim of this paper is to bring the historical origins of sociology and Hume’s philosophy of society a bit closer together by examining some of the ways that Hume’s thought has influenced the directions of sociological thinking. I survey Humean traces in key figures in the field of sociology across the nineteenth to twenty-first centuries in Europe and the United States of America on the topics of positivism, economics, convention, custom and habit, religion, morality, and the self.
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  27. O jogo dos afetos no campo político e a gênese social da normatividade jurídica em David Hume.Priscila Ricardo de Oliveira - 2019 - Cadernos PET-Filosofia (Parana) 17 (2).
    Pretendo debater, neste trabalho, três pressupostos que subjazem o desenvolvimento argumentativo do ensaio: I) a ideia presente no Tratado de que os homens se guiam pelos seus afetos ou, grosso modo, que a sociabilidade é permeada por paixões que se chocam, todo o tempo, com a vontade e interesse alheios (Hume também entende, como parece ter sido o caso de Maquiavel e Shaftesbury, que a sociedade, como um corpo, expressa um humor espelhado e forjado no jogo e conflito dos afetos (...)
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  28. La métaphilosophie de Hume dans ses quatre essais sur le bonheur.Laurent Jaffro - 2023 - In Laurent Jaffro, Pierre-Marie Morel & Jean Salem (eds.), Matière, plaisir, bonheur: en mémoire de Jean Salem. Paris: Honoré Champion éditeur.
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  29. Moral Pluralism in Smith and his Contemporaries.Michael B. Gill - 2014 - Revue Internationale de Philosophie 269 (3):275-306.
    What role do general principles play in our moral judgment? This question has been much contested among moral theorists of the last fifteen years. When we turn to the British moralists of the eighteenth century, we find that the same question was equally pressing. In this paper, I show that while many of the British moralists thought that general principles could conclusively determine our moral duties, David Hume and Adam Smith were ambivalent about the role of moral principles, not only (...)
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  30. Justiça Distributiva, Desigualdades Sociais e Utilitarismo em Hume.Pedro Fior Mota de Andrade - 2023 - Veritas – Revista de Filosofia da Pucrs 68 (1):e44013.
    Neste artigo, pretendo desafiar duas teses que compõem a interpretação padrão da teoria de justiça social de Hume. Primeiro, que esse entendimento não oferece recursos conceituais sufi cientes para se esboçar uma teoria de justiça distributiva e, segundo, que essa teoria é, em princípio, indiferente a ocasionais arranjos sociais fortemente desiguais. Contrariamente, proponho aqui um esboço para uma possível teoria de justiça distributiva em Hume. Argumento, com base em evidência textual, que Hume aborda sistematicamente questões como a distribuição inicial, mudanças (...)
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  31. Slavery and Race: Philosophical Debates in the Eighteenth Century.Julia Jorati - 2023 - New York: Oxford University Press.
    Discussions about the morality of slavery are a central part of the history of early modern philosophy. This book explores the philosophical ideas, theories, and arguments that occur in eighteenth-century debates about slavery, with a particular focus on the role that race plays in these debates. This exploration reveals how closely Blackness and slavery had come to be associated and how common it was to believe that Black people are natural slaves, or naturally destined for slavery. The book examines not (...)
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  32. Hume, intérêt et limites de sa conception de la morale.Yvon Quiniou - 2017 - L’Enseignement Philosophique 67 (2):5-18.
    L’explication de la morale que nous propose Hume dans le Traité de la nature humaine est originale et paradoxale : elle repose exclusivement sur l’expérience pour éclairer ce qui paraît transcender notre vie et elle le fait dans une perspective qui se veut scientifique. Excluant toute raison a priori, elle s’appuie sur l’idée d’un « sens moral », mais nourri de « passions » naturelles comme la sympathie ou l’intérêt. Reste à savoir si on peut rendre compte de l’universalité morale (...)
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  33. Reply to My Critics: Experience Embodied: Early Modern Accounts of the Human Place in Nature.Anik Waldow - 2023 - Hume Studies 48 (2):329-340.
    In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content:Reply to My CriticsExperience Embodied: Early Modern Accounts of the Human Place in NatureAnik Waldow (bio)I would like to thank Dario Perinetti and Hynek Janoušek for their thoughtful comments and the time and effort they invested into my work. Their reflections drive attention to important questions and make helpful suggestions about how some of the arguments of the book can be further developed and clarified. In what follows, I (...)
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  34. Experience, Embodiment, and History: Remarks on Waldow’s Experience Embodied.Dario Perinetti - 2023 - Hume Studies 48 (2):319-328.
    In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content:Experience, Embodiment, and History: Remarks on Waldow’s Experience EmbodiedDario Perinetti (bio)Anik Waldow’s Experience Embodied delves into what she calls the “early modern debate on the concept of experience.”1 In her rich and wide-ranging account, she shows how a group of key early modern philosophers dealt with a puzzle regarding the connection between the subjective and objective aspects of experience. The puzzle stems from the fact that experience reveals as (...)
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  35. Hume’s Passion-Based Account of Moral Responsibility.Taro Okamura - 2023 - Hume Studies 48 (2):195-216.
    Many scholars have claimed that the psychology of the indirect passions in the Treatise is meant to capture how we come to regard persons as morally responsible agents. My question is exactly how the indirect passions relate to responsibility. In elucidating Hume’s account of responsibility, scholars have often focused not on the passionate responses themselves, but on their structural features. In this paper, I argue that locating responsibility in the structural features is insufficient to make sense of Hume’s account of (...)
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  36. The Role of Philosophy in Hume’s Critique of Empire.Elena Yi-Jia Zeng - 2023 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 31 (2):136-157.
    Various Scottish Enlightenment thinkers raised substantial challenges to the British imperial policy over the course of the eighteenth century. They were largely concerned about the global competit...
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  37. Experience Embodied: Early Modern Accounts of the Human Place in NatureWaldow, Anik, Experience Embodied: Early Modern Accounts of the Human Place in Nature, New York: Oxford University Press, 2020, pp. xiv + 294, US$90 (hardback). [REVIEW]Robert B. Louden - 2023 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 101 (3):765-767.
    At present, one more book on modern philosophy that opens with a chapter on Descartes, closes with one on Kant, and includes discussions of usual suspects such as Locke and Hume (among others) in-b...
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  38. La Certitude morale de Descartes à Hume.Vincent Darveau-St-Pierre (ed.) - 2023 - Paris: Classiques Garnier.
  39. A treatise of human nature.David Hume - 2007 - In Elizabeth Schmidt Radcliffe, Richard McCarty, Fritz Allhoff & Anand Vaidya (eds.), Late modern philosophy: essential readings with commentary. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
  40. Jeremy Bentham on David Hume: “Having Enter’d into Metaphysics,” but “Having Lost His Way”.Yanxiang Zhang - 2023 - Open Philosophy 6 (1):83-108.
    This article argues that Bentham’s metaphysics has until recently been unfairly belittled, and that it in fact built on and surpassed that of David Hume, of whom Bentham was both an attentive student and a fierce critic. Bentham’s logic is metaphysically based, multi-levelled, and comprehensive. First, taking Hume’s empiricism as a starting point, Bentham developed the additional mechanism of “reflection” to facilitate a utilitarian pragmatic resolution to Hume’s skepticism. Second, unlike Hume, Bentham aspired to encyclopedic knowledge, especially of the human (...)
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  41. Peut-il y avoir devoir moral sans religion?Catherine Dromelet - 2023 - Archives de Philosophie 86 (3):71-90.
    Dans son Enquête sur l’entendement humain, Hume démontre que la religion ne possède aucune autorité épistémique et ne devrait donc pas dicter les principes de la morale. Pourtant, il constate qu’elle semble effectivement exercer une influence sur les actions humaines et possède donc une autorité morale. L’ Enquête sur les principes de la morale consiste à présenter l’origine séculaire de la morale et donc le fait que la religion n’y joue aucun rôle. En même temps, Hume emploie des métaphores et (...)
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  42. Über das verhältnis der Geschichtsschreibung D. Hume's zu seiner praktischen Philosophie..Sally Daiches - 1903 - Leipzig,: Druck von A. Edelmann.
    This work has been selected by scholars as being culturally important, and is part of the knowledge base of civilization as we know it. This work was reproduced from the original artifact, and remains as true to the original work as possible. Therefore, you will see the original copyright references, library stamps (as most of these works have been housed in our most important libraries around the world), and other notations in the work. This work is in the public domain (...)
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  43. Hume's place in ethics..Edna Aston Shearer - 1915 - Bryn Mawr, Pa.: [Bryn Mawr college].
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  44. Source of Moral Knowledge.Ayesha Gautam - 2023 - Tattva - Journal of Philosophy 15 (1).
    One cannot deny the fact that we all have some understanding of moral issues. Each one of us can be said to have some sense of what is right, what is wrong, what is good, what is bad, what ought to be done, and what ought not to be done. This moral understanding can be in the form of some vague idea, notion, or simply a gut feeling. No matter who the person is, from which culture or community the person (...)
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  45. Responses to Ryan, Fosl and Gautier: SKEPSIS Book Symposium on 'Recasting Hume and Early Modern Philosophy', by Paul Russell.Paul Russell - 2023 - Skepsis: A Journal for Philosophy and Interdisciplinary Research 14 (26):121-139.
    In the replies to my critics that follow I offer a more detailed account of the specific papers that they discuss or examine. The papers that they are especially concerned with are: “The Material World and Natural Religion in Hume’s Treatise” (Ryan) [Essay 3], “Hume’s Skepticism and the Problem of Atheism” (Fosl) [Essay 12], and “Hume’s Philosophy of Irreligion and the Myth of British Empiricism (Gautier) [Essay 16].
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  46. Der Gesellschaftsvertrag und der dauernde Consensus in der englischen Moralphilosophie: (Hobbes, Sidney, Locke, Shaftesbury, Hume).Ernst Ludwig Ambach - 1933 - Giessen: [S.N.].
  47. Precis of Recasting Hume and Early Modern Philosophy. SKEPSIS Book Symposium: Paul Russell, Recasting Hume and Early Modern Philosophy, With replies to critics: Peter Fosl (pp. 77-95), Claude Gautier (pp. 96-111) , and Todd Ryan (pp.112-122).Paul Russell - 2023 - Skepsis: A Journal for Philosophy and Interdisciplinary Research 14 (26):71-73.
    Recasting Hume and Early Modern Philosophy is a collection of essays that are all concerned with major figures and topics in the early modern philosophy. Most of the essays are concerned, more specifically, with the philosophy of David Hume (1711-1776). The sixteen essays included in this collection are divided into five parts. These parts are arranged under the headings of: (1) Metaphysics and Epistemology; (2) Free Will and Moral Luck; (3) Ethics, Virtue and Optimism; (4) Skepticism, Religion and Atheism; and (...)
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  48. Gendered Concepts and Hume's Standard of Taste.Carolyn Korsmeyer - 1995 - In Peg Zeglin Brand Weiser & Carolyn Korsmeyer (eds.), Feminism and Tradition in Aesthetics. Pennsylvania State University Press. pp. 49-65.
    Feminist scholarship has awakened us to the suspicion that such reliance on "common human nature" renders philosophical concepts not neutral and universal, as Hume believed, but heavily inflected by models of ideal masculinity that inform discussions of human nature. One purpose of this essay is to extend this line of thought by elucidating the idea of gendered concepts. By this phrase I refer to concepts that, lacking any obvious reference to males or females, or to masculinity or femininity, nevertheless are (...)
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  49. O sentido das paixões e emoções: Hume.Frederico Ramalho Romero - 2023 - Aufklärung 10 (1):89-108.
    This article presents a critical bibliographic review of the central characteristics of Hume's Theory of Passions and Emotions, which conceived the philosophy of human nature as an analytical and experimental science. This view is contrary to the ancient and medieval ideas that passions were movements of the lower parts of the soul. For Hume, passions in general are among the perceptions of the mind, although they also serve as motivations to act and even to reason. The apparent dichotomy that existed (...)
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  50. Hume's Indirect Passions.Rachel Cohon - 2008 - In Elizabeth S. Radcliffe (ed.), A Companion to Hume. Oxford, UK: Blackwell. pp. 157–184.
    This chapter contains section titled: Introduction The Basic Features of the Indirect Passions Why These Four Emotions? The Foundations of the Distinction, between Direct and Indirect Passions The Moral Sentiments References Further Reading.
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